1985 in the United Kingdom
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|1985 in the United Kingdom:|
|1983 | 1984 | 1985 | 1986 | 1987|
|Individual countries of the United Kingdom|
|England | Northern Ireland | Scotland | Wales|
|Sport, Television and music|
Events from the year 1985 in the United Kingdom.
- The Fraud Investigation Group is set up for cases of financial and commercial fraud.
- The Waterside Inn at Bray, Berkshire, founded by the brothers Michel and Albert Roux, becomes the first establishment in the UK to be awarded three Michelin Guide stars, a distinction which it retains for at least twenty-five years.
- 1 January – The first British mobile phone calls are made.
- 7 January – Nine striking miners are jailed for arson.
- 10 January
- 16 January – London's Dorchester Hotel is bought by the Sultan of Brunei.
- 17 January – British Telecom announces it is going to phase out its famous red telephone boxes.
- 23 January – A debate in the House of Lords is televised for the first time.
- 29 January – Margaret Thatcher becomes the first post-war Prime Minister to be publicly refused an honorary degree by Oxford University.
- 10 February – Nine people are killed in a multiple crash on the M6 motorway.
- 16 February – Civil servant Clive Ponting resigns from the Ministry of Defence after his acquittal of breaching section 2 of the Official Secrets Act 1911 concerning the leaking of documents relating to the sinking of the ARA General Belgrano during the Falklands War.
- 19 February – EastEnders, the BBC1 soap opera, goes on the air.
- 25 February – Nearly 4,000 striking miners go back to work, meaning that only just over half of the miners are now on strike.
- 3 March – The devastating UK Miners' Strike, involving at its height 142,000 mineworkers, ends after one year.
- 7 March – Two IRA members are jailed for 35 years at the Old Bailey for plotting the bombing campaign across London during 1981.
- 11 March – Mohammed Al Fayed buys the London-based department store company Harrods.
- 13 March – Rioting breaks out at the FA Cup quarter-final between Luton Town and Millwall at Kenilworth Road, Luton; hundreds of hooligans tear seats from the stands and throw them onto the pitch before a pitch invasion takes place, resulting in 81 people (31 of them police officers) being injured. The carnage continues in the streets near the stadium, resulting in major damage to vehicles and property. Luton Town win the game 1-0.
- 19 March
- After beginning the year with a lead of up to eight points in the opinion poll, the Conservatives suffer a major blow as the latest MORI poll puts them four points behind Labour, who have a 40% share of the vote.
- Ford launches the third generation of its Granada. It is sold only as a hatchback, in contrast to its predecessor which was sold as a saloon or estate, and in continental Europe it will be known as the Scorpio.
- 11 April – An 18-month-old boy becomes the youngest person in Britain to die of AIDS.
- 22 April – Construction of Japanese carmaker Nissan's new factory at Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, begins. The first cars are expected to be produced next year.
- 30 April – Bernie Grant, born in Guyana, becomes the first black council leader when he is elected leader of Labour-controlled London Borough of Haringey council.
- 2 May – The SDP–Liberal Alliance makes big gains in local council elections.
- 11 May
- A fire engulfs a wooden stand at the Valley Parade stadium in Bradford during a football match, killing 56 people (54 Bradford City supporters and two Lincoln City supporters) and injuring more than 200 others.
- A 14-year-old boy is killed, 20 people are injured and several vehicles are wrecked when Leeds United football hooligans riot at the Birmingham City stadium and cause a wall to collapse.
- 13 May – The Dire Straits album Brothers In Arms is released; it becomes the first million selling compact disc.
- 15 May – Everton, who have already clinched their Football League title for 15 years, win the European Cup Winners' Cup (their first European trophy) with a 3-1 win over Rapid Vienna in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. English clubs have now won 25 European trophies since 1963. Everton are also in contention for a treble of major trophies, as they take on Manchester United in the FA Cup final in three days.
- 16 May
- Two South Wales miners are sentenced to life imprisonment for the murder of taxi driver David Wilkie. Dean Hancock and Russell Shankland, both 21, dropped a concrete block on Mr Wilkie's taxi from a road overbridge in November last year.
- Scientists of the British Antarctic Survey discover the ozone hole.
- 18 May – Manchester United win the FA Cup for the sixth time in their history with a 1-0 win over Everton in the final at Wembley Stadium. The only goal of the game is scored by 20-year-old Northern Irish forward Norman Whiteside, who scored in United's last FA Cup triumph two years ago.
- 29 May – In the Heysel Stadium disaster at the European Cup final in Brussels, 39 football fans die and hundreds are injured. Despite the tragedy, the match is played and Juventus beat Liverpool 1-0.
- 31 May – The Football Association bans all English football clubs from playing Europe until further notice in response to the Heysel riots. Thatcher supports the ban and calls for judges to hand out stiffer sentences to convicted football hooligans.
- 1 June – Battle of the Beanfield, Britain's largest mass arrest and the effective end of Stonehenge Free Festivals.
- 2 June – In response to the Heysel tragedy four days ago, UEFA bans all English football clubs from European competitions for an indefinite period, recommending that Liverpool should serve an extra three years of exclusion once all other English clubs have been reinstated.
- 6 June – Birmingham unveils its bid to host the 1992 Summer Olympics, which includes plans for a new £66 million stadium.
- 13 June – The James Bond film A View To A Kill is released, marking the last appearance by Roger Moore as the spy after six films since 1973.
- 25 June – Police arrest 13 suspects in connection with the Brighton hotel bombing of 1984.
- 29 June – Patrick Magee is charged with the murder of the people who died in the Brighton bombing eight months ago.
- 4 July
- 13-year-old Ruth Lawrence achieves a first in Mathematics at the University of Oxford, becoming the youngest British person ever to earn a first-class degree and the youngest known graduate of the University.
- Unemployment for June falls to 3,178,582 from May's total of 3,240,947, the best fall in unemployment of the decade so far.
- 13 July – Live Aid pop concerts in London and Philadelphia raise over £50 million for famine relief in Ethiopia.
- 24 July – Country code top-level domain .uk registered.
- 29 July – Despite unemployment having fallen since October last year, it has increased in 73 Conservative constituencies, according to government figures.
- 7 August – White House Farm murders at Tolleshunt Darcy, Essex; 28-year-old Sheila Caffell is reported to have shot dead her six-year-old twin sons, and also her adoptive parents Nevill and June Bamber, before turning the gun on herself. Her 24-year-old brother Jeremy, who was also adopted, alerted the police to the house after telling them that he had received a phonecall from Nevill Bamber to tell him that his sister had "gone berserk" with a rifle.
- 13 August
- 22 August – 55 people are killed in the Manchester air disaster at Manchester International Airport when a British Airtours Boeing 737 burst into flames after the pilot aborts the takeoff.
- 24 August – Five-year-old John Shorthouse is shot dead by police at his family's house in Birmingham, where they were arresting his father on suspicion of an armed robbery committed in South Wales.
- September – SEAT, the Spanish carmaker originally a subsidy of Fiat but now under controlling interest from Volkswagen, began importing cars to the United Kingdom. Its range consisted of the Marbella (a rebadged version of the Fiat Panda), the Ibiza hatchback and Malaga saloon.
- 1 September – A joint Franco-American expedition locates the wreck of the RMS Titanic.
- 4 September – The first photographs and films of the RMS Titanic's wreckage are taken, 73 years after it sank.
- 6 September – The Scottish Exhibition and Conference Centre opens in Glasgow.
- 8 September – Jeremy Bamber is arrested on suspicion of murdering his adoptive parents, sister and two nephews at their Essex farmhouse last month, after police had originally believed that his sister had killed herself after shooting her parents and sons.
- 9 September – Rioting, mostly motivated by racial tension, breaks out in the Handsworth area of Birmingham.
- 10 September
- The riots in Handsworth escalated, with mass arson and looting resulting in thousands of pounds worth of damage, leaving several people injured, and resulted in the deaths of two people who died when the local post office was petrol bombed. One of the fatalities was the owner of the post office.
- Scotland national football team manager Jock Stein, 62, collapses and dies from a heart attack at the end of his team's 1-1 draw with Wales at Ninian Park, Cardiff, which secured Scotland's place in the World Cup qualification playoff.
- 11 September
- The rioting in Handsworth ended, with the final casualty toll standing at 35 injuries and two deaths. A further two people are unaccounted for.
- The England national football team secures qualification for next summer's World Cup in Mexico with a 1-1 draw against Romania at Wembley. Tottenham midfielder Glenn Hoddle scored England's only goal.
- Enoch Powell, the controversial former Tory MP who was dismissed from the shadow cabinet 17 years ago for his Rivers of Blood speech on immigration, states that the riots in Handsworth were a vindication of the warnings he voiced in 1968.
- 17 September – Margaret Thatcher's hopes of winning a third term in office at the next election are thrown into doubt by the results of an opinion poll, which shows the Conservatives in third place on 30%, Labour in second place on 33% and the SDP–Liberal Alliance in the lead on 35%.
- 28 September
- A riot in Brixton erupts after an accidental shooting of a woman by police. One person dies in the riot, 50 are injured and more than 200 are arrested.
- Manchester United's excellent start to the Football League First Division season sees them win their 10th league game in succession, leaving them well placed to win their first league title since 1967.
- 29 September – Jeremy Bamber is re-arrested on his return to England after two weeks on holiday in France and charged on five counts of murder.
- 1 October
- Neil Kinnock makes a speech at the Labour Party Conference in Bournemouth attacking the entryist Militant group in Liverpool.
- Lord Scarman's report on the riots in Toxteth and Peckham blames economic deprivation and racial discrimination.
- Economists predict that unemployment will remain above the 3,000,000 mark for the rest of the decade.
- 5 October – Mrs Cythnia Jarrett, a 49-year-old black woman, dies after falling over during a police search of her council house on the Broadwater Farm estate in Tottenham, London.
- 6 October – PC Keith Blakelock is fatally stabbed during the Broadwater Farm Riot in Tottenham, London, which began after the death of Cynthia Jarrett yesterday. Two of his colleagues are treated in hospital for gunshot wounds, as are three journalists.
- 15 October – The SDP-Liberal Alliance's brief lead in the opinion polls is over, with the Conservatives now back in the lead by a single point over Labour in the latest MORI poll.
- 17 October – The House of Lords decides the legal case of Gillick v West Norfolk and Wisbech Area Health Authority which sets the significant precedent of Gillick competence, i.e. that a child of 16 or under may be competent to consent to contraception or – by extension – other medical treatment without requiring parental permission or knowledge.
- 24 October – Members of Parliament react to the recent wave of rioting by saying that unemployment is an unacceptable excuse for the riots.
- 28 October – Production of the Peugeot 309 begins at the Ryton car factory near Coventry. The 309, a small family hatchback, is the first "foreign" car to be built in the UK. It was originally going to be badged as the Talbot Arizona, but Peugeot has decided that the Talbot badge will be discontinued on passenger cars after next year and that the Ryton plant will then be used for the production of its own products, including a larger four-door saloon (similar in size to the Ford Sierra) which is due in two years.
- 30 October – Unemployment is reported to have risen in nearly 70% of the Tory held seats since this time last year.
- 31 October – The two miners who killed taxi driver David Wilkie in South Wales eleven months ago have their life sentences for murder reduced to eight years for manslaughter on appeal.
- 1 November
- 5 November – Mark Kaylor defeats Errol Christie to become the middleweight boxing champion, after the two brawl in front of the cameras at the weigh-in.
- 9 November – The Prince and Princess of Wales arrive in the United States of America for a visit to Ronald Reagan in Washington, D.C.
- 15 November – Anglo-Irish Agreement signed at Hillsborough Castle. Treasury Minister Ian Gow resigns in protest at the deal.
- 17 November – The Confederation of British Industry calls for the government to invest £1 billion in unemployment relief - a move which would cut unemployment by 350,000 and potentially bring it below 3,000,000 for the first time since late 1981.
- 18 November – A coach crash on the M6 motorway near Birmingham kills two people and injures 51.
- 19 November – The latest MORI poll shows that Conservative and Labour support is almost equal at around 36%, with the SDP–Liberal Alliance's hopes of electoral breakthrough left looking bleak as they have only 25% of the vote.
- 22 November – Margaret Thatcher is urged by her MPs to call a General Election for June 1987, despite the deadline not being until June 1988 and recent opinion polls frequently showing Labour and the Alliance at least level with the Conservatives, although the Conservative majority has remained well into triple figures.
- 25 November – Department store chains British Home Stores and Habitat announce a £1.5 billion merger.
- 27 November – Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock suspends the Liverpool District Labour Party amid allegations that the Trotskist Militant group was attempting to control it.
- 29 November
- December – Builders Alfred McAlpine complete construction of Nissan's new car factory at Sunderland. Nissan can now install machinery and factory components and car production is expected to begin by the summer of next year.
- 4 December – Scotland's World Cup qualification is secured by a goalless draw with Australia in the playoff second leg in Sydney.
- 5 December – It is announced that unemployment fell in November, for the third month running. It now stands at 3,165,000.
- 25 December – Charitable organisation Comic Relief is launched.
- 26 December – Rock star Phil Lynott, formerly of Thin Lizzy, is rushed to hospital after collapsing from a suspected heroin overdose at his home in Berkshire.
- Inflation stands at 6.1% - the highest since 1982 but still low compared to the highs reached in the 1970s.
- Peak year for British oil production: 127 million tonnes.
- The first retailers move into the Merry Hill Shopping Centre near Dudley, West Midlands. A new shopping mall is scheduled to open alongside the developing retail park in April 1986 and it is anticipated to grow into Europe's largest indoor shopping centre with further developments set to be completed by 1990, as well as including a host of leisure facilities.
- Iain Banks' novel Walking on Glass.
- Jilly Cooper's novel Riders, first of the Rutshire Chronicles.
- Tony Harrison's poem V.
- Jeanette Winterson's novel Oranges Are Not the Only Fruit.
- 1 January – Steven Davis, footballer
- 7 January – Lewis Hamilton, Formula One racing driver
- 24 January – Ian Henderson, English footballer
- 1 February – Dean Shiels, footballer
- 10 February – Cath Rae, Scottish field hockey goalkeeper
- 3 March – Sam Morrow, footballer
- 26 March – Keira Knightley, actress
- 1 April – Beth Tweddle, gymnast
- 3 April – Leona Lewis, singer
- 8 April – Gareth Rees, cricketer
- 20 April – Amanda Fahy, actress
- 2 May – Lily Allen, singer
- 21 May – Alex Danson, field hockey forward
- 22 May – Stuart Tomlinson, footballer and wrestler
- 28 May – Carey Mulligan, actress
- 7 June – Simon Whaley, footballer
- 28 June – Phil Bardsley, footballer
- 13 July – Charlotte Dujardin, dressage rider
- 24 October – Wayne Rooney, footballer
- 8 November – Jack Osbourne, actor
- 2 December
- 23 December – Harry Judd, drummer (McFly)
- 4 January – Sir Brian Horrocks, general (born 1895)
- 18 January – Wilfrid Brambell, actor (born 1912)
- 26 January – David Ormsby-Gore, 5th Baron Harlech, politician (born 1918)
- 6 February – James Hadley Chase, writer (born 1906)
- 28 February – Ray Ellington, singer, drummer and bandleader (born 1916)
- 9 March – Harry Catterick, former footballer and football manager (born 1919)
- 21 March – Michael Redgrave, actor (born 1908)
- 4 April – Kate Roberts, author (born 1891)
- 5 April – Arthur Negus, broadcaster and antiques specialist (born 1903)
- 14 April – Noele Gordon, actress (born 1919)
- 5 May – Donald Bailey, civil engineer (born 1901)
- 2 June – George Brown, politician (born 1914)
- 9 June – Clifford Evans, actor (born 1912)
- 15 June – Percy Fender, cricketer (born 1892)
- 17 June – John Boulting, film director (born 1913)
- 2 July – David Purley, race car driver (born 1945)
- 8 July – Frank Hampson, illustrator (born 1918)
- 9 July – Jimmy Kinnon, founder of Narcotics Anonymous (born 1911)
- 23 July – Johnny Wardle, cricketer (born 1923)
- 17 August – Lord Avon Nicholas Eden, Conservative Member of Parliament and son of the late prime minister Anthony Eden (born 1930)
- 1 September – Saunders Lewis, writer and founder of the Welsh National Party (Plaid Cymru) (born 1893)
- 7 September – Rodney Robert Porter, biochemist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (born 1917)
- 10 September – Jock Stein, footballer and manager of Scotland (born 1922)
- 11 September – William Alwyn, composer (born 1905)
- 17 September – Laura Ashley, designer (born 1925)
- 22 September – Dickie Henderson, entertainer (born 1922)
- 2 December – Philip Larkin, poet (born 1922)
- 7 December – Robert Graves, writer (born 1895)
- 12 December – Ian Stewart, musician (born 1938)
- Young, Robin (31 January 1985). "Roux brothers win another star". The Times (62050) (London). p. 3.
- "The Waterside Inn". Archived from the original on 27 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
- "Mobiles rack up 20 years of use". BBC News. 1 January 2005. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "UK's first mobile phone user remembers his call 30 years on". BBC News. 1 January 2015. Retrieved 1 January 2015.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- "Safety concerns over electronic trike". BBC News. 10 January 1985. Archived from the original on 13 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Gas blast kills eight in Putney". BBC News. 10 January 1985. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Thatcher snubbed by Oxford dons". BBC News. 29 January 1985. Archived from the original on 1 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Falklands' row civil servant resigns". BBC News. 16 February 1985. Archived from the original on 19 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Miners call off year-long strike". BBC News. 3 March 1985. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Fans killed in Bradford stadium fire". BBC News. 11 May 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- Bishop, Tom (27 August 2004). "Is music safe on compact disc?". BBC News. Retrieved 10 May 2011.
- "Hippies clash with police at Stonehenge". BBC News. 1 June 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- ""Convoy Polloi" SchNEWS". Retrieved 2009-11-20.
- "Police hunt IRA resort bombs". BBC News. 25 June 1985. Archived from the original on 6 January 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Teenage genius gets a first". BBC News. 4 July 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Live Aid makes millions for Africa". BBC News. 13 July 1985. Archived from the original on 21 December 2007. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Heart-lung transplant makes history". BBC News. 13 August 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Riots in Brixton after police shooting". BBC News. 28 September 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- Marr, Andrew (2007). A History of Modern Britain. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-1-4050-0538-8.
- "Riots erupt in Toxteth and Peckham". BBC News. 1 October 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "Policeman killed in Tottenham riots". BBC News. 6 October 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
-  3 All ER 402 (HL).
- "HMS Ark Royal celebrates Silver Jubilee". Ministry of Defence. 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
- "America welcomes Charles and Diana". On This Day. BBC. 1985-11-09. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
- "Anglo-Irish agreement signed". BBC News. 15 November 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- "1985". Wolverhampton: Express & Star. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
- "Poll tracker". BBC. 2010. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
- "Kinnock moves against Militant". On This Day. 1985-11-27. Retrieved 2014-11-09.
- "'Gas blast' kills five in Glasgow". BBC News. 29 November 1985. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-01-29.