1986–90 Philippine coup attempts
|Attempts at regime change in the Philippines (1970–2007)|
|First Quarter Storm (1970)|
|People Power (1986)|
|Honasan's Second (1989)|
|Second EDSA (2001)|
|May 1 riots (2001)|
|Oakwood mutiny (2003)|
|State of emergency (2006)|
|Manila Peninsula rebellion (2007)|
Part of a series on the
|History of the Philippines|
|This article relies largely or entirely on a single source. (May 2008)|
From 1986 to 1987, there were six plots to overthrow Philippine President Corazon Aquino involving various members of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. A significant number of the military participants in these attempts belonged to the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM), while others were identified loyalists of former President Ferdinand Marcos, who had been deposed in the People Power Revolution in late February 1986.
Two attempts—the November 1986 "God Save the Queen Plot" and the July 1987 plot—were uncovered and quashed by authorities before they could be operationalised. The other plots were repelled with little or no violence, the deadliest being the August 1987 coup attempts which left 53 dead. An even more serious coup attempt would be staged against the Aquino government in December 1989. Following the plot's failure, President Aquino established a fact-finding commission headed by then-COMELEC Chairman Hilario Davide, Jr. The report would become known as the Davide Commission Report, and it was mandated to investigate and provide a full report on the series of coup attempts against the Aquino government.
Manila Hotel plot
The first occurred on 6 July 1986, when some 490 armed soldiers and 15,000 civilians loyal to former President Ferdinand Marcos occupied Manila Hotel for 37 hours. At the hotel, Marcos's vice-presidential running mate Arturo Tolentino announced that Marcos had authorised him to temporarily take over the government, took his oath as Acting President, and designated a cabinet. The public remained generally unaffected by this incident, and it ended without violence by 8 July.
"God Save the Queen" Plot
A more serious conspiracy unfolded some months later, known as the "God Save the Queen Plot". The Davide Commission concluded that Defense Secretary Enrile and members of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement (RAM) were behind the plot. Scheduled for 11 November 1986, the plot was discovered by government several days in advance and was deliberately leaked to the Philippine Daily Inquirer, thus thwarting the plan.
The government then learnt that the plot was rescheduled for 22 November 1986. On November 22, the military was placed on red alert and the rebel troops were blockaded, leading them to return to barracks. The following day, Aquino announced she had sacked Enrile as Defense Secretary and that she would revamp her Cabinet, "to give the government a chance to start all over again."
From 27–29 January 1987, around 100 soldiers led by Colonel Oscar Canlas seized the main compound of GMA Network in Quezon City, while other troops attempted in vain to capture Sangley Point Air Force Base in Cavite. One rebel soldier was killed, while 35 people were injured.
Black Saturday incident
In July 1987, a plot to stage another coup attempt through a military takeover of Manila International Airport was uncovered before it could be implemented, with four officers being court-martialled for the plot.
August 1987 coup attempt
On 28 August 1987, the most serious attempt up to then to overthrow Aquino's government was launched by members of the Reform the Armed Forces Movement led by Colonel Gregorio Honasan, who had been a former top aide of Enrile. In the early morning of the 28th, rebel soldiers launched an attack on Malacañan Palace. The siege was repelled within a few hours, with several military and civilian casualties including Aquino's son, former President Benigno Aquino III, who was wounded. Honasan himself led the soldiers that seized portions of Camp Aguinaldo, including the headquarters of the Department of National Defense. Rebel soldiers also seized parts of Villamor Airbase, three television stations in Manila, military camps in Pampanga and Cebu, and the airport in Legaspi City. Various statements broadcast by the rebels referred to "the overindulgence in politics which now pervades in society", the supposed mishandling of the communist insurgency, and the deplorable economic condition of the military rebels. By day's end, government troops were able to recapture most of the rebel-held facilities, and the coup had fizzled out by the 29th. 53 were dead and more than 200 wounded; many of the fatalities were unarmed civilians who were fired upon by rebels after they were jeered by the crowd. Honasan himself evaded capture, while Enrile (by then a Senator), denied involvement in the coup.
Following the coup attempt, the Aquino government seemingly veered to the right, dismissing perceived left-leaning officials such as Executive Secretary Joker Arroyo and tacitly authorising the establishment of armed, quasi-military groups to combat the ongoing communist insurgency. It was also believed that General Fidel Ramos–who remained loyal to Aquino–emerged as the second most-powerful person in government following his successful quelling of the coup. Across-the-board wage increases for soldiers were also granted. Aquino herself meanwhile sued Philippine Star columnist Louie Beltran for libel after he wrote that the President hid under her bed when the Palace was under siege.
January 1989 plot
Main Article: 1989 Siege of Camp Cawa-Cawa
Government troops fired at and bombarded the camp, which later collapsed. The camp was then rebuilt and was renamed in memory of General Batallia. Alih meanwhile escaped south to Malaysia, and was arrested in 2009 in a manhunt operation and sentenced to life imprisonment.
December 1989 coup attempt
On 1 December 1989, three rebel T-28D Trojans (Tora-Tora) raked Malacañan Palace with rockets and gunfire. The rebel soldiers wrongly assumed that they achieved air superiority by effectively neutralising the assets of the 5th Fighter Wing of the Philippine Air Force. Rebel soldiers in Mactan successfully trapped most of the F-5s and combat-ready pilots, preventing them from interfering with rebel operations. Meanwhile, at Basa Air Base, only three F-5A and an F-5B remained partial mission capability.
Squadron Commander ACER Atienza of the 6th Tactical Fighter Squadron (Cobras) ordered his maintenance crew to expedite bringing the F-5s back to full operation. Later that same day, three F-5s under Atienza's command fought the rebel T-28s, culminating in the destruction of the Tora-Tora on the ground at Sangley Point.
The elimination of the T-28s turned the tide against the rebels, but at the cost of the F-5A flown by Atienza, who died in one of the strafing runs. Atienza was awarded the Medal of Valor for his heroism, and the airfield at Sangley Point was renamed in his memory.
March 1990 coup attempt
Main Article: 1990 Hotel Delfino siege
On 4 March 1990, suspended Cagayan Governor Rodolfo Aguinaldo and his armed men of 200 seized Hotel Delfino in the provincial capital of Tuguegarao as a result of the previous failed coup against President Aquino. Brigader General Oscar Florendo, his chauffeur, four members of the civilian staff, and several others were held hostage, led another mutiny to end. Several hours later, a gunfight ensued intending to kill Aguinaldo and his men, and one of them was found dead in a checkpoint shootout. Brigadier General Florendo and twelve others were also dead and ten more wounded, while Aguinaldo was slightly wounded in a vehicular gunfight, later fleeing to the mountains.
October 1990 coup attempt
The last coup attempt against President Aquino happened on 4 October 1990, when mutinying soldiers staged a dawn raid on an army base in Mindanao. The seizure lasted for two days, ending with Brigadier General Danilo Lim and 21 others capitulating to the government on 6 October.
- Davide Commission Report, p. 135
- Davide Commission Report, p. 146. "Perhaps the most significant indication of the public sentiment towards the Manila Hotel incident was the fact that people generally went about their own business, unaffected by the loyalists' call for support."
- Davide Commission Report, p. 142
- Davide Commission Report, p. 146
- Davide Commission Report, p. 148-155
- Davide Commission Report, p. 149
- Davide Commission Report, p. 151-152.
- Davide Commission Report, p. 154
- Davide Commission Report, p. 155
- Davide Commission Report, p. 163-165
- Davide Commission Report, p. 160
- Davide Commission Report, pp. 161-165
- Davide Commission Report, pp. 168-169
- Davide Commission Report, pp. 173-175
- Davide Commission Report, p. 119-120.
- Davide Commission Report, p. 181-182.
- Davide Commission Report, pp. 182-186
- Davide Commission Report, pp. 186-196
- Davide Commission Report, p. 188
- Davide Commission Report, p. 196
- Davide Commission Report, p. 200
- Davide Commission Report, p. 201. "Many political watchers believe that the 28 August coup attempt pulled the Aquino administration towards the right in the ideological spectrum..."
- Davide Commission Report, p. 201.
- Davide Commission Report, p. 200.