1988–89 South Pacific cyclone season

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1988–89 South Pacific cyclone season
1988-1989 South Pacific cyclone season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed December 15, 1988
Last system dissipated May 30, 1989
Strongest storm
Name Harry
 • Maximum winds 185 km/h (115 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure 925 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions 14
Tropical cyclones 14
Severe tropical cyclones 6
Total fatalities Unknown
Total damage Unknown
Related articles
South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons
1986–87, 1987–88, 1988–89, 1989–90, 1990–91

The 1988–89 South Pacific cyclone season was an active tropical cyclone season with an above average number of tropical cyclones observed.

Seasonal summary[edit]

Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

During the season despite positive values of the Southern Oscillation Index being recorded throughout the season, there was an unusual distribution of tropical cyclones with five developing between 180° and 140°W.[1] This unusual distribution of tropical cyclones was attributed to the relatively rapid development of an active South Pacific Convergence Zone over an area of cooler than normal sea surface temperatures during January and February 1989.[1]

Systems[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Eseta[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Eseta Dec 24 1988 0230Z.png Eseta 1988 track.png
Duration December 15 – December 25
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

On December 15, the FMS reported that a tropical depression had developed, within the monsoon trough just to the north of Vanuatu.[1][2] The system subsequently persisted for a week with little change in intensity, as it gradually moved south-southwest over Vanuatu and New Caledonia.[2] Between December 20–21, an area of high pressure developed to the south of the system, which prevented any further southwards movement.[1] The system subsequently moved north-eastwards and passed over southern Vanuatu, before the FMS reported late on December 23, that the cyclone had become equivalent to a category 1 tropical cyclone and named it Eseta.[1][2][3] At around this time the system was located about 525 km (325 mi) to the southwest of Nadi, Fiji and had started to move south-westwards as it interacted with a trough of low pressure in the Tasman Sea.[3][4] During December 24, the system intensified further, before the FMS reported later that day that Eseta had peaked with 10-minute sustained wind speeds of 100 km/h (65 mph).[2][4] The system subsequently degenerated into an extratropical depression and impacting New Zealand between December 29–30.[2][5]

As a tropical depression, Eseta caused heavy rainfall within Vanuatu, however there were no reports of any damages to property or crops.[6] The system subsequently caused strong gusty winds and prolonged heavy rainfall over the Fiji Islands between December 22 – 27, with Nadi airport reporting sustained winds of 35 mph (55 km/h) and wind gusts of 58 mph (95 km/h).[2] The heavy rain lead to widespread flooding over various parts of the island nation, with minor damage to roads and crops reported.[7] The system's remnants brought heavy rain and flooding to parts of New Zealand's Northland, Auckland, Waikato and the Bay of Plenty, with flood damage to a supermarkets storeroom was estimated at NZD30 thousand, USD25 thousand.[5] Several homes were evacuate while it was thought that the heavy rain had contributed to at least 50 injuries with seven of those in a weather-related car accident.[5]

Tropical Cyclone Delilah[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Delilah Jan 2 1989 0242Z.png Delilah 1988 track.png
Duration January 1 – January 4
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  975 hPa (mbar)

During January 1, Tropical Cyclone Delilah moved into the South Pacific basin from the Australian region, as a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale.[4] During that day as the system continued to intensify and move south-eastwards towards New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands, the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 04P.[8][9] During January 2, as the system passed about 20–30 mi (30–50 km) of the northeastern coast of New Caledonia, the JTWC and TCWC Nadi reported that the system had peaked with sustained windspeeds of 110 km/h (70 mph).[8][9] During the next day Delilah started to weaken and transition into an extra tropical cyclone, as vertical wind shear over the system increased and the upper level westerlies intensified.[1][4] The system subsequently became an extra tropical cyclone during January 4, and started moving southwards towards New Zealand.[1] The system subsequently passed close to northern New Zealand during January 7, before it merged with a cold front during January 8.[1][8]

Within New Caledonia, Cyclone Delilah wind gusts of 166 km/h (103 mph) and 157 km/h (98 mph) were recorded in Koumac and Touho.[10] A rainfall total of 330 mm (13 in) was recorded at both Pouébo and Ponérihouen, while there were also two deaths reported in the French Territory.[10][11]

Tropical Cyclone Fili[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Fili 1989 track.png
Duration January 1 – January 8
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

A shallow and ill-defined tropical depression developed on January 1, about 400 km (250 mi) to the east of the Samoan Islands.[1] Over the next few days the depression moved south-westwards before it weakened slightly during January 3, with atmospheric convection surrounding the system decreasing.[1] The system subsequently recurved and started to move towards the southeast towards the island nation of Niue.[2] The FMS subsequently named the system Fili during January 5, after it had become a Category 2 tropical cyclone with peak wind speeds of 95 km/h (60 mph).[1][4] After being named the system continued to move south-eastwards, before it was last noted, well to the southeast of the Cook Islands during January 8.[2][4] There was no damage to any islands associated with Fili, however, the FMS reported that there appeared to be some minor damage on Niue from strong winds.[2]

Tropical Cyclone Gina[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
GINA jan 7 1989 0152Z.jpg Gina 1989 track.png
Duration January 6 – January 9
Peak intensity 85 km/h (50 mph) (10-min)  987 hPa (mbar)

Gina existed from January 6 to January 9.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Harry[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Harry Feb 15 1989 0343Z.png Harry 1989 track.png
Duration February 7 – February 23
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  925 hPa (mbar)

On February 7, TCWC Nadi reported that a shallow depression had developed, within the monsoon trough about 800 km (495 mi) to the west of Vanuatu. Over the next day the system moved eastwards and developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Hinano[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Hinano Feb 21 1989 1556Z.png Hinano 1989 track.png
Duration February 21 – March 1
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  970 hPa (mbar)

The precursor tropical disturbance to Severe Tropical Cyclone Hinano was first noted during February 19, by the United States Synoptic Analysis Branch, while it was located around 630 km (390 mi) to the northwest of Adamstown in the Pitcairn Islands.[12] The system subsequently moved south-westwards and was classified as a weak tropical depression by the Tahiti Meteorological office during February 21.[12][13]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Ivy[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Ivy 1989 track.png
Duration February 21 – March 3
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  960 hPa (mbar)

On February 21, a depression developed within the monsoon trough to the north of Vanuatu, and started to move towards the east.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Judy[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Judy Feb 26 1989 0008Z.png Judy Pacific 1989 track.png
Duration February 22 – February 28
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

The precursor tropical disturbance to Severe Tropical Cyclone Judy was first noted during February 20, by the United States Synoptic Analysis Branch, while it was located around 320 km (200 mi) to the northeast of the French Polynesian island of Tahiti.[12] The system subsequently moved south-westwards and was classified as a moderate tropical storm during February 23, by the French Polynesian Meteorological Service.[12][13]

Tropical Cyclone Kerry[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Kerry 1989 track.png
Duration March 29 – April 4
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  985 hPa (mbar)

On March 29, TCWC Nadi started to monitor a westward moving tropical depression that had developed within a monsoon trough about x to the x of x. Over the next few days, the system moved towards the west before after it several large pressure drops were reported,

Severe Tropical Cyclone Lili[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Lili Apr 10 1989 0257Z.png Lili 1989 track.png
Duration April 6 – April 13
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

Lili existed from April 6 to April 13.

Tropical Cyclone Meena[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Meena 1989 track.png
Duration May 1 – May 5 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  990 hPa (mbar)

On May 1, TCWC Nadi reported that a shallow depression had developed within the monsoon trough, over the south-eastern Solomon Islands.[14] Over the next few days the system remained weak and ill-defined as it moved slowly southwards.[14] On May 3, the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 27P, as it started to gradually intensify further.[9][14] The system was subsequently named Meena by TCWC Nadi during May 4, as it had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian scale.[14] Meena subsequently moved into the Australian region during May 5, where it reached its peak intensity before making landfall on the Cape York Peninsular during May 9.[14]

Tropical Depression 28P (Ernie)[edit]

Tropical depression (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Ernie 1989 track.png
Duration May 6 – May 9 (Exited basin)
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  997 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression 28P developed on May 6 and then existed the basin on May 9.

Other systems[edit]

According to TCWC Nadi, a tropical depression existed between May 28 and May 30, to the far west of Fiji, with the associated cloudband located over Fiji between May 27 and May 31. The associated cloudband caused some flooding in low-lying areas on the island of Viti Levu.

Season effects[edit]

This table lists all the storms that developed in the South Pacific to the east of longitude 160°E during the 1989–90 season. It includes their intensity on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale, duration, name, landfalls, deaths, and damages. All data is taken from the warning centers from the region unless otherwise noted.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Land areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Eseta December 15 – 28 Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) Vanuatu, New Caledonia
Fiji, New Zealand
>$25 thousand None [2]
Delilah January 1 – 4 Category 2 tropical cyclone 110 km/h (70 mph) 975 hPa (28.79 inHg) New Caledonia, New Zealand 2
Fili January 1 – 8 Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h (60 mph) 985 hPa (29.09 inHg) None None None [2]
Gina Samoan Islands $5 million
Harry February 8 – 23 Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 185 km/h (115 mph) 925 hPa (27.32 inHg) New Caledonia
None February 9 – 30 Tropical Depression Not Specified Not Specified Fiji Nine [15]
Hinano February 21 – March 1 Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 970 hPa (28.65 inHg) French Polynesia
Judy February 22 – 28 Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 965 hPa (28.35 inHg)
Ivy Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 155 km/h (100 mph) 960 hPa (28.20 inHg)
Kerry
Lili April 6 – April 13 Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 150 km/h (90 mph) 955 hPa (28.20 inHg) New Caledonia
Meena May 1 – 5 Category 1 tropical cyclone 85 km/h (50 mph) 990 hPa ( inHg) Solomon Islands Minor None
Ernie May 6 – 9 Tropical Depression 65 km/h (35 mph) 997 hPa ( inHg)
None May 28 – 30 Tropical Depression Not Specified Not Specified
No land areas affected.
[15]
Season Aggregates
12 systems November 23 – May 19 140 km/h (85 mph) 960 hPa (28.35 inHg) >$18.5 million


See also[edit]

  • Atlantic hurricane seasons: 1990, 1991
  • Pacific hurricane seasons: 1990, 1991
  • Pacific typhoon seasons: 1990, 1991
  • North Indian Ocean cyclone seasons: 1990, 1991

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Drosdowsky, L; Woodcock, F. "The South Pacific and southeast Indian Ocean Cyclone Season 1988–89" (PDF). Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Journal. Australian Bureau of Meteorology (39): 113–129. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k DeAngellis, Richard M (ed.). Mariners Weather Log: Fall 1989 (Report). 33. United States National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service. hdl:2027/uiug.30112104094013. ISSN 0025-3367. OCLC 648466886. 
  3. ^ a b Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (1989). "December 1988" (PDF). Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 7 (12): 2–3. ISSN 1321-4233. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f MetService (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  5. ^ a b c December 1988 Upper North Island Flooding (NZ Historic Weather Events Catalog). National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research. November 7, 2013. Archived from the original on July 27, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  6. ^ Tropical cyclones in Vanuatu: 1847 to 1994 (PDF) (Report). Vanuatu Meteorological Service. May 19, 1994. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 18, 2010. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  7. ^ McGree, Simon; Yeo, Stephen W; Devi, Swastika (October 1, 2010). "Flooding in the Fiji Islands between 1840 and 2009" (PDF). Risk Frontiers. p. 41. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 26, 2014. Retrieved July 27, 2014. 
  8. ^ a b c Kumar, Pradeep (1989). DeAngellis, Richard M, ed. Tropical Cyclone Delilah (Mariners Weather Log: Fall 1989). 33. United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. p. 42. 
  9. ^ a b c Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center. Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: 1989 (PDF) (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. pp. 194, 241–249. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b New Caledonia Meteorological Office. "Cyclone Passes De 1880 à nos jours: Delilah". Météo-France. Retrieved December 28, 2014. 
  11. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1243&dat=19890103&id=PI9TAAAAIBAJ&sjid=i4YDAAAAIBAJ&pg=3086,1524068
  12. ^ a b c d Ruminski, Mark (January 1991). "Picture of the Month: Two Unusual Tropical Cyclones in the South Pacific". Monthly Weather Review. American Meteorological Society. 119: 218–222. Bibcode:1991MWRv..119..218R. doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1991)119<0218:TUTCIT>2.0.CO;2. 
  13. ^ a b Laurent, Victoire; Varney, Patrick. "Saison chaude 1988-1989". Historique des cyclones de Polynésie française de 1831 à 2010. Météo-France. pp. 134–135. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Tropical Cyclone Meena (Report). Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on November 8, 2014. 
  15. ^ a b Gosai, Ashmita; Motilal, Simon (2001). List of floods occurring in the Fiji Islands between 1840 and 2000 (PDF) (FMS Information Sheet No. 125). Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2011-05-11. Retrieved 2011-04-30. 

External links[edit]