The 1990–98 Indonesian military operations in Aceh also known as Operation Red Net (Indonesian: Operasi Jaring Merah) or "Military Operation Area" (Indonesian: Daerah Operasi Militer/DOM) was launched in early 1990s until August 22, 1998, against the separatist movement of Free Aceh Movement (GAM) in Aceh. During that period, the Indonesian army practised large-scale and systematic human rights abuses against the Acehnese. The war was characterised as the dirtiest war in Indonesia involving arbitrary executions, kidnapping, torture and disappearances, and the torching of villages.Amnesty International called the military operations response as a "shock therapy" for GAM. Villages that were suspected of harboring GAM operatives were burnt down and family members of suspected militants were kidnapped and tortured. It is estimated more than 300 women and children were raped and between 9.000 (9,000) and 12.000 (12,000) people, mostly civilians, were killed between 1989 and 1998 in the operation.