The 1990 Miami Dolphins season was the team's twenty-first season in the National Football League and twenty-fifth overall. After four seasons out of the playoffs with a combined record of 30 wins and 31 losses, the Dolphins returned to postseason play for the first time since 1985 with twelve wins and four losses. They defeated the Chiefs in the first round before being knocked out of contention by eventual AFC champions the Buffalo Bills in the Divisional Playoff.
1990 marked the first time since their record 1972 perfect season that the Dolphins played the New York Giants, and merely the second in team history. The reason for this is that before the admission of the Texans in 2002, NFL scheduling formulas for games outside a team's division were much more influenced by table position during the previous season.