1990s in fashion

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A group of people in January 1999 sporting various mid and late 1990s fashions.

For the majority of the decade, 1990s fashion in Europe, Oceania, Asia, and America was defined by a return to minimalist fashion[1] contrasted to the more elaborate and flashy trends of the 1980s. One notable shift in the western world was the mainstream adoption of tattoos,[2] body piercings aside from ear piercing[3] and to a lesser extent, other forms of body modification such as branding.

In the early 1990s, several late 1980s fashions remained very stylish among both sexes. However, the popularity of grunge and alternative rock music helped bring the simple, unkempt grunge look into the mainstream by 1994. The anti-conformist approach to fashion led to the popularisation of the casual chic look; this included T-shirts, jeans, hoodies, and sneakers, a trend which continued into the 2000s (decade). Additionally, fashion trends throughout the decade recycled styles from previous decades,[4] notably the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s.

Due to increased availability of the internet[5] and satellite television outside of the United States, plus the reduction of import tariffs under NAFTA, fashion became more globalized[6] and homogeneous in the late 1990s[7] and early 2000s.[8][9]

Women's fashion[edit]

Early 1990s (1990-92)[edit]

Actress Paula Abdul wearing semi-transparent black dress, curled hair and smoky eye makeup, 1990.
Young woman standing on sidewalk, Uptown New Orleans, 1992.

Supermodels and high fashion[edit]

Neon colors[edit]

  • The early 1990s saw a continuation of late 1980s fashion, including bold, geometric print clothing in electric blue, orange, fluorescent pink, purple, turquoise[11] and acid green,[12] popularized by Lisa Lopes[13] of TLC. In the US, USSR,[14] South Africa,[15] and Japan, typical patterns included triangles, zigzag lightning bolts, diamonds, lozenges, rectangles, overlapping freeform shapes, simulated explosions inspired by comic books or pop art, intricate grids,[16] and clusters of thin parallel lines in contrasting colors, such as white, black and yellow on a cyan background. Many women wore denim button down Western shirts, colored jeans in medium and dark green, red, and purple colors, metallic spandex leggings, halterneck crop tops, drainpipe jeans, colored tights, bike shorts, black leather jackets with shoulder pads, baby doll dresses with bike shorts or capri leggings underneath, and skater dresses. Bright neon colored tops and leg warmers were popular, together with leopard print skirts[17] shiny satin or rayon blouses, embroidered jeans covered in rhinestones,[18] and black or white shirts, leggings and jackets printed with abstract red, blue, yellow and green geometric patterns. In America, popular accessories included court shoes, cowboy boots, headscarves, slouch socks, Keds, ballet flats, and penny loafers or boat shoes associated with the preppy look.

Leggings and exercise-wear[edit]

  • From 1990 onwards, sports bras, hoodies and Leotards worn as tops with jeans were popular with young girls, teens, college girls, and young women in the UK, Europe and America. A common outfit was to wear a skirt, dress shorts, babydoll or minidress with black opaque tights, white athletic socks, and white Keds athletic sneakers. It was not uncommon to see mothers dressed right along with their daughters in white slouch socks worn over black leggings or sweatpants (especially heather grey color), oversized T-shirt or sweater, and Keds, Converse All Stars, or unisex aerobic, basketball or Nike Air or gold Reebok hi-top running shoes.[19] Leggings and slouch socks with oversized tops and casual sneakers especially Keds continued to be worn as lounge wear and everyday comfortable and fashionable casual wear until the late 1990s. In Israel, Britain and the US, Gottex swimsuits became popular among celebrities like Princess Di, Brooke Shields, and Elizabeth Taylor.[20]

Mid-1990s (1993-96)[edit]

Grunge[edit]

  • In mid 1992, grunge fashion broke into the mainstream for both sexes. For younger American, Australian and Latina women, grunge fashion consisted of flannel shirts, ripped jeans, mom jeans, Doc Martens, combat boots, band t-shirts, oversized knit sweaters, long and droopy skirts, ripped tights, Birkenstocks, hiking boots,[21][22][23] and eco-friendly clothing made from recycled textiles or fair trade organic cotton.[24] A prominent example of the popularity of grunge fashion is the teen drama television series "My So Called Life".[25] Grunge fashion peaked in late 1993 and early 1994.[21][26][27]

Glamour wear[edit]

Slip dresses first became widely worn in the mid-90s, as part of the underwear-as-outerwear trend. (Jane Leeves, 1995)

Work wear[edit]

Late 1990s (1997-99)[edit]

Asian influences[edit]

Red and cream Indian woman's saree, late 1990s

Beginning in 1997 and continuing into the mid 2000s,[45] Southeast Asian and Indian fashion began to influence and gain greater recognition from the global media[46] due to the establishment of the Fashion Design Council of India, and the hosting of India Fashion Week in Delhi.[47] Inspired by Bollywood cinema and a resurgence of interest in 1970s fashion, designers in India adapted and repurposed the saree, churidar and kurta into the Anarkali ballgown from the early 1990s onwards. By the late 1990s, kurta tunics were turned into short dresses, and Manish Arora designed garish Hindu "God printed T shirts"[48] for both locals and global tourists. British, Asian and American designers also incorporated ethnic chic cloth such as khadi, paisley, silk or Indonesian Batik[49] into Western inspired clothing patterns such as shirts and blouses featuring traditional embroidery. These clothings were worn not only by the immigrant Bangladeshi, Pakistani and Indian diaspora in Britain, but also by many non-Indian women.[50]

1970s revival[edit]

Casual chic[edit]

Young woman wearing a spaghetti strap top, a silver necklace, low ponytail and straight-leg jeans, circa 1999.

Men's fashion[edit]

Early 1990s (1990-92)[edit]

Casual clothing[edit]

Grunge look[edit]

Grunge-style flannel shirt and curtained hair, 1993

Mid 1990s (1993-96)[edit]

Cool Britannia and '70s revival[edit]

Trio in 1995 wearing neutral-colored tops and relaxed-fit, slim-leg pants and jeans.
  • Around 1995/1996, 1960s mod clothing and longer hair were popular in Britain, Canada, and the US due to the success of Britpop. Men wore Aloha shirts,[71] brown leather jackets, velvet blazers, paisley shirts, throwback pullover baseball jerseys, and graphic-print T-shirts (often featuring dragons, athletic logos or numbers). Real fur went out of fashion and fake fur became the standard.[29]
  • The 1970s became a dominant theme for inspiration on men's apparel in 1996. Among these clothing styles were coats with fur- or faux fur-trimmings, jackets with bold shoulders and wide lapels, and boot-cut slacks.[30] This continued into the 2000s (decade). Casual clothes such as trousers, sweaters, and denim jackets were worn with shirts made of satin, PVC, and terry cloth. Both pastel colors and bold patterns were popular and successfully replaced black.[28]
  • Desirable accessories during the mid-1990s included loafers, desert boots, chelsea boots, gold jewellery, boat shoes, chunky digital watches, solid colored ties, shoulder bags, and black/neon colored high-top sneakers replaced combat boots.[29]

Modern preppy[edit]

Hip-Hop[edit]

Late 1990s (1997-99)[edit]

African fashion[edit]

Rave culture and streetwear[edit]

Trinidadian men wearing typical late 90s fashions, 1997.
  • By the late 1990s, the grunge look became unfashionable. The emergence of the rave subculture had sparked a revival of interest in more stylish clothes, with name brand designers such as Calvin Klein and Ralph Lauren making a comeback.[21] In Europe, jeans were more popular than ever before.[61] Color started returning by 1997, with colors such as plum, charcoal, olive, and wine coming into.[55] Colors continued to evolve from there until the return of bright colors by 1999,[86] with shades such as "camillia rose", "blazing orange", "whisper pink", "hot coral", and a light-grayish blue called "wind chime" coming into style.[56]
  • Young men favored preppy brands such as The Gap, Old Navy and Abercrombie & Fitch. Sportswear such as casual jackets, T-shirts, sweaters, and tennis shoes became more acceptable to wear in public during the late 1990s, even to the point of the clothes being considered fashionable. Other popular trends included hoodies, jean shorts,[21] khaki cargo pants,[61] baggy basketball shorts, chinos,[61] tracksuits and black bomber jackets with orange linings. This continued into the 2000s (decade).
  • Much of men's fashion in 1997 was inspired by the 1996 film Swingers,[55] leading to the popularization of the "dressy casual" look. Such apparel included blazers or leather jackets and bowling shirts in either a variety of prints or a solid color, and loose-fitting flat-front khaki chinos or jeans. Around this time it became fashionable to leave shirts untucked.

Business wear[edit]

  • In Europe, single-breasted three and four button notch lapel suits in grey or navy blue, together with leather jackets based on the same cut as blazers, began to replace the double breasted 1980s power suits. The wide neckties of the early 1990s remained the norm, but the colors became darker and stripes and patterns were less common. In India and China, the Nehru suit and Mao suit declined in popularity in favor of conventional Western business wear.[87] Tweed cloth and houndstooth sportcoats went out of fashion due to their association with older men.[88] Dress shoes (usually in black) included chelsea boots with rounded or square toes, wingtips, and monkstraps.[55]
  • In America, an increasing number of men began to dress smart-casual and business casual, a trend kickstarted by Bill Gates of Microsoft.[89] At more formal events such as weddings or proms, men often wear boxy three[90] or four button, single-breasted suits with a brightly colored tie and an often matching dress shirt. Another trend was to wear black shirts, black ties, and black suits.[59] Black leather reefer jackets and trenchcoats were also fashionable in the late 1990s.[91]

Youth fashion[edit]

General trends[edit]

Honduran children, 1999.
  • The dominant youth clothing fad at the beginning of the 1990s was fluorescent clothing in blue, green, orange, pink, and yellow. Hoop earrings were also a popular accessory for teenage girls and women in the first years of the 1990s. Plaid shirts were also popular. Popular colors for girls included coral, hot pink, bright lime green, and turquoise. In Britain and the US, girls wore oversized tee shirts, sweat shirts, turtleneck sweaters, slouch socks worn over sweatpants or leggings, black or white lace trimmed bike shorts with babydoll dresses, belts worn with dresses, Dress shorts worn with tights and ballet flats or sometimes with slouch socks over the tights and Keds, tights with slouch socks and Keds, sweaters, crew neck T-shirts, ballet flats, Keds, Converse Chuck Taylor All-Stars, boat shoes, shortalls worn in summer with ballet flats or Keds, leotards and pantywaist tops worn with jeans or skirts, colored jeans especially in medium and dark green, red, and purple, long sleeved T-shirts, and athletic shorts such as the Nike Tempo. Boys wore soccer shorts, jean jackets, tartan shirts, tapered acid wash jeans, colored jeans in medium and dark green, red, and purple colors sweatpants, and single or double stripe athletic socks worn with everything from shorts to rolled jeans and khakis. In the Southern Suburbs of Chicago during the late 1980s and early 1990s, Z Cavericci pants and IOU sweatshirts were worn by members of the middle/upper-middle class.
Swedish teenager with mullet haircut and abstract printed jumper, 1991.
  • For much of the 1990s, particularly the middle years, teenage boys and girls bought and wore very basic clothes, such as overalls, flannel shirts, grey knitted sweaters, and backpacks. Popular stores selling these items included Gap and Urban Outfitters.[28] In the late 1990s, American teenage girls imitated the look of British girl group All Saints, which consisted of baggy jeans, T-shirts, sweatshirts, tanktops, and trainers,[92] as well as cargo pants, camouflage prints, and crop tops.[93]
  • For younger children, the mid-late 1990s was the Golden Age of Disney films with T-shirts and sweaters featuring characters such as Simba, Mickey Mouse, Belle, Aladdin, and Winnie the Pooh. Tartan trousers, striped shirts, long sleeved polo shirts, Champion (sportswear) crew neck sweatshirts worn over a turtleneck, colored jeans in medium and dark green, red, and purple colors, athletic shorts especially soccer shorts, slouch socks and sweaters were worn by young boys and girls in the UK and the US. Blue denim and railroad stripe overalls and shortalls were also popular for females, as seen on television and commercials throughout the decade, and for teenagers, some who would leave either strap hanging loose. A common outfit for tweens and teenage girls, was to wear an oversized tee, sweatshirt, babydoll, skirt or dress shorts with black opaque tights or leggings, white slouch socks, and Keds, boat shoes, or Converse shoes. The Bangs hairstyle and side, high side, or high regular ponytails with scrunchies and headband were popular with girls of all ages, especially college girls.

Grunge[edit]

Main article: Grunge
Acid washed jean shorts with grunge and hippie inspired DIY slogans and pictures, 1995.
  • The new wave and heavy metal fashion of the 1980s lasted until early 1992, when Grunge and hip hop fashion took over in popularity.[94] By the mid-1990s the grunge style had gone mainstream in Britain and the US, resulting in a decline in bright colors from 1995 until the late 2000s (decade), and was dominated by tartan flannel shirts, stonewashed blue jeans, and dark colors such as maroon, forest green, indigo, brown, white and black.
  • Grunge fashion remained popular among the British skater subculture until the late 1990s as the hard-wearing, loose-fitting clothing was cheap and provided good protection.[95] Members of the subculture were nicknamed grebos or moshers and included those who did not skate.

Hip-Hop[edit]

Swedish hip-hop fans watch Public Enemy perform in 1991.
Main article: Hip-hop fashion

Britpop[edit]

Main article: Cool Britannia
Example of late 1990s Goth fashion.

Psychobilly, punk and skater[edit]

Main article: Punk fashion

Goth[edit]

Preppy[edit]

Main article: Preppy

1990s beauty trends[edit]

Hairstyles[edit]

Women's hairstyles[edit]

Monica Lewinsky in 1997 sporting volumized hair and bangs.

Women's hair in the early 1990s continued in the big, curly style of the 1980s.

The pixie cut and Rachel haircut, based on the hairstyles of Jennifer Aniston in Friends and Marlo Thomas in That Girl, were popular in America from 1995 onwards.[108] Around the same time red hair also became a desirable color for women, as well as feathered bangs,[29] and mini hair-buns.[109] From 1995 onwards, dark-haired women tended to dye their hair a lighter color with blonde highlights (popularized by Jennifer Aniston) until about 2008.

In the late 1990s, the Bob cut was well-desired, popularized and rejuvenated by Victoria Beckham of the Spice Girls. This late 90s-style bob cut featured a center, side, or zig-zag parting, as opposed to the thick bangs of the early 1990s. The Farrah Fawcett hairstyle made a comeback in 1997, with highlights going hand-in-hand with this revival.[110] Other late 1990s haircuts included "Felicity curls" (popularized by Keri Russell in the hit TV show Felicity, the Fishtail Half-Up, and pigtails,[109] as well as the continuation of mid 1990s hairdos.

Men's hairstyles[edit]

Young man in 1995 sporting an earring and a short undercut hairstyle.
A surfer with bleached blond dreadlocks, camouflage pants and military surplus boots, 1994.

The 1990s generally saw the continued popularity of longer hair on men. In the early 1990s, curtained hair and small ponytails were popular among yuppies. Other trends included Flattops, Hi-top fades, and cornrows.[111]

In the mid 1990s, men's hairstyle trends went in several different directions. Younger men who were more amenable had adopted the Caesar cut,[112] either natural or dyed. This style was popularized by George Clooney[113] on the hit TV show ER in season two, which premiered in mid 1995. More rebellious young men went for longer, unkempt "grunge" hair,[111] often with a center parting. The curtained hairstyle was at its peak in popularity, and sideburns went out of style.[114] Meanwhile, most professional men over 30 had conservative 1950s style bouffant haircuts or the Caesar cut.[111]

By 1997, it was considered unstylish and unattractive for men and boys to have longer hair (with the exception of both Johnny Depp and Brad Pitt around 1999), and as a result short hair completely took over. From 1997 onwards, aside from curtained hair (which was popular throughout the decade), spiky hair,[111] bleached hair,[111] crew cuts, and variants of the quiff became popular among younger men. Dark haired men dyed their spikes blonde or added wavy blonde streaks, a trend which continued into the early 2000s (decade). Variants of the surfer hair was popular among rock musicians during that time period. For African-American men, the cornrows (popularized by former NBA player Allen Iverson) and buzz cut were a popular trend that continued into the early 2000s.

Children's and teenager's hairstyles[edit]

For teenage boys longer hair was popular in the early to mid-1990s, including collar-length curtained hair, shaggy surfer hair popular among some Britpop fans, and dreadlocks. During the mid-1990s, the much-ridiculed bowl cut became a fad among skaters, while hip-hop fans wore a variant of the flattop known as the Hi-top fade. In the late 1990s, hair was usually buzzed very short for an athletic look, although a few grunge fans grew their hair long in reaction to this.

For teenage girls and younger children, hair was worn long with heavily teased bangs called "mall bangs" which were long fringes covering the forehead. Alice bands, Headbands and scrunchies of various styles and colors (especially red, navy blue polka dot, plaid and neon) were popular with girls throughout the early and mid 1990s, and they frequently wore them with twin pigtails, or high ponytails and bangs.

Makeup and cosmetic trends[edit]

Darker shade of lipstick seemed popular amongst women in the 90s. The trend continued until the early 2000s. (Madonna, 1990)[115]

Women's makeup in the early 1990s primarily consisted of dark red lipstick and neutral eyes.[116] Around 1992 the "grunge look" came in to style among younger women and the look was based on dark red lipstick and smudged eyeliner and eyeshadow. Both styles of makeup continued into 1994,[117] but went out of style the next year.

The trends in makeup shifted in the mid 1990s. In 1995, nude shades became desirable and women had a broader color palette in brown. Another makeup trend that emerged was matte lipsticks, with deep shades of red and dark wine colors worn as part of night makeup.[118] Blue-frosted eye shadow became fashionable,[29] and was eventually integrated into the Y2K makeup of the late 1990s/early 2000s (decade). Gothic makeup had broken into the mainstream, having been made up of vamp lipstick (or even black lipstick), heavy mascara and eyeliner, often purple-tinted eye shadow (or else very dark blue), and extremely pale foundation. The Gothic makeup remained relevant in the later years of the decade.

By 1997, glittery, sparkling makeup had come into style.[119] This was called "Y2K makeup", consisting of facial glitter and lip gloss. Blue-frosted eye shadow remained a staple of late 1990s makeup, although silver was ideal look. Dark eyeliner was considered bodacious. Pale, shiny lips became desirable, as lip gloss largely replaced lipstick.[116] An alternative for those who did not like metallics were purples and browns.[119] Goth makeup and Y2K makeup continued into the early 2000s.

Gallery[edit]

A selection of images related to the period.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ Bad fads: Tattoos
  3. ^ Body piercings and Tattoos
  4. ^ Fashion at the edge: spectacle, modernity and deathliness, Evans, Caroline [1] Yale University Press, 2007, p. 22
  5. ^ Popsugar insights
  6. ^ Globalization of fashion
  7. ^ Globalisation of fashion
  8. ^ A window into globalization
  9. ^ Fashioning globalization
  10. ^ Steele, Valerie (1997). Fifty years of fashion : new look to now (2. pr. ed.). New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07132-9. 
  11. ^ Pink and Blue
  12. ^ Fitness fads
  13. ^ Marketing
  14. ^ 90s Russian fashion
  15. ^ African fashion
  16. ^ 1990s collection
  17. ^ Fashion Beans
  18. ^ 90s Russian fashion
  19. ^ Fitness Fads (with original photos) - Accessed 13 September 2015
  20. ^ Gottex Swimsuit
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Fashion in the 1990s". Retrieved 9 May 2014. 
  22. ^ Highbeam.com
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  24. ^ Sustainable textiles
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  62. ^ "Sex Bracelets". Retrieved 9 June 2014. 
  63. ^ Football Casuals
  64. ^ Psychological foundations of marketing
  65. ^ Golden Decade
  66. ^ 90s fashion
  67. ^ Michael Deeds
  68. ^ Australian 90s fashion
  69. ^ 10 things about the 90s
  70. ^ Ray Bans
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  75. ^ Keyes, Cheryl (2004). Rap Music and Street Consciousness (Music in American Life). University of Illinois Press. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-252-07201-7. 
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  78. ^ Mandela's craziest shirts
  79. ^ Kenya national assembly June 1996
  80. ^ Fires in Nairobi
  81. ^ Fear in Bongoland
  82. ^ Mens and womens secondhand clothing
  83. ^ Monuments culture and heritage in democratic SA
  84. ^ Wear the right thing
  85. ^ Lesson plan Kwanzaa
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  87. ^ Gentlemens gazette
  88. ^ Anthony Head
  89. ^ "Six Categories". Casualpower.com. Archived from the original on 2013-07-02. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
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  95. ^ Peterson, Brian (2009). Burning Fight: The Nineties Hardcore Revolution in Ethics, Politics, Spirit, and Sound. Revelation Books. ISBN 978-1-889703-02-2.
  96. ^ Baggy jeans
  97. ^ ICP sues FBI
  98. ^ Violent J of ICP
  99. ^ Britpop
  100. ^ Harris, John. Britpop!: Cool Britannia and the Spectacular Demise of English Rock. Da Capo Press, 2004. Pg. 202. ISBN 0-306-81367-X.
  101. ^ Geri auctions her famous dress
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  103. ^ Goodlad, Lauren M. E.; Bibby, Michael, eds. (2007). Goth: Undead Subculture. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-8223-3921-2. 
  104. ^ Goth fashion
  105. ^ Goth movement
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  107. ^ All American back from Japan
  108. ^ Mock, Janet; Wang, Julia (eds.). "Jennifer Aniston Biography". People.com. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011. 
  109. ^ a b "The 19 Most Important Women's Hairstyles Of The '90s". Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  110. ^ "Farrah Fawcett Look". Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  111. ^ a b c d e "The 15 Most Important Men's Hairstyles Of The '90s". Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  112. ^ "The 50 Most Stylish Celebrities of the '90s". Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  113. ^ "George Clooney's Hair Evolution". Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  114. ^ "Analyzing the History of Ryan Gosling's Ever-Moving Hair Part". Retrieved 30 November 2014. 
  115. ^ http://www.stylist.co.uk/beauty/trend-on-trial-90s-brown-lips#image-rotator-1
  116. ^ a b "A Brief History of Cosmetics". Retrieved 16 September 2014. 
  117. ^ "Pulp Fiction". Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  118. ^ "1990s Fashion Trends". Retrieved 30 July 2014. 
  119. ^ a b "Make-Up For The Year 2000". Retrieved 25 July 2014.