This is a good article. Follow the link for more information.

1994–95 South Pacific cyclone season

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

1994–95 South Pacific cyclone season
1994-1995 South Pacific cyclone season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed November 12, 1994
Last system dissipated March 17, 1995
Strongest storm
Name William
 • Maximum winds 110 km/h (70 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure 975 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions 4
Tropical cyclones 2 (record low)
Severe tropical cyclones 0 (record low, tied with 2008–09)
Total fatalities None reported
Total damage $2.5 million (1995 USD)
Related articles
South Pacific tropical cyclone seasons
1992–93, 1993–94, 1994-95, 1995–96, 1996–97

The 1994–95 South Pacific cyclone season was one of the least active South Pacific tropical cyclone season's on record, with only two tropical cyclones officially occurring within the South Pacific Ocean basin between 160°E and 120°W. The season ran from November 1, 1994, until April 30, 1995, with the first disturbance of the season developing on November 12 and the last disturbance dissipating on March 17. The most intense tropical cyclone during the season was Tropical Cyclone William, which affected the Cook Islands. After the season the name William was retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists.

During the season, tropical cyclones were officially monitored by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centers (TCWC) in Nadi, Fiji, Wellington, New Zealand and Brisbane, Australia.[1] Throughout the season the United States Navy also monitored the basin and issued unofficial warnings, through its Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (NPMOC).[2] Tropical cyclones that were located between the Equator and 25S were monitored by TCWC Nadi while any that were located to the south of 25S were monitored by TCWC Wellington.[1] During the season the JTWC issued warnings on any tropical cyclone that was located between 160°E and 180° while the NPMOC issued warnings for tropical cyclones forming between 180° and the American coast.[2] TCWC Nadi, Wellington and Brisbane all used the Australian Tropical Cyclone Intensity Scale, and measured windspeeds over a 10-minute period, while the JTWC and the NPMOC measured sustained windspeeds over a 1-minute period.[1]

Seasonal summary[edit]

Tropical cyclone scales#Australia and Fiji

The season was one of the most inactive tropical cyclone seasons on record, with only two tropical cyclones officially occurring within the South Pacific Ocean basin between 160°E and 120°W.[3] The first tropical depression of the season developed out of an area of convection on November 12 to the northeast of Vanuatu, before it was named Vania on November 14 after it had become a category one tropical cyclone.[3] The cyclone went on to end a long dry spell in Vanuatu, before it last noted on November 19 to the west of Port Vila, Vanuatu.The basin remained quiet until December 13, when Tropical Depression 04P developed to the east of the Solomon Islands, before going on to affect Fiji and Tonga.[4] During the final days of 1994, Tropical Cyclone William developed to the northeast of American Samoa.[5] Throughout its lifetime, William moved southeast and affected parts of French Polynesia and the Cook Islands before becoming extratropical on January 3.[6] After William left the basin on January 5, the basin remained quiet until March 16, when Tropical Depression 18P developed near Fiji, before dissipating during the next day.[7]

After the season had ended, the name William was retired from the tropical cyclone naming lists, while in June 1995, the World Meteorological Organization made TCWC Nadi a Regional Specialized Meteorological Center.[8]

Systems[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Vania[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Cyclone Vania 1994.png Vania 1994 track.png
Duration November 10 – November 19
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  980 hPa (mbar)

On November 12, TCWC Nadi reported that a tropical depression had developed within a persistent area of convection, that was located about 795 kilometres (495 mi) to the northeast of Port Vila, Vanuatu.[6][5] Over the next couple of days the depression gradually developed further as it started to move towards the southwest, before the JTWC started to issue warnings on it during November 13 and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 01P after it had become equivalent to a tropical storm.[2][6] Early on November 14, as the system passed near the Solomon Island of Tikopia, TCWC Nadi reported that the system had become a category one tropical cyclone on the Australian scale, and named it as Vania. During that day as it continued to move towards the south — southwest and intensify, it started to affect Vanautu with storm force windspeeds and heavy rain which helped break a long dry spell in Vanuatu.[5]

Early on November 15, TCWC Nadi reported that Vania had become a category two tropical cyclone with peak 10-minute sustained windspeeds of between 100 km/h (60 mph), while the JTWC reported peak 1-minute sustained windspeeds of 110 km/h (70 mph) which made it equivalent to a tropical storm. Later that day Vania passed near or over several of the Vanuatuan islands as it continued to move towards the south — southwest, and started to weaken as it encountered a higher amount of vertical windshear. During the following day, TCWC Nadi reported that Vania had weakened into a category one tropical cyclone as the systems low level circulation stalled, before it turned and started to move westwards while located to the north of New Caledonia.[5][6] During November 17, as the system had become sheared the JTWC issued their final advisory on Vania, before the systems remnant low level circulation was last noted by TCWC Nadi and the JTWC during November 19, while it was located about 100 km (60 mi) to the west of Port Vila, Vanuatu. Only minor damage to crops and bush houses was reported to have occurred in the archipelago while no deaths were reported.[5] As a result of Vania affecting parts of Vanuatu during November 15, voting in provincial elections had to be extended by 24 hours.[9][10]

Tropical Depression 04P[edit]

Tropical depression (FMS)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Tropical Cyclone 04P 1994.png 04P 1994 track.png
Duration December 13 – December 17
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  997 hPa (mbar)

On December 13, the US Navy started to monitor an area of disturbed weather that was located about 720 km (480 mi), to the east of Honiara in the Solomon Islands.[2][4] During that day, TCWC Nadi started to monitor the system as a tropical depression as the system moved southeast towards Fiji.[2][11] Over the next couple of days, the depression continued to move southeast towards Fiji and gradually developed further.[4] On December 15, the NPMOC initiated advisories on the depression and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 04P, while it was located about 110 km (70 mi) to the northeast of Labasa, Fiji.[2][4] Later that day, the NPMOC reported that the system had become a tropical storm and reached its peak 1-minute sustained windspeeds of 65 km/h (40 mph), as it affected several Fijian islands including Vanua Levu and Thikombia.[2][4] During December 16, the cyclone continued to move towards the southeast and started to affect Tonga before the NPMOC issued their final warning on the system as it had weakened into a tropical depression.[2][4] During the next day, the depression moved into TCWC Wellingtons area of responsibility and was subsequently declared extratropical.[11]

Tropical Cyclone William[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (FMS)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Tropical Cyclone William 1994-95.png William 1994 track.png
Duration December 30 – January 3
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  975 hPa (mbar)

On December 30, TCWC Nadi reported that a tropical depression had developed about 860 km (535 mi), to the northeast of Pago Pago in American Samoa.[6] Over the next couple of days the system moved towards the south-southeast and gradually developed further, before the NPMOC designated the depression as Tropical Cyclone 05P.[2][12] During January 1, TCWC Nadi reported that the depression had developed into a category 1 tropical cyclone and named it William as it passed near the Cook Island of Autitaki.[12] During the next day William subsequently slowly accelerated as it passed near too or over several other Cook Islands and intensified into a category 2 tropical cyclone.[12] Early on January 3, TCWC Nadi reported that the system had reached its peak 10-minute wind speeds of 110 km/h (70 mph) as it passed near or over the French Polynesian islands of Maria and Rimatara.[6][12]

At around the same time the NPMOC reported that William, had reached its peak 1-minute sustained windspeeds of 120 km/h (75 mph).[13] The system subsequently degenerated into an extratropical cyclone as it left the tropics later that day.[12] The remnants of Tropical Cyclone William were tracked by TCWC Wellington until January 5, as they moved south-eastwards and moved out of the South Pacific basin.[6] Throughout the Southern Cook Islands caused around US$2.5 million worth of damage to crops, buildings and coconut trees and destroyed a causeway to a tourist resort on Aitutaki.[5] William injured two people and destroyed over 150 houses in French Polynesia, where local leaders accused Météo-France off underestimating Williams intensity.[14]

Tropical Depression 18P[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Tropical Cyclone 18P.png 18P 1995 track.png
Duration March 16 – March 17
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

On March 15, the US Navy started to monitor an area of disturbed weather, that had developed about 245 km (150 mi) to the northeast of Nadi, Fiji.[7] During that day the depression moved towards the southeast and gradually developed further while moving around the south coast of Viti Levu.[7] During the next day, the NPMOC initiated advisories on the area of disturbed weather and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 18P, with 1-minute sustained windspeeds of 55 km/h (35 mph).[2][7] During the following day as the depression did not intensify any further as it continued to move towards the southeast.[7] The NPMOC then issued their final advisory on the system later that day, as the depression dissipated about 960 km (600 mi) to the southeast of Nuku'alofa, Tonga.[2][7]

Season effects[edit]

This table lists all the storms that developed in the South Pacific basin during the 1994–95 season. It includes their intensity on the Australian Tropical cyclone intensity scale, duration, name, areas affected, deaths, and damages. For most storms the data is taken from TCWC Nadi and Wellington's archives, however data for 04P and 18P have been taken from the JTWC archives as opposed to TCWC Nadi and Wellington's, and thus the winds are over 1-minute as opposed to 10-minutes.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Vania November 12–18 Category 2 tropical cyclone 100 km/h (65 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Vanuatu Minimal None
04P December 15 – 21 Tropical Depression 65 km/h (40 mph) 997 hPa (29.44 inHg) Fiji, Tonga Unknown Unknown [2]
William December 30 – January 3 Category 2 Tropical Cyclone 110 km/h (70 mph) 975 hPa (28.80 inHg) Cook Islands, French Polynesia $2.5 million None [5]
18P March 16 – 17 Tropical Depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) None None None [2]
Season aggregates
4 systems November 12 – March 17 110 km/h (70 mph) 975 hPa (28.80 inHg) $2.5 million None [5]


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (1999). "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South Pacific and South-East Indian Ocean". World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 2008-08-15. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center, Joint Typhoon Warning Center (1997). "1995 Annual Tropical Cyclone Report" (PDF). United States Navy, United States Airforce. pp. 211–216. Retrieved 2011-05-15. [permanent dead link]
  3. ^ a b Climate Services Division; RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (October 26, 2010). Tropical Cyclone Guidance for Season 2010/11 for the Fiji and the Southwest Pacific (PDF) (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2012. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f "JTWC best track analysis: Tropical Cyclone 04P". United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Shepherd Ian J; Bates, Peter W (June 2, 1997). "The South Pacific and Southeast Indian Ocean Tropical Cyclone Season 1994-95" (PDF). Australian Meteorological Magazine. Bureau of Meteorology (46): 143 – 151. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 14, 2015. Retrieved April 16, 2013. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g MetService (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "JTWC best track analysis: Tropical Cyclone 18P". United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center. 
  8. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (May 23, 2011). "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved May 23, 2011. 
  9. ^ Grant (1996). Pacific islands monthly. 65 (1995 ed.). Pacific Publications. p. 26. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  10. ^ Republic of Vanuatu office of the ombudsman (July 23, 1996). "Public report complaint: Alleged misappropriation of funds by the president of Shefa and maladministration of Shefa provincial council". The Government of Vanuatu. Archived from the original on March 22, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2011. 
  11. ^ a b Beven, Jack (1994-12-24). "Weekly tropical cyclone summary #176 December 11 - 18 1994". Google Groups. Retrieved 2011-05-17. 
  12. ^ a b c d e Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Detachment; National Climatic Data Center (May 21, 1996). Tropical Cyclone William, December 30, 1994 - January 3, 1994 (Global tropical/extratropical cyclone climatic atlas). Indiana University. Archived from the original on November 16, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  13. ^ Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center; Joint Typhoon Warning Center. "Tropical Cyclone 05P (William) best track analysis". United States Navy, United States Airforce. Retrieved November 16, 2014. 
  14. ^ Newmann, Steve (January 10, 1995). "Earthweek: Diary of the planet for the week ending January 6, 1995". The Gainesville Sun. Retrieved June 21, 2011. 

External links[edit]