1994 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology
In science
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1994.

Plants[edit]

Conifers[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Diploporus[2]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil Yew Genus, type species D. torreyoides

Taxus masonii[2]

Sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil Yew species

Torreya clarnensis[2]

Sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil nutmeg yew species

Angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Actinidia oregonensis[2]

Sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil Kiwi species

Cornus clarnensis[2]

Sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil dogwood species

Coryloides[2]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil hazelnut relative, Type species C. hancockii

Eucommia constans[3]

Sp nov

valid

Magallón-Puebl
& Cevallos-Ferriz

Miocene - Pleistocene

Pié de Vaca Formation

 Mexico

Youngest Eucommia sp. in North America.

Kardiasperma[2]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil hazelnut relative, type species K. parvum

Nyssa spatulata[2]

Comb nov

valid

(Scott) Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

A Tupelo, new comb of Palaeonyssa spatulata

Paleopanax[2]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil ginseng genus, type species P. oregonensis

Rhus rooseae[2]

Sp nov

valid

Manchester

Middle Eocene

Clarno Formation

 USA

Fossil Sumac species

Arthropods[edit]

Newly named insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acanthognathus poinari[4]

Sp nov

Valid

Baroni Urbani & De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

only fossil Acanthognathus ant

Anochetus ambiguus[5]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Anochetus conisquamis[5]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Anochetus dubius[5]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Anochetus exstinctus[5]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Anochetus intermedius[5]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Anochetus lucidus[5]

Sp nov

Valid

De Andrade

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A ponerin ant

Dlusskyidris[6]

Gen et comb nov.

Valid

Bolton

Santonian

Taimyr amber

 Russia

A Sphecomyrminae ant.
a new genus for Palaeomyrmex zherichini Dlussky 1975.

Molluscs[edit]

Bivalves[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Fordilla germanica[7]

sp nov

Valid

Elicki

Early Cambrian

Zwetau Formation

 Germany

early Cambrian bivalve species

Fishes[edit]

Newly named bony fishes[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Megalocoelacanthus[8]

Gen. et sp. nov

valid

Schwimmer, Stewart & Williams

Late Cretaceous (late Santonian to mid-Campanian)

Blufftown Formation
Niobrara Formation

 United States

A giant latimeriid coelacanth.[9] The type species is Megalocoelacanthus dobiei.

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named pseudosuchians[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Galtonia[13] Valid non-dinosaurian taxon
  • Hunt
  • S.G. Lucas

Late Triassic (late Carnian)

New Oxford Formation

 United States

A relative of Revueltosaurus.

Pekinosaurus[13] Junior synonym
  • Hunt
  • S. G. Lucas

Late Triassic (late Carnian)

Cumnock Formation

 United States

A junior synonym of Revueltosaurus.

Newly named basal dinosauromorphs[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Marasuchus[14] Valid Non-Dinosaurian Taxon
  • Arcucci

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Chañares Formation

 Argentina

A basal dinosauriform; new genus for "Lagosuchus" liloensis Romer (1972).

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[15]

Name Status Authors Notes Images
Skeletal mount Mymoorapelta on display in a museum.
Afrovenator[16] Valid taxon
  • Dutheil
  • Sues
Alwalkeria[17] Valid taxon
  • Creisler
Alxasaurus[18] Valid taxon
Amphicoelicaudia nomen nudum later named Huabeisaurus
  • Cheng Z.
Caenagnathasia[19] Valid taxon
Cryolophosaurus[20] Valid taxon
  • Hammer
  • Hickerson
Koparion[21] Valid taxon
  • Chure
Monolophosaurus[22] Valid taxon
  • Zhao X.
Mymoorapelta[23] Valid taxon
Pelecanimimus[24] Valid taxon
  • Perez-Moreno
  • Sanz
  • Buscalioni
  • Moratalla
  • Ortega
  • Rasskin-Gutman
Phuwiangosaurus[25] Valid taxon
  • V. Martin
  • Buffetaut
  • Suteethorn
Sinornithoides[26] Valid taxon
Sinraptor[27] Valid taxon
  • Zhao X.
Timimus[28] Valid taxon
Tonouchisaurus nomen nudum
Yingshanosaurus[29] Valid taxon

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Berruornis orbisantiqui [30]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Late Paleocene

MP 6

 France

A Strigiformes, Sophiornithidae Mourer-Chauviré, 1987.

Bubo osvaldoi [31]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Oscar Arredondo

Storrs L. Olson

Quaternary,

probably Pleistocene

Cave deposits

 Cuba

A Strigidae.

Falco duboisi [32]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Graham S. Cowles

Holocene

Cave deposits

 Réunion

A Falconidae.

Mascarenachen kervazoi [32]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Graham S. Cowles

Holocene

Réunion

 Réunion

An Anatidae, this is the type species of the new genus. The species is transferred to the genus Alopochen Stejneger, 1885 by Mourer-Chauviré, Bour, Ribes & Moutou, 1999.

Mascarenotus grucheti [33]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Roger Bour

François Moutou

Sonia Ribes

Holocene

Réunion

 Réunion

A Strigidae.

Messelastur gratulator [34]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Dieter S. Peters

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MN 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Psittaciformes, Messelasturidae G. Mayr, 2005, this is the type species of the new genus.

Microcarbo serventyorum [35]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Gerard F. van Tets

Holocene

Peat Swamp near Mining Lease

 Australia:

 Western Australia

A Phalacrocoracidae.

Neuquenornis volans [36]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Luis M. Chiappe

Jorge O. Calvo

Late Cretaceous

Santonian-Coniacian, Rio Colorado Formation

 Argentina

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Avisauridae Brett-Surman et Paul, 1985, this is the type species of the new genus.

Nycticorax borbonensis [32]

Not valid

Sp. nov.

Graham S. Cowles

Holocene

Réunion

 Réunion

An Ardeidae, this is a junior synonym of Nycticorax duboisi (Rothschild, 1907).

Otogornis genghisi [37]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Early Cretaceous

Inner Mongolia

 China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Longirostravidae Zhou, 2006, this is the type species of the new genus.

Presbyornis isoni [38]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Late Paleocene

Aquia Formation

 USA:

 Maryland

An Anseriformes, Presbyornithidae Wetmore, 1926.

Puffinus spelaeus [39]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Richard N. Holdaway

Trevor H. Worthy

Late Quaternary

Cave Deposits,

South Island

 New Zealand

A Procellariidae.

Stephanoaetus mahery [40]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Steven M. Goodman

Holocene. (Subrecent)

Madagascar

 Madagascar

An Accipitridae.

Wanshuina lii [41]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Paleocene

Doumu Formation

 China

A Rallidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Plesiosaurs[edit]

  • Plesiosaur gastroliths documented.[42]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Notes

Morturneria

Valid

Chatterjee Creisler

Pterosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes

Arthurdactylus

Valid

Frey Martill

Early Cretaceous (late Aptian/early Albian)

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A pteranodontoid pterosaur.

Montanazhdarcho[43]

Valid

Padian, K., Horner de Ricqlès, A.J.

Late Cretaceous (Judithian)

Two Medicine Formation

 United States

An azhdarchid.

"Wyomingopteryx"

nomen nudum

Bakker

Late Jurassic (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian)

Morrison Formation

 United States

Zhejiangopterus

Valid

Cai, Z. Wei, F.

Late Cretaceous (early Campanian)

Tangshang Formation

 China

An azhdarchid.

Other diapsids[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes
Lucianosaurus[13] Valid Non-Dinosaurian Taxon
  • Hunt
  • S. G. Lucas

Late Triassic (Norian)

Bull Canyon Formation

 United States

Tecovasaurus[13] Valid Non-Dinosaurian Taxon
  • Hunt
  • S. G. Lucas

Late Triassic (late Carnian)

Tecovas Formation

 United States

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Manchester, S.R. (1994). "Fruits and Seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds Flora, Clarno Formation, Oregon". Palaeontographica Americana. 58: 30–31. 
  3. ^ Call, V.B.; Dilcher, D.L. (1997). "The fossil record of Eucommia (Eucommiaceae) in North America" (PDF). American Journal of Botany. 84 (6): 798–814. doi:10.2307/2445816. PMID 21708632. 
  4. ^ Baroni Urbani, C.; De Andrade, M. L. (1994). "First description of fossil Dacetini ants with a critical analysis of the current classification of the tribe (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae. VI: Dacetini)". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie). 198: 1–65. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f De Andrade, M. L. (1994). "Fossil Odontomachiti Ants from the Dominican Republic (Amber Collection Stuttgart: Hymenoptera, Formicidae. VII: Odontomachiti)". Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Serie B (Geologie und Paläontologie). 199: 1–28. 
  6. ^ Grimaldi, D.; Agosti, D.; Carpenter, J. M. (1997). "New and rediscovered primitive ants (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in Cretaceous amber from New Jersey, and their phylogenetic relationships." (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3208: 1–43. 
  7. ^ Elicki, O.; Gürsu, S. (2009). "First record of Pojetaia runnegari Jell, 1980 and Fordilla Barrande, 1881 from the Middle East (Taurus Mountains, Turkey) and critical review of Cambrian bivalves" (PDF). Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (2): 267–291. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0021-9. 
  8. ^ David R. Schwimmer; J. D. Stewart; G. Dent Williams (1994). "Giant fossil coelacanths of the Late Cretaceous in the eastern United States". Geology. 22 (6): 503–506. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1994)022<0503:gfcotl>2.3.co;2. 
  9. ^ Hugo Dutel; John G. Maisey; David R. Schwimmer; Philippe Janvier; Marc Herbin; Gaël Clément (2012). "The Giant Cretaceous Coelacanth (Actinistia, Sarcopterygii) Megalocoelacanthus dobiei Schwimmer, Stewart & Williams, 1994, and Its Bearing on Latimerioidei Interrelationships". PLoS ONE. 7 (11): e49911. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049911. PMC 3507921Freely accessible. PMID 23209614. 
  10. ^ Calvo (1994). Sanders, Manley, and Carpenter (2001), "Table 12.1" page 167.
  11. ^ a b "Introduction," in Pasche and May (2001); page 220.
  12. ^ "Location and Geologic Setting," in Pasche and May (2001); page 220.
  13. ^ a b c d Hunt, A.P. and S.G. Lucas. 1994. Ornithischian dinosaurs from the Upper Triassic of the United States. In: the Shadow of the Dinosaurs, Early Mesozoic Tetrapods (N.C. Fraser and H.-D. Sues, Eds.). Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK: pp. 227-241.
  14. ^ Sereno, P.C. and A.B. Arcucci. 1994. Dinosaur precursors from the Middle Triassic of Argentina: Marasuchus lilloensis gen. nov. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14: pp. 53-73.
  15. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  16. ^ Sereno, P.C., J.A. Wilson, H.C.E. Larsson, D.B. Dutheil, H.-D. Sues. 1994. Early Cretaceous dinosaurs from the Sahara. Science 266 (14 October [5183]): pp. 267-271.
  17. ^ Chatterjee, S. and B.S. Creisler. 1994. Alwalkeria (Theropoda) and Morturneria (Plesiosauria), new names for preoccupied Walkeria Chatterjee, 1987 and Turneria. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 14: 142.
  18. ^ Russell, D.A. and Z.-M. Dong. 1994. The affinities of a new theropod from the Alxa Desert, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Can. J. Earth Sci. 30:pp. 2107-2127.
  19. ^ Currie, P.J., S.J. Godfrey, and L. Nesov. 1993 [Olshevsky cites 1994]. New caenagnathid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) specimens from the Upper Cretaceous of North America and Asia. Can. J. Earth Sci. 30: pp. 2255-2272.
  20. ^ Hammer, W.R. and W.J. Hickerson. 1994. A Crested Theropod Dinosaur from Antarctica. Science. 264: pp. 828-830.
  21. ^ Chure, D.J. 1994. Koparion douglassi, a new dinosaur from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Dinosaur National Monument; The oldest troodontid (Theropoda: Maniraptora). Brigham Young University Geology Studies 40: pp. 11-15.
  22. ^ Zhao, X.J. and P.J. Currie, P.J. 1994 [not 1993]. A large crested theropod from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, China. Canadian. J. Earth Sci. 30: pp. 2027-2036.
  23. ^ Kirkland, J.I. and K. Carpenter. 1994. North America’s First Pre-Cretaceous Ankylosaur (Dinosauria) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Western Colorado. Brigham Young University Geology Studies 40: pp. 25-42.
  24. ^ Perez-Moreno, B., J.L. Sanz, A.D. Buscalloni, J.J. Moratalla, F. Ortega, and D. Rasskin-Gutman. 1994. A unique multitoothed ornithomimosaur dinosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of Spain. Nature 370: pp. 363-367.
  25. ^ Martin, V. E. Buffetaut, and V. Suteethorn. 1994. A new genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Sao Khua Formation (Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous) of north-eastern Thailand. Comptes Rendus l'Acad. Sci. Paris (II) 319 : pp. 1085-1092.
  26. ^ Russell, D.A. and Z.-M Dong. 1993 [George Olshevsky cites 1994, not 1993]. A nearly complete skeleton of a new troodontid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of the Ordos Basin, Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China. Can. J. Earth Sci. 30: pp. 2163-2173.
  27. ^ Currie, P.J. and X.J. Zhao. 1994. A new carnosaur (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from the Jurassic of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China. Can. J. Earth Sci., 30: pp. 2037-2081.
  28. ^ Rich, T.H., and P. Vickers-Rich. 1994. Neoceratopsians and ornithomimosaurs: Dinosaurs of Gondwana origin. Res. Exploration 10: pp. 129-131.
  29. ^ Zhou Songlin, 1994. Record of a fossil stegosaur from Yingshan in the Sichuan Basin. Sichuan Cultural Relics. 1994-S1: 8-14.
  30. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré (1994). "A Large Owl from the Paleocene of France" (PDF). Palaeontology. 37 (2): 339–348. 
  31. ^ Oscar Arredondo; Storrs L. Olson (1994). "A New Species of Owl of the Genus Bubo from the Pleistocene of Cuba (Aves: Strigiformes)" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 107 (3): 436–444. 
  32. ^ a b c Graham S. Cowles (1994). "A New Genus, Three New Species and Two New Records of Extinct Holocene Birds From Réunion Island, Indian Ocean". Géobios. 27 (1): 87–93. doi:10.1016/s0016-6995(06)80215-9. 
  33. ^ Cécile Mourer-Chauviré; Roger Bour; François Moutou; Sonia Ribes (1994). "Mascarenotus Nov. Gen. (Aves: Strigiformes) Genre Endémique Éteint des Mascareignes et M. grucheti N. Sp. Espècé Éteinte de la Réunion" (PDF). Académie des Sciences, Comptes Rendus, ser. 2A. 318: 1699–1706. 
  34. ^ Dieter S. Peters (1994). "Messelastur gratulator n. gen. n. spec., ein Greifvogel aus der Grube Messel (Aves, Accipitridae)" (PDF). Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg. 170: 3–9. 
  35. ^ Gerard F. van Tets (1994). "An Extinct New Species of Cormorant (Phalacrocoracidae, Aves) from a Western Australian Peat Swamp". Records of the South Australian Museum. 27: 135–138. 
  36. ^ Luis M. Chiappe; Jorge O. Calvo (1994). "Neuquenornis volans, a New Late Cretaceous Bird (Enantiornithes: Avisauridae) from Patagonia, Argentina" (PDF). Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 14 (2): 230–246. doi:10.1080/02724634.1994.10011554. 
  37. ^ Hou Lianhai (1994). "A Late Mesozoic Bird from Inner Mongolia" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 32 (4): 258–266. 
  38. ^ Storrs L. Olson (1994). "A Giant Presbyornis (Aves: Anseriformes) and Other Birds from the Paleocene Aquia Formation of Maryland and Virginia" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 107 (3): 429–435. 
  39. ^ Richard N. Holdaway; Trevor H. Worthy (1994). "A New Fossil Species of Shearwater Puffinus from the Late Quaternary of the South Island, New Zealand, and Notes on the Biogeography and Evolution of the Puffinus gavia Superspecies". Emu. 94 (3): 201–215. doi:10.1071/mu9940201. 
  40. ^ Steven M. Goodman (1994). "Description of a New Species of Subfossil Eagle from Madagascar: Stephanoaetus (Aves: Falconiformes) from the Deposits of Amphasambazimba" (PDF). Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. 107 (3): 421–428. 
  41. ^ Hou Lianhai (1994). "A New Paleocene Bird from Anhui, China" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 32 (1): 60–65. 
  42. ^ Martin (1994). Sanders, Manley, and Carpenter (2001), "Table 12.1" page 167.
  43. ^ Padian, K., Ricqles, A. de J., and Horner, J. R., 1994, Bone histology determines identification of a new fossil taxon of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria): Compte rendu hebdomadaire des seances de l’Academie des Sciences Paris, tomo 320, serie 2, p. 77-84.

References[edit]

  • Calvo,J.O. (1994). Gastroliths in sauropod dinosaurs. Gaia, 10: 205-208.
  • Martin, James E.; 1994; Gastric residues in marine reptiles from the Late Cretaceous Pierre Shale in South Dakota; their bearing on extinction; Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology; 14(3, Suppl.) pp. 36; University of Oklahoma
  • Pasch, A. D., K. C. May. 2001. Taphonomy and paleoenvironment of hadrosaur (Dinosauria) from the Matanuska Formation (Turonian) in South-Central Alaska. In: Mesozoic Vertebrate Life. Ed.s Tanke, D. H., Carpenter, K., Skrepnick, M. W. Indiana University Press. Pages 219-236.
  • Sanders F, Manley K, Carpenter K. Gastroliths from the Lower Cretaceous sauropod Cedarosaurus weiskopfae. In: Tanke D.H, Carpenter K, editors. Mesozoic vertebrate life: new research inspired by the paleontology of Philip J. Currie. Indiana University Press; Bloomington, IN: 2001. pp. 166–180.