1995–96 Australian region cyclone season

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1995–96 Australian region cyclone season
1995-1996 Australian cyclone season summary.jpg
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formed 16 November 1995
Last system dissipated 6 May 1995
Strongest storm
Name Olivia
 • Maximum winds 195 km/h (120 mph)
(10-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure 925 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Tropical lows 19
Tropical cyclones 14 official, 1 unofficial
Severe tropical cyclones 9
Total fatalities 1 direct
Total damage $58.5 million (1996 USD)
Related articles
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
1993–94, 1994–95, 1995–96, 1996–97, 1997–98

The 1995–96 Australian region cyclone season was an active Australian cyclone season, with Western Australia experiencing a record number of landfalling intense storms in the Pilbara region. The season produced a total of 19 tropical cyclones, of which 14 developed into named storms and 9 reached severe tropical cyclone status. The strongest of the season was Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia, which also produced the highest recorded wind gust on record of 408 km/h (253 mph). Though several systems impacted land, the general sparsity of population centres in Australia limits the scale of damage. One person was confirmed to have been killed and cumulative losses were estimated at A$77 million (US$58.5 million).

Systems[edit]

Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

Severe Tropical Cyclone Daryl-Agnielle[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Daryl Nov 19 1995 0804Z.png Daryl-Agnielle 1995 track.png
Duration 16 November – 19 November (Crossed basin)
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

The first storm of the year and most intense across the Southern Hemisphere during the 1995–96 seasons, Cyclone Daryl was first identified several hundred kilometres west of Sumatra on 16 November. Initially tracking south-eastward, the system gradually attained gale-force winds as it neared the Cocos Islands late on 17 November. Squally conditions and heavy rain impacted the islands but no damage took place. Low wind shear allowed for further strengthening; a mid-level ridge south of the system forced Daryl to turn towards the west. Early on 19 November, the storm intensified into a severe tropical cyclone and attained winds of 130 km/h (80 mph) before crossing 90°E and entering the Mauritius area of responsibility. Upon crossing this border, Daryl was assigned a second name, Agnielle, by Mauritius. Over the following days, the system further deepened, peaking in strength as a Category 5 on the Australian intensity scale with 205 km/h (125 mph) and a barometric pressure of 915 hPa (mbar; 27.02 inHg). Steady weakening took place due to markedly stronger wind shear. Cyclone Daryl-Agnielle was last noted as a weak low pressure center on 25 November over the open waters of the southern Indian Ocean.[1]

Tropical Cyclone Emma[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Emma Dec 9 1995 0749Z.png Emma 1995 track.png
Duration 2 December – 16 December
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  990 hPa (mbar)

Emma stayed well off the Australian coast in the Indian Ocean. It spent most of its duration as a tropical low.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Frank[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Frank Dec 10 1995 0553Z.png Frank 1995 track.png
Duration 6 December – 13 December
Peak intensity 155 km/h (95 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

It formed on 6 December 1995, and was the first cyclone to form in northwest coast of Australia during the 95/96 season. Cyclone Frank brought heavy winds and rains to the Pilbara coast. Frank was one of four cyclones to strike in that area.[2]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Gertie[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Gertie dec 20 1995 0545Z.jpg Gertie 1995 track.png
Duration 17 December – 24 December
Peak intensity 130 km/h (80 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

A tropical low formed in the Timor Sea on 16 December and tracked westsouthwest as it deepened slowly. The low crossed into the WA region on 17 December and was named Gertie on the afternoon of the 18th. The cyclone then moved towards the southsouthwest during the 19th but slowed to be almost stationary during the late afternoon and evening of that day. Gertie then began to move south, then southeastwards, crossing the coast near Mandora Station on 20 December. Gertie then passed to the northeast of Telfer producing near gale force winds and heavy rain before dissipating on the 21st. The storm did only minor damage.[2]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Barry[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Barry Jan 5 1996 0432Z.png Barry 1996 track.png
Duration 4 January – 7 January
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  950 hPa (mbar)

Barry formed in the Gulf of Carpentaria on 4 January, reaching a maximum intensity of Category 3 (Australian scale) before crossing the coast between Karumba and Kowanyama two days later. Heavy rains caused severe flooding across the southern Cape York Peninsula, however there were no deaths reported.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Hubert-Coryna[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Hubert-Coryna 1996.jpg Hubert-Coryna 1996 track.png
Duration 7 January – 9 January (Crossed 90°E)
Peak intensity 150 km/h (90 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

Hubert stayed well off the Australian coast in the Indian Ocean from 8 to 12 January 1996.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Celeste[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Celeste Jan 27 1996 0353Z.png Celeste 1996 track.png
Duration 26 January – 29 January
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  965 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Celeste formed on 26 January and rapidly intensified into a Category 3 (Australian scale) system. The cyclone moved away from the coast after dumping heavy rain on the Central Coast. One man drowned in floodwaters near Bowen.

Tropical Cyclone Isobel[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Isobel Jan 30 1996 0645Z.png Isobel 1996 track.png
Duration 27 January – 1 February
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  995 hPa (mbar)

Isobel only lasted from 27 January 1996 to 1 February in the Timor Sea and did not pass close to any land.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Jacob[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 2 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Jacob Feb 4 1996 2312Z.png Jacob 1996 track.png
Duration 27 January – 8 February
Peak intensity 155 km/h (100 mph) (10-min)  955 hPa (mbar)

TC Jacob formed on 1 February 1996 from a monsoonal low that moved across the Northern Territory and the Kimberley region of Western Australia before tracking over the Bonaparte Gulf. It closely followed the Western Australian coast and developed cyclone characteristics near Adele Island. Jacob continued to intensify and moved westsouthwestwards, roughly parallel to the Pilbara coast. At peak intensity Jacob was a Category 3 storm with wind gusts near the centre estimated to be 200 kilometres per hour. The Kimberley and Pilbara coastal areas received heavy rains as the cyclone passed offshore. Only minor damage occurred and there were no deaths.[2]

Tropical Storm 12S[edit]

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg 
Duration 5 February – 10 February (Crossed basin)
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (1-min)  997 hPa (mbar)

A weak storm formed near the edge of the Bureau's area of responsibility in early February. Only the JTWC classified it as a tropical cyclone, reporting peak winds of 65 km/h (40 mph).

Tropical Low[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Temporary cyclone south.svg 
Duration 8 February – 11 February
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  997 hPa (mbar)

A tropical low existed from 8 February to 11 February.

Tropical Low[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Temporary cyclone south.svg 
Duration 14 February – 17 February
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  996 hPa (mbar)

A tropical low existed from 14 February to 17 February.

Tropical Cyclone Dennis[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Dennis 1996 track.png
Duration 15 February – 18 February
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  990 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Dennis existed from 15 February to 18 February.

Severe Tropical Cyclone Kirsty[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Kirsty Mar 12 1996 0550Z.png Kirsty 1996 track.png
Duration 7 March – 14 March
Peak intensity 175 km/h (110 mph) (10-min)  935 hPa (mbar)

A strong cyclone, Kirsty crossed the coast at Pardoo Station near Port Hedland on 12 March 1996. The cyclone did considerable damage to tourist cabins and other structures.[2]

Tropical Cyclone Ethel[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Ethel 1996 track.png
Duration 8 March – 13 March
Peak intensity 100 km/h (65 mph) (10-min)  982 hPa (mbar)

Severe flooding triggered by Cyclone Ethel resulted in A$75 million (US$57 million).[3]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Olivia[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Olivia Apr 10 1996 1123Z.png Olivia 1996 track.png
Duration 6 April – 12 April
Peak intensity 195 km/h (120 mph) (10-min)  925 hPa (mbar)

Lasting from 5 April 1996 to 12 April, Olivia reached Category 4 and destroyed 55 houses (plus 27 damaged) at the mining town of Pannawonica. Several buildings also suffered roof damage at neighbouring Mount Tom Price. There were only 10 minor injuries. A gust of 267 km/h was recorded at Varanus Island which is the equal highest recorded wind gust in Australia.[2][4] More recently, a review conducted by WMO confirmed a reported gust of 408 km/h on Barrow Island on 10 April 1996, at the peak of the storm, making it the highest gust ever recorded on earth during a non-tornadic storm.[5]

Tropical Depression 27S[edit]

Tropical depression (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg 
Duration 12 April – 19 April
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (1-min)  1000 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Depression 27S existed from 12 April to 19 April.

Tropical Cyclone Jenna[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Temporary cyclone south.svg Jenna 1996 track.png
Duration 30 April – 6 May
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  984 hPa (mbar)

Tropical Cyclone Jenna existed from 30 April to 6 May.

Tropical Low[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Temporary cyclone south.svg 
Duration 30 April – 5 May
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  997 hPa (mbar)

A tropical low existed in the vicinity of Brisbane from 30 April to 5 May.

Storm names[edit]

Tropical cyclones are assigned names by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology or Papua New Guinea. Tropical cyclones are named if they are non-frontal low pressure systems of synoptic scale developing over warm waters, or if Dvorak intensity analysis indicate the presence of gale force or stronger winds near the centre. Therefore, tropical systems with gales in one or more quadrants, but not near the centre, are not named.[6] All names assigned in the Australian region are selected sequentially. Only the names used during this cyclone season are listed below. The complete list of names for each basin are found in the World Meteorological Organization's official lists.[7]

Each Australian Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre (Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane) maintained a list of names arranged alphabetically and alternating male and female. Tropical cyclones that develop in the South-East Indian Ocean are assigned names by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Perth. This region includes the areas east of 90°E, south of the Equator, and west of 125°E. Tropical cyclones that develop south of the Equator between 125°E and 141°E are assigned names by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Darwin, Northern Territory. This area includes most of the cyclones that form in the Arafura Sea and Western Gulf of Carpentaria. Tropical cyclones in the Coral Sea and Eastern Gulf of Carpentaria between 141°E and 160°E and south of 10°S are assigned names by the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Brisbane, Queensland.[7]

Storms that enter the region that were named by the Mauritius meteorological service or the Fiji Meteorological Service retain their original names. However, those that move from the Australian region into the South-West Indian Ocean (west of 90°E) are renamed by Météo-France. Additionally, the Tropical Cyclone Warning Centre in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea reserves the right to name cyclones that develop in the Solomon Sea and Gulf of Papua, north of 10°S between 141°E and 160°E. Names issued by Port Moresby are retired after one use.[8]

Perth

  • Daryl - Emma - Frank - Gertie - Hubert - Isobel - Jacob - Kirsty

Darwin

  • Barry - Olivia

Brisbane

  • Celeste - Dennis - Ethel

Additionally, one storm, Jenna, was named by the Mauritius Meteorological Service.[9]

Retirement[edit]

At the end of the season, the Bureau of Meteorology retired seven of the thirteen names used during the season. The names were Frank, Gertie, Kirsty, Barry, Celeste, Ethel and Olivia.[10][citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Severe Tropical Cyclone Daryl (PDF) (Report). Bureau of Meteorology. 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  2. ^ a b c d e "Western Australia Tropical Cyclone Season Summary 1995–96". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  3. ^ "AG.EMADDB.Public.Website". Australian Emergency Management Institute. Archived from the original on 2011-07-06. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  4. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Extremes". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 2015-07-19. 
  5. ^ "World Record Wind Gust". WMO. Archived from the original on 20 January 2013. Retrieved 2012-11-15. 
  6. ^ "Tropical Cyclones: Frequently Asked Questions". Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  7. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South Pacific and South-East Indian Ocean" (DOC). World Meteorological Organization. 1999. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  8. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South Pacific and South-East Indian Ocean" (PDF). World Meteorological Organization. 2006. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  9. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Jenna". Bureau of Meteorology. 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2011. 
  10. ^ "Tropical Cyclone Names". Bureau of Meteorology. 2010.