1995 Great Britain and Ireland heat wave

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1995 United Kingdom and Ireland heat wave
Dates 24 July - 22 August
Areas affected United Kingdom and Ireland
Highest temperature 35.2 °C (95.4 °F) at Boxworth, Cambridgeshire[1]

The 1995 United Kingdom and Ireland heat wave was a severe weather event that occurred between late July and late August, and was part one of the warmest summers recorded in the UK,[2] and one of the warmest Augusts ever recorded in many locations around the UK, as well as being one of the driest summers ever recorded in the UK, with many weather stations having the Summer of 1995 drier than, or comparable with the Summer of 1976.[3] Ireland was also widely affected by the heatwave with temperatures reaching over 30 °C (86 °F) in some locations, as well as exceptionally low rainfall throughout the summer.[4]

United Kingdom[edit]

In the United Kingdom, the heat wave of 1995 currently marks the warmest August on record, and the 3rd warmest summer overall, behind 1976 and 1826. The CET Central England station recorded a daily mean temperature of 19.2 °C (66.6 °F)[5] and a mean daily maximum temperature of 25.1 °C (77.2 °F)[6] in August, and a daily mean temperature of 17.37 °C (63.27 °F) for the entire summer.[7]

Before the heatwave formed, a mini heatwave occurred between 28 June and 30 June with a highest temperature recorded during this short period of 33.8 °C (92.8 °F) recorded on 30 June 1995 at Barbourne, Worcester.[8] Low rainfall was also widely recorded around the nation during the month of June with many stations reporting less than 50% of its average rainfall, with some locations reporting less than 20%.[9]

Station County / UA June 1995 rainfall amount[10]
Armagh County Armagh 28.9 millimetres (1.14 in)
Bradford Lister Park West Yorkshire 11.0 millimetres (0.43 in)
Cardiff Bute Park Cardiff 08.9 millimetres (0.35 in)
Durham County Durham 16.2 millimetres (0.64 in)
Heathrow Greater London 12.0 millimetres (0.47 in)
Ringway Greater Manchester 27.9 millimetres (1.10 in)
Shawbury Shropshire 13.2 millimetres (0.52 in)
Sheffield South Yorkshire 11.3 millimetres (0.44 in)
Southampton Southampton 11.2 millimetres (0.44 in)
Sutton Bonington Nottinghamshire 11.7 millimetres (0.46 in)
Waddington Lincolnshire 17.8 millimetres (0.70 in)
Whitby North Yorkshire 25.6 millimetres (1.01 in)
Yeovilton Somerset 10.8 millimetres (0.43 in)

After this period, temperatures remained around average for much of the country until late July. Rainfall during the month of July was still relatively low but for many parts of the UK, higher than June and August. The driest areas of the country during the month of July are parts of Nottinghamshire and Lincolnshire. During the month of July the weather station at Sutton Bonington recorded 10.7 millimetres (0.42 in) of rainfall, and the station at Waddington recorded 12.1 millimetres (0.48 in) of rain. Towards the end of July, temperatures began to rise, with many parts of the country exceeding over 30 °C (86 °F). Heathrow Airport and the Nottingham Watnall recorded the highest temperatures of the month, with Watnall recording a temperature of 32.4 °C (90.3 °F) for 2 consecutive days,[11] and was held as the hottest July temperature at Watnall until 2015, when the temperature reached 33.9 °C (93.0 °F).[12] The highest temperature recorded during the month of July was at Heathrow Airport, reporting a temperature of 32.6 °C (90.7 °F).

During the heatwave, many locations around the UK recorded peak temperatures at the start of August. The highest temperature recorded during the heatwave was 35.2 °C (95.4 °F) recorded on 1 August 1995 at Boxworth, Cambridgeshire.[13] After this, most of the United Kingdom were still under warm temperatures around or above 25 °C (77 °F), until temperatures rose again as high as 33.8 °C (92.8 °F) which was recorded at Barbourne, Worcester. Towards the end of the hot spell, temperatures rose up to 30 °C (86 °F) in many parts of the country. Cheltenham, Gloucestershire recorded 3 consecutive days above 32 °C (90 °F) from August 20 to August 22, with the highest temperature at 33.6 °C (92.5 °F) on August 22.

During the month of August, much of the United Kingdom were suffering from drought conditions, with most parts of the UK recording less than 30% of its average rainfall, and less than 20% for most parts of England. The weather station at London Heathrow and at Eastbourne didn't record a single day of rain to the value of ≥ 1.0 mm.

Station County / UA August 1995 rainfall amount[14]
Aberporth Ceredigion 07.8 millimetres (0.31 in)
Armagh County Armagh 10.4 millimetres (0.41 in)
Ballypatrick Forest County Antrim 25.2 millimetres (0.99 in)
Bradford Lister Park West Yorkshire 06.7 millimetres (0.26 in)
Braemar Aberdeenshire 20.3 millimetres (0.80 in)
Camborne Cornwall 19.0 millimetres (0.75 in)
Cambridge NIAB Cambridgeshire 05.3 millimetres (0.21 in)
Cardiff Bute Park Cardiff 09.2 millimetres (0.36 in)
Chivenor Devon 16.8 millimetres (0.66 in)
Cwmystwyth Ceredigion 24.3 millimetres (0.96 in)
Dunstaffnage Argyll and Bute 26.5 millimetres (1.04 in)
Durham County Durham 14.2 millimetres (0.56 in)
Eastbourne East Sussex 00.7 millimetres (0.028 in)
Eskdalemuir Dumfries and Galloway 24.3 millimetres (0.96 in)
Heathrow Greater London 00.3 millimetres (0.012 in)
Hurn Dorset 04.7 millimetres (0.19 in)
Lerwick Shetland 49.5 millimetres (1.95 in)
Leuchars Fife 11.2 millimetres (0.44 in)
Lowestoft Suffolk 17.6 millimetres (0.69 in)
Manston Kent 13.9 millimetres (0.55 in)
Nairn Highland 15.4 millimetres (0.61 in)
Newton Rigg Cumbria 10.9 millimetres (0.43 in)
Oxford Oxfordshire 04.4 millimetres (0.17 in)
Paisley Renfrewshire 22.1 millimetres (0.87 in)
Ringway Greater Manchester 17.7 millimetres (0.70 in)
Ross-on-Wye Herefordshire 06.2 millimetres (0.24 in)
Shawbury Shropshire 07.8 millimetres (0.31 in)
Sheffield South Yorkshire 12.1 millimetres (0.48 in)
Southampton Southampton 04.6 millimetres (0.18 in)
Stornoway Airport Na h-Eileanan Siar 32.2 millimetres (1.27 in)
Sutton Bonington Nottinghamshire 05.7 millimetres (0.22 in)
Tiree Argyll and Bute 33.8 millimetres (1.33 in)
Valley Anglesey 11.1 millimetres (0.44 in)
Waddington Lincolnshire 05.9 millimetres (0.23 in)
Whitby North Yorkshire 03.4 millimetres (0.13 in)
Wick Airport Highland 16.8 millimetres (0.66 in)
Yeovilton Somerset 17.4 millimetres (0.69 in)

Aftermath[edit]

After the heat wave ended in August, the East and South of the United Kingdom received high amounts of rainfall in September, but another dry spell occurred mainly in the east of the United Kingdom. For the rest of 1995, most of the United Kingdom received average amount of rainfall, with some parts of the UK above or below average. Temperatures after the heatwave remained around average for the rest of the year.[15]

Ireland[edit]

The Republic of Ireland didn't have temperatures as high as the United Kingdom, the nation was also greatly affected by the heat wave of 1995. Ireland also had a similar weather pattern to the weather in the United Kingdom during the summer of 1995.

The Valentia Observatory and the weather station at Phoenix Park both recorded a daily mean temperature of 16.6 °C (61.9 °F), and was the warmest summer for over a century.

Kilkenny recorded a total of 27 days with temperatures over 25 °C (77 °F) during the heat wave compared to the 2.5 days that Kilkenny usually records,[16] and was one of the hottest parts of the country during the heatwave recording a temperature of 30.8 °C (87.4 °F). Like the United Kingdom, Ireland received exceptionally low rainfall, and was the driest summer on record for the weather stations at Malin Head, Casement and Cork Airport. The overall rainfall recorded during the summer at Phoenix Park was only 65.1 millimetres (2.56 in).[17]

The highest temperature recorded during the heatwave was 31.5 °C (88.7 °F) and was measured at Oak Park in County Carlow on 2 August. It is currently Ireland's hottest August temperature ever recorded along with Ballybrittas in County Laois, which recorded the same temperature back on 3 August 1975.[18]

County Station August 1995 maximum temperature[19] Date
Carlow Oak Park 31.5 °C (88.7 °F) 2
Clare Shannon Airport 29.8 °C (85.6 °F) 17
Cork Cork Airport 28.0 °C (82.4 °F) 3
Kilkenny Kilkenny 30.8 °C (87.4 °F) 2
Offaly Birr 29.4 °C (84.9 °F) 17 / 18

Impacts[edit]

Like the United Kingdom, Ireland has been experiencing drought conditions throughout the summer, which caused problems to potato farmers in rural areas, as they had difficulty watering crops due to water shortages. Several areas around Ireland have also been issued hosepipe bans and residents have been asked not to hose lawns due to drought conditions.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Daily Temperature Extremes for Britain up to September 2000". Retrieved 10 July 2017. 
  2. ^ "UK Climate Anomaly Maps". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  3. ^ "UK Climate Anomaly Maps". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  4. ^ "Summer 1995" (PDF). Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  5. ^ "Monthly Ranked HadCET mean". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  6. ^ "Monthly Ranked HadCET max". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  7. ^ "Seasonal HadCET mean". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  8. ^ "Daily Temperature Extremes for Britain up to September 2000". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  9. ^ "UK Climate Anomaly Maps". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  10. ^ [1] Retrieved 12 Apr 2018
  11. ^ "Indices Details Station 2118". Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  12. ^ "State of the UK Climate 2015" (PDF). Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  13. ^ "Daily Temperature Extremes for Britain up to September 2000". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  14. ^ [2] Retrieved 12 Apr 2018
  15. ^ "UK Climate Anomaly Maps". Retrieved 8 July 2017. 
  16. ^ "Climatology Details Station 2138". Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  17. ^ "Summer 1995" (PDF). Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  18. ^ "Irish Weather Extremes". Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  19. ^ [3] Retrieved 12 Apr 2018