1996 New Zealand general election

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1996 New Zealand general election

← 1993 12 October 1996 (1996-10-12) 1999 →

All 120 seats in the House of Representatives
61 seats were needed for a majority
Opinion polls
Turnout2,135,175 (88.28%) Increase5.46%
  First party Second party Third party
Jim Bolger at press conference retouched.jpg
Helen Clark 2.jpg
Winston Peters cropped.PNG
Leader Jim Bolger Helen Clark Winston Peters
Party National Labour NZ First
Last election 50 seats, 35.05% 45 seats, 34.68% 2 seats, 8.40%
Seats before 41 41 5
Seats won 44 37 17
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 4 Increase 12
Electorate vote 699,073
Party vote 701,315

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
Jim Anderton, 2010.jpg
Richard Prebble.jpg
Leader Jim Anderton Richard Prebble Clive Matthewson
Party Alliance ACT United NZ
Last election 2 seats, 18.21% Not yet founded Not yet founded
Seats before 2 0 7
Seats won 13 8 1
Seat change Increase 11 Increase 8 Decrease 6
Electorate vote 231,944
Party vote 209,347

1996 New Zealand general election - Results.svg
Results of the election
Figures are notional as the overall number of seats increased and the electorate boundaries were redrawn under the new electoral system.

Prime Minister before election

Jim Bolger

Subsequent Prime Minister

Jim Bolger

The 1996 New Zealand general election was held on 12 October 1996 to determine the composition of the 45th New Zealand Parliament. It was notable for being the first election to be held under the new mixed-member proportional (MMP) electoral system, and produced a parliament considerably more diverse than previous elections. It saw the National Party, led by Jim Bolger, retain its position in government, but only after protracted negotiations with the smaller New Zealand First party to form a coalition. New Zealand First won a large number of seats—including every Māori electorate, traditionally held by Labour. Its position as "kingmaker", able to place either of the two major parties into government, was a significant election outcome.

Under the new MMP system, 65 members were elected in single-member districts by first-past-the-post voting, while a further 55 "top-up" members were allocated from closed lists to achieve a proportional distribution based on each party's share of the nationwide party vote.

This election was held seven months after the 1996 Australian Federal election and it is the last time to date that both countries across the Tasman held national elections in the same year.


Changes mid-term[edit]

In the 1993 election, the National Party and the Labour Party had won 50 and 45 seats, respectively. The Alliance and the New Zealand First party had each won two seats. In the approach to MMP, however, there had been considerable rearrangement in parliament, with three new parties being established. As such, the situation just before the 1996 election was markedly different from the situation that had been established at the 1993 election.

Party Won at 1993 election By time of 1996 election Reasons for change
National 50 41 Defection of 9 MPs
Labour 45 41 Defection of 4 MPs
United 7 Formed by 4 former National MPs and 3 former Labour MPs
NZ First 2 5 Initial MPs joined by 2 former National MPs and one former Labour MP
Alliance 2 2 No change
Conservative 1 Founded by 2 former National MPs; one later became an independent
Christian Democrats 1 Founded by a former National MP
Independents 1 Ross Meurant, a former National (and briefly Conservative) MP

Electoral redistribution[edit]

The 1996 election was notable for the significant change of electorate boundaries, based on the provisions of the Electoral Act 1993.[1] Because of the introduction of the MMP electoral system, the number of electorates had to be reduced, leading to significant changes. Under MMP, there would be only 65 district members, down by 34 from the number elected in the 1993 election.

Many electorates were abolished, with their territories being incorporated into completely new electoral districts. More than half of the electorates contested in 1996 were newly constituted, and most of the remainder had seen significant boundary changes. Wanganui was renamed as Whanganui. In total, 73 electorates were abolished, 29 electorates were newly created, and 10 electorates were recreated, giving a net loss of 34 electorates.

South Island

Since the 1967 electoral redistribution, the South Island had its number of general electorates fixed at 25.[2] For the 1996 election and onwards, the number of South Island electorates is fixed at 16. The number of electors on the general roll of the South Island divided by 16 gives the target size for North Island and Māori electorates; this is referred to as the South Island quota.[3]

The electorates of Avon, Awarua, Christchurch North, Clutha, Dunedin West, Fendalton, Lyttelton, Marlborough, Rangiora, Selwyn, St Albans, St Kilda, Sydenham, Tasman, Timaru, Waitaki, Wallace, West Coast, and Yaldhurst were abolished in the South Island. Six existing electorates (Christchurch Central, Dunedin North, Invercargill, Nelson, Otago, and Rakaia) were kept. Seven electorates (Aoraki, Banks Peninsula, Clutha-Southland, Ilam, Kaikoura, Waimakariri, and West Coast-Tasman) were newly formed. Three electorates (Christchurch East, Dunedin South, and Wigram) were recreated.

North Island

Based on the calculation described above, the target size for North Island electorates resulted in 44 of them being required.

The electorates of Birkenhead, East Coast Bays, Eastern Bay of Plenty, Eastern Hutt, Eden, Far North, Franklin, Gisborne, Glenfield, Hastings, Hauraki, Hawkes Bay, Henderson, Heretaunga, Hobson, Horowhenua, Howick, Island Bay, Kaimai, Kaipara, Kapiti, King Country, Manawatu, Matakana, Matamata, Miramar, Mt Albert, Onehunga, Onslow, Otara, Pahiatua, Panmure, Papakura, Papatoetoe, Pencarrow, Porirua, Raglan, Remuera, Roskill, Taranaki, Tarawera, Te Atatu, Titirangi, Tongariro, Waikaremoana, Waikato, Waipa, Waitotara, Wellington-Karori, and Western Hutt were abolished in the North Island. Twenty existing electorates (Albany, Auckland Central, Hamilton East, Hamilton West, Mangere, Manurewa, Napier, New Lynn, New Plymouth, North Shore, Pakuranga, Palmerston North, Rangitikei, Rotorua, Tamaki, Tauranga, Wairarapa, Waitakere, Whanganui, and Whangarei) were kept. Seventeen electorates (Mahia, Owairaka, Waipareira, Karapiro, Ohariu-Belmont, Port Waikato, Epsom, Hutt South, Mana, Manukau East, Maungakiekie, Northcote, Northland, Rimutaka, Rongotai, Taranaki-King Country, and Tukituki) were newly formed. Eight electorates (Bay of Plenty, Coromandel, Hunua, Otaki, Rodney, Taupo, and Wellington Central) were recreated.

Māori electorates

All four existing Māori electorates (Eastern Maori, Northern Maori, Southern Maori, and Western Maori) were abolished. The calculation described above resulted in five Māori electorates being required; these were Te Puku O Te Whenua, Te Tai Hauauru, Te Tai Rawhiti, Te Tai Tokerau, and Te Tai Tonga.

List seats

The House of Representatives was to have 120 seats, of which 65 were filled through electorate MPs (16 from South Island electorates, 44 from North Island electorates, and 5 from Māori electorates). This left 55 list seats to be filled. An outcome of the election was that no overhang seats were required.

MPs retiring in 1996[edit]

Eleven MPs intended to retire at the end of the 44th Parliament.

Party Name Electorate
National Robert Anderson Kaimai
Philip Burdon Fendalton
Warren Cooper Otago
Robin Gray Clutha
John Falloon Pahiatua
Roger McClay Waikaremoana
Rob Storey Waikato
NZ First Michael Laws Hawkes Bay
Labour David Caygill St Albans
David Lange Mangere
Elizabeth Tennet Island Bay

The election[edit]

The date of the 1996 election was 12 October; it was brought forward slightly to avoid the need for a by-election following the resignation of Michael Laws, as a by-election is not needed if there will be a general election within 6 months of a seat being vacated.

Of the 2,418,587 people registered to vote, 88.3% turned out to vote. The turnout was a slight improvement on the previous two elections, but still slightly lower than what would have been expected during the 1980s. The number of seats being contested was 120, an increase of 21 from the previous election, but as 55 of the new seats were for list candidates, the number of electorates was reduced considerably and many electorates had their boundaries amended or were abolished. While the number of general electorates decreased from 95 (1993) to 60 (1996), the number of Māori electorates increased from 4 to 5.

In the election 842 candidates stood, and there were 21 registered parties with party lists. Of the candidates, 459 were electorate and list, 152 were electorate only, and 231 were list only. 73% of candidates (616) were male and 27% (226) female.[4][5]

Summary of results[edit]

The 1996 election eventually saw a victory for the governing National Party, which won around a third of the vote. The opposition Labour Party won slightly less. The election, however, was not decided by the comparative strengths of the major parties – rather, the smaller New Zealand First party, which won 17 seats, including 5 Māori seats won by the Tight Five, and was placed in the position of "kingmaker", able to provide the necessary majority to whichever side it chose.[6] Although predicted by many to ally with Labour, on 10 December 1996 New Zealand First leader Winston Peters chose to form a coalition with National, thus preserving Prime Minister Jim Bolger's administration.[7]

The 1996 election effectively showcased the difference made by the new electoral system. The Alliance and New Zealand First, both of which held two seats each in the old parliament, increased their representation to 13 and 17 seats, respectively, as a result of the change. The new ACT New Zealand also benefited, taking eight seats. The new United New Zealand party however was virtually wiped out, retaining only a single seat. The Conservative Party also only established only in previous Parliament by defecting Members of Parliament fared even worse, failing to remain in parliament at all. Strategic voting took place for the first time in a New Zealand MMP election in the Wellington seats of Ohariu-Belmont and Wellington Central.

However, Labour did manage to retain its status as among the top-two parties, as polls in the 1993–1996 period had shown Labour was in danger of being overtaken by the Alliance or New Zealand First. Labour's success was credited largely to its leader Helen Clark being seen as having convincingly won the election debates and running a strong campaign on health, education and social services, while Bolger was said to have run a lackluster campaign. [8]

Also notable in the 1996 election campaign was the Christian Coalition, an alliance of the Christian Democrats and the Christian Heritage Party. Although the party had briefly crossed the 5% threshold in some polls, it gained only 4.33% at the election, and therefore did not qualify for parliamentary representation. With the exception of the Maori Ratana movement, this is the closest that an overtly religious party has come to winning representation in parliament.

Voters were prepared with MMP to vote for minor party candidates with their electorate vote, hence in a number of electorates won by National or Labour the other major party candidate came third or even fourth; previously the two top polling candidates were almost always National and Labour.

Detailed results[edit]

Summary of the 12 October 1996 election for the House of Representatives[9]
1996 New Zealand general election - composition chart.svg
Party Party vote Electorate vote Seats
Votes % Votes % Change
List Electorate Total +/-
National 701,315 33.84 699,073 33.91 Decrease1.14 14 30 44 Decrease6
Labour 584,159 28.19 640,884 31.08 Decrease3.60 11 26 37 Decrease8
NZ First 276,603 13.35 278,103 13.49 Increase5.09 11 6 17 Increase15
Alliance 209,347 10.10 231,944 11.25 Decrease6.96 12 1 13 Increase11
ACT 126,442 6.10 77,319 3.75 new 7 1 8 new
United NZ 18,245 0.88 42,666 2.07 new 0 1 1 new
Christian Coalition 89,716 4.33 31,995 1.55 Decrease0.47 0 0 0 0
Legalise Cannabis 34,398 1.66 3,420 0.17 new 0 0 0 new
McGillicuddy Serious 5,990 0.29 12,177 0.59 Decrease0.02 0 0 0 0
Progressive Green 5,288 0.26 7,437 0.36 new 0 0 0 new
Mana Māori Movement 4,070 0.20 4,763 0.23 Increase0.06 0 0 0 0
Animals First 3,543 0.17 0 0 new
Natural Law 3,189 0.15 5,385 0.26 Decrease0.05 0 0 0 0
Ethnic Minority Party 2,514 0.12 0 0 new
Green Society 2,363 0.11 1,140 0.06 new 0 0 0 new
Conservatives 1,431 0.07 4,377 0.21 new 0 0 0 new
Superannuitants & Youth 1,244 0.06 686 0.03 new 0 0 0 new
Advance NZ 949 0.05 637 0.03 new 0 0 0 new
Libertarianz 671 0.03 553 0.03 new 0 0 0 new
Asia Pacific 478 0.02 293 0.01 new 0 0 0 new
Te Tawharau 404 0.02 818 0.04 new 0 0 0 new
Republican 134 0.01 new 0 0 0 new
Unregistered Parties 1,506 0.07 0 0 0 0
Independent 16,436 0.80 0 0 0 0
Valid Votes 2,072,359 97.06 2,061,746 96.56
Informal votes 8,183 0.38 18,796 0.88
Disallowed votes 54,633 2.56 54,633 2.56
Total 2,135,175 100 2,135,175 100 55 65 120 Increase21a
Eligible voters and Turnout 2,418,587 88.28 2,418,587 88.28 Increase5.46

In addition to the registered parties listed above, a number of unregistered parties also contested the election. Being unregistered, they could not submit party lists (and thus receive party votes), but they could still stand candidates in individual electorates. Among the parties to do this were the Indigenous Peoples Party, the New Zealand Progressive Party (unrelated to the 2002–2012 party of the same name) and the Nga Iwi Morehu Movement. Most unregistered parties stood only a single candidate, with only four parties running in multiple electorates. In total, around 1,500 people voted for candidates from unregistered parties. In addition, 26 independents contested electorate seats. A total of 16,436 people voted for independent candidates. No candidate from an unregistered party or an independent candidate won an electorate seat.

Votes summary[edit]

Constituency Vote
NZ First
Christian Coalition
Party Vote
NZ First
Christian Coalition
Legalise Cannabis
Parliament seats
NZ First

Electorate results[edit]

Party affiliation of winning electorate candidates.

No party managed to win a straight majority of the 65 electorates. The National Party, the governing party, was three seats short of a majority, gaining 30 seats. The Labour Party, in opposition, won 26 electorate seats. New Zealand First won six electorate seats, the highest number of any minor party for over 50 years.

The Alliance, ACT and United managed to win one electorate seat each. For United, this was a significant loss – established by break-away MPs from National and Labour, the party entered the election with seven seats, but only Peter Dunne managed to retain his position, being helped by National's decision not to field a candidate in his electorate of Ohariu-Belmont.

For the most part, traditional patterns prevailed when it came to the distribution of electorates – National performed best in rural areas, while Labour was strongest in the cities. A very significant departure from traditional patterns, however, was New Zealand First's capture of all five Maori seats, which had traditionally been Labour strongholds. Although Labour was to reclaim these seats in the subsequent election, Labour's monopoly was no longer so secure as it had been.

The table below shows the results of the 1996 general election:


  National     Labour     Alliance     NZ First     ACT     United NZ     Mana Māori Movement     Independent  

Electorate results of the 1996 New Zealand general election[10]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up Third place
General electorates
Albany Don McKinnon Murray McCully 11,647 Terry Heffernan Heather Ann McConachy
Aoraki New electorate Jim Sutton 2,932 Stuart Boag Jenny Bloxham
Auckland Central Sandra Lee Judith Tizard 3,353 Sandra Lee Shane Frith
Banks Peninsula New electorate David Carter 4,378 Ruth Dyson Rod Donald
Bay of Plenty New electorate Tony Ryall 5,153 Peter Brown Julie Tucker
Christchurch Central Lianne Dalziel Tim Barnett 653 Kerry Sutherland Liz Gordon
Christchurch East New electorate Larry Sutherland 2,953 Sue McKenzie Marie Venning
Clutha-Southland New electorate Bill English 9,053 Lesley Soper Alan Wise
Coromandel New electorate Murray McLean 2,450 Jeanette Fitzsimons Robyn McDonald
Dunedin North Pete Hodgson 10,207 Margie Stevens Jim Flynn
Dunedin South New electorate Michael Cullen 4,276 Leah McBay Malcolm MacPherson
Epsom New electorate Christine Fletcher 20,642 Helen Duncan Mary Tierney
Hamilton East Dianne Yates Tony Steel 2,347 Dianne Yates Doug Woolerton
Hamilton West Martin Gallagher Bob Simcock 597 Martin Gallaghar Neil Kirton
Hunua New electorate Warren Kyd 5,098 John Robertson Paul Schofield
Hutt South New electorate Trevor Mallard 2,456 Joy McLauchlan Peter Love
Ilam New electorate Gerry Brownlee 10,090 Eamon Daly Margaret Austin
Invercargill Mark Peck 4,235 Eric Roy Owen Horton
Kaikoura New electorate Doug Kidd 5,912 Marian Hobbs Tom Harrison
Karapiro New electorate John Luxton 9,367 Sue Moroney Clive Mortensen
Mahia New electorate Janet Mackey 978 Wayne Kimber Gordon Preston
Mana New electorate Graham Kelly 3,622 Allan Wells Graham Harding
Mangere David Lange Taito Phillip Field 9,317 David Broome Len Richards
Manukau East New electorate Ross Robertson 4,583 Ken Yee Ngaire Clark
Manurewa George Hawkins 8,573 Les Marinkovich Roger Mail
Maungakiekie New electorate Belinda Vernon 228 Richard Northey Matt Robson
Napier Geoff Braybrooke 10,146 Kathryn Ward Robin Gwynn
Nelson John Blincoe Nick Smith 12,424 John Blincoe Mike Ward
New Lynn Jonathan Hunt Phil Goff 7,138 Richard Gardner Cliff Robinson
New Plymouth Harry Duynhoven 11,533 Roger Maxwell Harry Slaats
North Shore Bruce Cliffe Wayne Mapp 10,348 Derek Quigley Joel Cayford
Northcote New electorate Ian Revell 4,563 Ann Hartley Grant Gillon
Northland New electorate John Carter 5,961 Ron Peters Frank Grover
Ohariu-Belmont New electorate Peter Dunne 8,513 Verna Smith Phillida Bunkle
Otago Warren Cooper Gavan Herlihy 7,005 Janet Yiakmis Bruce Albiston
Otaki New electorate Judy Keall 988 Roger Sowry Mike Smith
Owairaka New electorate Helen Clark 5,980 Phil Raffills Jason Keiller
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson 14,504 James Clarke Robert Whooley
Palmerston North Steve Maharey 11,030 George Mathew Gerard Hehir
Port Waikato New electorate Bill Birch 7,002 John Forbes Terry Hughes
Rakaia Jenny Shipley 5,030 Geoff Stone Colleen Page
Rangitikei Denis Marshall 2,763 Jill White Hamish MacIntyre
Rimutaka New electorate Paul Swain 2,878 Karyn Bisdee Peter McCardle
Rodney New electorate Lockwood Smith 7,431 Mike Lee David Gregory Gill
Rongotai New electorate Annette King 7,700 David Major Bill Hamilton
Rotorua Paul East Max Bradford 5,896 Keith Ridings Charles William Sturt
Tamaki Clem Simich 8,010 Jonathan Hunt Patricia Schnauer
Taranaki-King Country New electorate Jim Bolger 10,233 Robin Ord Peter Calvert
Taupo New electorate Mark Burton 1,574 John McCarthy Ian Peters
Tauranga Winston Peters 8,028 Katherine O'Regan Stephanie Hammond
Tukituki New electorate Rick Barker 7,226 Graeme Reeves John Ormond
Waimakariri New electorate Mike Moore 10,606 Jim Gerard John Wright
Waipareira New electorate Brian Neeson 107 Chris Carter Jack Elder
Wairarapa Wyatt Creech 7,867 Dave MacPherson Lynette Stutz
Waitakere Brian Neeson Marie Hasler 1,981 Suzanne Sinclair Liz Thomas
Wellington Central New electorate Richard Prebble 1,860 Alick Shaw Mark Thomas
West Coast-Tasman New electorate Damien O'Connor 8,491 Margaret Moir Richard Davies
Whanganui Jill Pettis 2,214 Peter Gresham Caroline Lampp
Whangarei John Banks 383 Brian Donnelly Kevin Grose
Wigram New electorate Jim Anderton 10,039 Angus McKay Mick Ozimek
Māori electorates
Te Puku O Te Whenua New electorate Rana Waitai 2,386 Rino Tirikatene David Rewi James
Te Tai Hauauru New electorate Tuku Morgan 4,961 Nanaia Mahuta Te Pare Joseph
Te Tai Rawhiti New electorate Tuariki Delamere 4,215 Peter Tapsell Tame Iti
Te Tai Tokerau New electorate Tau Henare 8,418 Joe Hawke Peter Campbell
Te Tai Tonga New electorate Tu Wyllie 285 Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan Hone Kaiwai

List results[edit]

Highest polling party in each electorate.
National Don McKinnon
Paul East2
Doug Graham
Georgina te Heuheu
Katherine O'Regan
Simon Upton
Joy McLauchlan
Roger Sowry
Jim Gerard2
Arthur Anae
Eric Roy
Peter Gresham
Roger Maxwell
Pansy Wong
Unsuccessful: Annabel Young1, Alec Neill1, Wayne Taitoko, David Major, Margie Stevens, Lindsay Tisch, Phil Raffills, Karyn Bisdee, Mark Thomas, Shane Frith, Margaret Moir, Paul Hutchison, Angus McKay, Stuart Boag, Rihari Dick Dargaville, Peta Butt, Wayne Kimber, Graeme Reeves, Sue McKenzie, George Mathew, Cliff Bedwell, Ken Yee, Kathryn Ward
Labour Dover Samuels
Lianne Dalziel
Mark Gosche
Jonathan Hunt
Nanaia Mahuta
Jill White2
Marian Hobbs
Joe Hawke
Dianne Yates
Ruth Dyson
Tariana Turia
Unsuccessful: Helen Duncan1, John Blincoe, Martin Gallagher, Verna Smith, Matiu Dickson, Suzanne Sinclair, Richard Northey, Sue Moroney, Lesley Soper, Amanda Coulston, Lynette Stutz, Nellie Clay, Fa'amatuainu Tui, Bronwyn Maxwell, Geoff Stone, Bruce Raitt, Leo Mangos, Ishwar Ganda, Lorraine Wilson, Valerie Taylor, Norah Walker, Rosemary Michie, Ann Hartley, Trudi Sunitsch, Tamati Kruger, Geoff Rowling, John Forman, Jeanne Macaskill, David Munro, Gary Williams, Graham Elliot, Ben Cheah, Nathan Saminathan, Sunia Raitava, Hori Awa, Henry De Thierry
New Zealand First Ann Batten
Peter McCardle
Jenny Bloxham
Brian Donnelly
Jack Elder
Doug Woolerton
Deborah Morris2
Ron Mark
Neil Kirton
Peter Brown
Robyn McDonald
Unsuccessful: Gilbert Myles1, Ian Peters, Graham Harding, Claire Bulman, Jason Keiller, Clive Mortensen, Bernard Downey, Nicci Bergman, Neil Benson, Ross Gluer, Janie Phillips, Terry Heffernan, Helen Broughton, Tom Harrison, John Forbes, Colleen Page, Robin Ord, David Gill, George Groombridge, Robert Whooley, Trevor Jans, Patra de Coudray, Lem Pearse, Keri Kingi, Stuart Spencer, Richard Whittaker, Charles Sturt, Ron Chamberlain, Gavin Logan, Gordon Preston, Henry Slaats, Owen Horton, Duncan Matthews, Roger Mail, Dawn Mullins, Alan Wise, Peter Woolston, Stan Perkins, Jack Tamihana, Noeline McGlynn, Ngaire Clark, Clem Huriwaka, Thomas Moana, Marlene Kennedy, John Riddell
Alliance Sandra Lee
Jeanette Fitzsimons
John Wright
Frank Grover
Pam Corkery
Matt Robson
Laila Harré
Phillida Bunkle
Rod Donald
Grant Gillon
Alamein Kopu
Liz Gordon
Unsuccessful: Dave MacPherson, Hone Kaiwai, Mike Smith, Leah McBey, Heather-Ann McConnachy, Hamish MacIntyre, Willie Jackson, Tafa Mulitalo, Keith Ridings, Joel Cayford, Keith Locke, Jan Davey, Bill Hamilton, Caroline Lampp, Gerard Hehir, Trevor Barnard, Danna Glendining, Jim Flynn, Rex Verity, Vernon Tile, Marie Venning, Peter Campbell, John Kilbride, Mary Tierney, Liz Thomas, Ashok Parbhu, Sue Gaffy, Harry Alchin-Smith, Rosalie Steward, Sheryl Cadman, Celia Wade-Brown, Norman Wood, Moira Lawler, Mike Ward, Kevin Campbell, Richard Davies, Gary Barham, Christine Dann, Ian Ewen-Street, Robin Gwynn, Rewi James, Brendan Tracey, Bruce Stirling, John Pemberton, Te Pare Joseph, Graham Smith, Len Richards, Tracey Hicks, Mark Robertson, Brian Morris, Huia Mitchell, Francis Petchey
ACT Derek Quigley
Ken Shirley
Donna Awatere Huata
Patricia Schnauer
Owen Jennings
Rodney Hide
Muriel Newman
Unsuccessful: Anne Dill, John Ormond, Chistopher Milne, Vincent Ashworth, Marilyn Thomas, Michael Steeneveld, Nigel Mattison, Peter Snow, Valerie Wilde, Merania Karauria, Jean Hill, Marlene Lamb, Owen Dance, Katharine Sillars, Heather Mackay, Kevin Rose, John Boscawen, Matthew Ball, Garry Mallett, Angus Ogilvie, Roland Henderson, Kieran Bird, Simon Harding, Tony Huston, Thomas Howard, Robin Clulee, Peggy Luke-Ngaheke, Barry Rushton, Dean Richardson, John Latimer, John Lithgow, John Thompson, Adrian Dixon, Derek Daniell, Stephen Gore, Neil Wilson, Graeme Williams, Kevin Mathewson, Stephen Wrathall, Ian McGimpsey, Louis Crimp, Barrie Barnes, Jeffrey Buchanan, Peter King-Talbot, Brian Dent, Stephen Depiazzi, Victor Bailey, Reginald Turner
Christian Coalition Unsuccessful: Graeme Lee, Graham Capill, Annetta Moran, Ewen McQueen, John Jamieson, Grant Bradfield, Peter Yarrell, Julie Belding, Ian Tulloch, Mike Lloyd, Gael Donoghue, Geoff Hounsell, Murray Smith, Robin Corner, Rosemarie Thomas, Grant Bowater, Kevin Harper, Nick Barber, John Allen, Vic Jarvis, Alan Marshall, Rosemary Francis, Lindsay Bain, Helma Vermeulen, John Lawrence, Barrie Paterson, Selwyn Stevens, Wayne Chapman, Judith Phillips, Dennis Knox, Braden Matson, Geoff Francis, Kevin Honore, Maahi Tukapua, Neville Chamberlain, Renton Maclauchlan, Eleanor Goodall, Geoff Winter, Lindsay Priest, Barry Pepperell, Enosa Auva'a
Legalise Cannabis Unsuccessful: Michael Appleby, Michael Finlayson, Donald McIntosh, Metiria Turei, Nándor Tánczos, Martin McCully, Gregory Cobb, Tim Shadbolt, Christopher Fowlie, Elsie Barnes, Richard Austin, Richard Arachnid, Vayna Tickle, Damian Joyce, Timothy Marshall, Joel Robinson, Honty Whaanga, Sarah Ahern, Robert Ueberfeldt
United Unsuccessful: Clive Matthewson, Margaret Austin, John Robertson, Pauline Gardiner, Peter Hilt, Diane Colson, Ted Faleauto, Malcolm Hood, Ramparkash Samujh, Timothy Macindoe, Gail McIntosh, Frank Owen, Steven Bright, John Howie, Jacinta Grice, Keven Fleury, Graham Butterworth, Graeme Brown, Bryan Mockridge, Francis Ifopo, Jack Austin, Stuart Jordan, Derek Round, Neil Jury, John Hubscher, Brigitte Hicks-Willer, Michael Hilt, Gray Phillips
McGillicuddy Serious Unsuccessful: Mark Servian, Penni Bousfield, Paull Cooke, K T Julian, Robyn West, Steve Richards, Val Smith, Bernard Smith, Paul Smith, Greg Smith, Gavin Smith, Wendy Howard, Justine Francis, Doug Mackie, Grant Knowles, Marc de Boer, Swami Anand Hasyo, Peter Caldwell, Tim Owens, Adrian Holroyd, Johnny Wharton, Craig Beere, Paul Beere, William Beere, Mike Legge, Adrienne Carthew, Ross Gardner, Graeme Minchin, Grant Prankered, Derek Craig, Alastair McGlinchy, Vanessa Carnevale, Rodney Hansen, Brent T Soper, Dave Dick, Alastair Ramsden, Judy van den Yssel-Richards, Barry Bryant, Beth Holland, Rory Cathcart, Richard Griffiths, Kerry Hoole, Heidi Borchardt, Peter Clark, Nick Harper, Carly Taylor, Dale Magnus Taylor, Anthony Hobbs, Cassandra Church, Julia Johnson, Jono Baddiley, Johana Sanders, Brett Robinson, Geoff Burnett, Leanne Ireland, Tim Foster, Gary Young, Karen Nicholas, Layton, Anna Murray, Phil Clayton, Mark Baxter, Toni-Ann Alsop, David Sutcliffe, Graeme Cairns
Progressive Greens Unsuccessful: Rob Fenwick, Gary Taylor, Alison Davis, Mark Bellingham, Laurence Boomert, Rodger Spiller, Gwenny Davis, Eithne Hanley, Peter Lee, Guy Salmon, David Green, Matthew Horrocks, Chris Marshall, Bob McKegg, Kevin Prime
Mana Maori Unsuccessful: Angeline Greensill, Tame Iti, Moana Sinclair, Hone Harawira, Mereana Pitman, David Gilgin, Jackie Amohanga, Ken Mair, Joyce Te Hemara Maipi, Oneroa Pihema, Te Anau Tuiono, Waiariki Grace, Jim Perry, Diane Prince, Kelly Pene, Rachael Raimona, Mere Grant, Jack John Smith
Animals First Unsuccessful: Rosemary Cumming, Susan Walker, Terri Walsh, Virginia Woolf, Adrienne Hall, Peter Crosse, Alistair McKellow
Natural Law Unsuccessful: Bryan Lee, David Lovell-Smith, John Hodgson, John Cleary, Mere Austin, Penelope Donovan, Gail Pianta, Mark Watts, Guy Hatchard, Tony Martin, Warwick Jones, Graeme Kettle, Judy Boock, Daniel Meares, Richard Moreham, lan Gaustad, Mimousse Hodgson, Bruce Brown, Mary-Anne McGregor, Graeme Lodge, Mike Barthelmeh, Kevin O'Brien, Inga Schader, Lynne Patterson, Kay Morgan, Tom Hopwood, Martyn Ouseley, Andrew Sanderson, Bruce Sowry, Sean O'Connor, Raymond Cain, Ian Levingston, Greg Dodds, Carolyn Drake, Raylene Lodge, Angela Wood, Grant Bilyard, Frank Gwynne, Michelle McGregor, Helen Treadwell, Mark Rayner, Selwyn Austin, Kevin Harvey, Ken Thomas, Mike Dunn, John Blatchford, Belinda Hills, Tim Irwin, Wayne Shepherd, Faye McLaren, Royal Van der Werf, Martin Davy, Jan Flynn, Gilbert Urquhart, Ian Smillie, Andrew Davy, Leigh Bush, Anne Brigid, Joanna Greig, Angela Slade, Jacque Hughes, Lew Cormack, Les McGrath, Rhonda Comins, Lynne Lee
Ethnic Minority Unsuccessful: Robert Hum, Vinod Kumar Sharma, Glen A van der Boon-Brayshaw, Pathic Vyas, Marcial R Eleazar, Tin Yau Chan, Seth M Dalgleish, Christine Wong, Navinbhai Parbhubhai Patel, Rajiv Sood, Lindsay Harris
Green Society Unsuccessful: Simon Reeves, Peter Whitmore, Merete Molving, Hans Grueber, Sam Cunningham, Vic Albion, Bryan Pippen, Colin Amery, Stephanie Urlich, Bradley Heising, Jacqueline Tong
Conservatives Unsuccessful: Trevor Rogers, Margaret McHugh, Eric Werder, Dennis Quirke, Bob Vine, David Gettins, Simone Graham, David Lean, Steve Howard, Hohn Bracey, John Tinsley, Bill Perry, Carmel Crowe, Bruce Herbert, Merv Jull, Craig Lewis, Tom Maunder, Jim Howard, Arthur French, Jerry Hohneck
Superannuitants and Youth Unsuccessful: John Cronin, Trevor Gilligan, Jack Powell, Leslie Stroud, Karen Kirk, Peter Little, Bernon Bryne, Kathleen Collinge, Douglas Milne, Donald Chapman, Cyril Murphy, Kenneth Crafar
Advance New Zealand Unsuccessful: England So'onalole, James Prescott, Taimalelagi Tofilau, Afamasaga Rasmussen, Eric Chuah, Hinemoa Herewini, Fauila Tatu Williams, Manu Prescott, Ben Taufua, Dawn Ngature
Libertarianz Unsuccessful: Lindsay Perigo, Deborah Coddington, Ian Fraser, Peter Cresswell, Peter Eichmann, Keith Patterson, John Calvert, Simon Fraser, Nikolas Haden, Jessica Weddell, Glen Jameson, Paul Rousell, William Trolove, Scott Barnett, Robert White, Andrew Ayling, Anna Woolf, Paul Hendry, Don Rowberry, Derek McGovern, Barbara Jury, Philip Petch, Theo Van Oostrom, Jackie Van Oostrom
Asia Pacific United Unsuccessful: Mano'o Mulitalo, Rama Ramanathan, Peti Satiu, Arbutus Mitikulena, Fu Bihua, Tuli Wong-Kee, Angela Tuu, Mailo Pesamino, Pulumulo Sasa
Te Tawharau Unsuccessful: William Coates, Koro Wikeepa, Hawea Vercoe, John Maihi, Steven Te Kani, Rangitukehu Paora
  1. These party list members later entered parliament in the term as other list MPs elected resigned from parliament.
  2. These party list members later resigned during the parliamentary term.

Summary of seat changes[edit]

  • Seats captured:
    • By National: Hamilton East, Hamilton West and Nelson were captured from Labour. North Shore was captured from United.
    • By Labour: Auckland Central was captured from the Alliance.
  • Seats transferred from departing MPs to new MPs:
    • The seats of Albany, Otago, Rotorua and Waitakere, all held by departing National MPs, were won by new National candidates. One departing MP retired, one was re-elected in a different electorate, and two became list MPs.
    • The seats of Christchurch Central, Mangere and New Lynn, all held by departing Labour MPs, were won by new Labour candidates. One departing MP retired and two became list MPs.

Further reading[edit]

  • Vowles, Jack; Aimer, Peter; Banducci, Susan; et al., eds. (1998). Voters' Victory? New Zealand's First Election under Proportional Representation. Auckland University Press. ISBN 1-86940-180-8.
  • Armstrong, David (1997). True Colours: On the road to NZ's first MMP government. Auckland NZ: David Bateman.


  1. ^ "Electoral Act 1993". Act No. 87 of 17 August 1993. Archived from the original on 10 July 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015.
  2. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 111, 123.
  3. ^ "How Electorates are Calculated". Electoral Commission. 12 March 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
  4. ^ The Baubles of Office: The New Zealand General Election of 2005 p87, edited by Stephen Levine & Nigel S Roberts (2007, Victoria University Press, Wellington) ISBN 978-0-86473-539-3
  5. ^ New Zealand Votes: The General Election of 2002 p22 edited by Jonathan Boston, Stephen Church, Stephen Levine, Elizabeth McLeay & Nigel S. Roberts (2003, Victoria University Press, Wellington) ISBN 0-86473-468-9
  6. ^ "Kiwis react to Winston Peters, the kingmaker".
  7. ^ "A decade of MMP: 1996 election left country hanging". The New Zealand Herald. 11 October 2006. Retrieved 2 April 2015.
  8. ^ The 1996 General Election in New Zealand: Proportional Representation and Political Change, edited by Jonathan Boston, Stephen Levine, Elizabeth McLeay and Nigel S. Roberts (1997, Australian Institute of Policy and Science, Australia)
  9. ^ "1996 GENERAL ELECTION - OFFICIAL RESULTS AND STATISTICS". ElectionResults.govt.nz. Electoral Commission. 18 October 2020.
  10. ^ "Part VI - Elected Candidates Votes" (PDF). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1996. Retrieved 3 September 2017.


  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.

External links[edit]