1998 Sudan famine
|Location||Sudan (esp. Bahr el Ghazal)|
The famine in Sudan in 1998 was a humanitarian disaster caused mainly by human rights abuses, as well as drought and the failure of the international community to react to the famine risk with adequate speed. The worst affected area was Bahr el Ghazal in southwestern Sudan. In this region over 70,000 people died during the famine.
The famine was caused almost entirely by human rights abuse and the war in Southern Sudan. Despite the Sudanese government's claims that only the rebel groups were to blame, drought also played a significant role. Human Rights Watch blamed the following groups:
- The government of Sudan
- The Baggara militia
- Sudan People's Liberation Army
- Dinka warlord Kerubino Kuanyin Bol
The government and Kuanyin Bol are blamed for their role in destroying the local agriculture during their attempt to take the city of Wau. The SPLA are blamed for their maintenance of slavery and pilfering of aid.
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The effects on the region were enormous, with the excess mortality estimated at about 70,000 people. Many more are thought to have been displaced, with over 72,000 people reported as migrating from the threatened rural zones to Wau alone from May 1998 to August 1998. Effects on the country included – indirectly – famine as expenditure was concentrated on the materials of war, i.e. weaponry, medical supplies etc., rather than the assistance of agriculture and farming. The situation in Bahr El Ghazal was compounded by a lack of strong government intervention, with the government in the North failing to cooperate with the government in the South.
A ceasefire was signed on July 15, 1998, some eight months after the Sudanese government had first warned of a possible famine. After numerous extensions, this ceasefire lasted nearly a year, until April 1999. However, the Baggara militia continued to ignore the ceasefire, reducing the ability of aid agencies to help. Thanks to a good crop and this ceasefire, however, the situation was brought under control by the end of 1998. However, the area has remained in trouble and a number of famine warnings have come since the end of 1998.
Notes and references
- Famine In Sudan, 1998 Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25, 2006
- Ó Gráda, Cormac (2009), Famine: a short history, Princeton University Press, p. 24, ISBN 978-0-691-12237-3.
- Despite aid effort, Sudan famine squeezing life from dozens daily CNN, Accessed May 25, 2006
- 70 Sudanese dying daily due to famine Archived 2013-01-17 at Archive.today Arabicnews.com Accessed May 25, 2006
- The 1998 Famine In Bahr El Ghazal Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25, 2006
- 1998: UN warns of famine in Sudan BBC Accessed May 25, 2006
- Famine in the Sudan: Causes, Preparedness and Response Archived 2006-02-24 at the Wayback Machine Luka Biong Deng, Institute of Development Studies, 1999, accessed August 29, 2006]
- Bahr El Ghazal and the Famine of 1998 Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25, 2006]
- Cease-fire Brought Relief Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25, 2006
- Political Complications Boding Ill For Future Relief: The 1998 Famine in Bahr El Ghazal is Brought Under Control Human Rights Watch, Accessed May 25, 2006