1999 Hirayama

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1999 Hirayama
Discovery [1]
Discovered by L. Kohoutek
Discovery site Bergedorf Obs.
Discovery date 27 February 1973
MPC designation 1999 Hirayama
Named after
Kiyotsugu Hirayama
1973 DR · 1935 GF
1940 EH · 1951 EY1
1951 FA · 1965 UF
1969 NB · 1975 NE
main-belt · (outer)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 16 February 2017 (JD 2457800.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 76.07 yr (27,783 days)
Aphelion 3.4719 AU
Perihelion 2.7576 AU
3.1147 AU
Eccentricity 0.1147
5.50 yr (2,008 days)
0° 10m 45.48s / day
Inclination 12.533°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 33.77 km (derived)[3]
33.95±2.1 km[4]
35.68±0.55 km[5]
38.28±0.40 km[6]
13.5921±0.0003 h[a]
15.63±0.01 h[7]
22.37±0.03 h[8]
0.0617 (derived)[3]
10.6[4][5] · 10.78±0.31[9] · 10.90[6] · 11.0[1][3]

1999 Hirayama, provisional designation 1973 DR, is a carbonaceous asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 34 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by Czech astronomer Luboš Kohoutek at the Hamburger Bergedorf Observatory, Germany, on 27 February 1973.[10]

The asteroid orbits the Sun at a distance of 2.8–3.5 AU once every 5 years and 6 months (2,008 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 13° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The spectrum of Hirayama matches a C-type classification on the Tholen taxonomic schem, but with a "broad absorption band that can be associated to a process of aqueous alteration".[11] That is, the surface appears to show some form of water modification.

A rotational light curve obtained at the Menke Observatory in February 2002, showed a periodicity of 15.63±0.01 hours, during which time the brightness of Hirayama varies by 0.45±0.04 in magnitude (U=3-).[7] At the same time, photometric observations by astronomers Roberto Crippa and Federico Manzini gave a rotation period of 22.37 hours and a brightness variation of 0.47 magnitude (U=2).[8] These results supersede an observation from January 2005, by Hiromi and Hiroko Hamanowa at their Hamanowa Astronomical Observatory, Japan, that gave a shorter period of 13.59 hours with an amplitude of 0.57 magnitude.(U=n.a.).[a]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, the asteroid measures between 34.0 and 38.3 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.053 and 0.088.[4][5][6] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.062 and a diameter of 33.8 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.0.[3]

The minor planet is named in honour of Japanese astronomer Kiyotsugu Hirayama (1874–1943), best known for his discovery that many asteroid orbits were more similar to one another than chance would allow, leading to the concept of asteroid families, now called Hirayama families. The lunar carter Hirayama is also named in his honour.[2] Naming citation was published before November 1977 (M.P.C. 4237).[12]


  1. ^ a b Hamanowa (2011) web: rotation period 13.5921±0.0003 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.57 mag. Summary figures at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) for (1999) Hirayama
  1. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1999 Hirayama (1973 DR)" (2016-04-02 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1999) Hirayama. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 162. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1999) Hirayama". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey" (PDF). Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  6. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794Freely accessible. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b Menke, John; Cooney, Walt; Gross, John; Terrell, Dirk; Higgins, David (October 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Menke Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 155–160. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..155M. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1999) Hirayama". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  10. ^ "1999 Hirayama (1973 DR)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  11. ^ Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Carvano, J. M.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Duffard, R.; Florczak, M. (November 2004). "S3OS2: the visible spectroscopic survey of 820 asteroids". Icarus. 172 (1): 179–220. Bibcode:2004Icar..172..179L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.006. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 

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