1999 Pakistani coup d'état

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
1999 Military Coup d'état
Un-pakistan.png
United Nations's geophysical map of Pakistan
Date 12 October 1999
Location Pakistan Pakistan
Result
Belligerents

Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg Pakistan Armed Forces

State emblem of Pakistan.svg Government of Pakistan

Commanders and leaders

Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg Pervez Musharraf

Flag of the Prime Minister of Pakistan.svg Nawaz Sharif
Flag of Punjab.svg Shahbaz Sharif
Flag of the Pakistani Army.svg Ziauddin Butt
Javed Hashmi
Flag of Sindh.svg Mamnoon Hussain
Strength
617,000 170,000

The 1999 Pakistani coup d'état was a bloodless coup d'état in which the Pakistan Army and then-Chief of Army Staff and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, General Pervez Musharraf, seized the control of the civilian government of publicly elected Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif on 12 October 1999.[3] Two days into seizing the government, on 14 October 1999, General Musharraf, who then-acted as the country's Chief Executive, declared a state of emergency by issuing a Provisional Constitutional Order that suspended the writ of the Constitution of Pakistan.[3]

The martial law occurred due to meltdown of civil-military relations and the simmering tensions between the Prime Minister Sharif and Chairman joint chiefs General Musharraf as Sharif attempted to relieve General Musharraf of his command, who was en route to Pakistan from Sri Lanka after paying an official visit. Instead, General Ziauddin Butt, then-DG ISI, was appointed army chief and the Joint Staff HQ refused to follow the orders of new army chief and the commanders of the army corps decided to defend General Musharraf by having launched an order to arrest and detained to pre-empt Pakistani spymaster Ziauddin Butt from taking the control of the military.:142[4] The pace of the coup startled the observers, within 17 hours, from attempting to relieved General Musharraf by Prime Minister Sharif, the army commanders took control of all key government secretariats throughout the country while placing the Prime Minister Sharif and his civilian cabinet, including his brother under house arrest.[5] The military police took control of the state broadcaster, radio, and the entire critical communications infrastructure and announced that Nawaz Sharif had been dismissed.[5]

The Supreme Court of Pakistan led by Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui validated the martial law in a view of "doctrine of necessity" but provided its legality only limited to three years.:118[6] Meanwhile, Sharif was trialed by the judge advocate general court and convicted him for risking the life of all the passengers on board including the sitting Chairman joint chiefs.:56–57[7] The military court later in their findings decided that all allegations are fact based and Sharif was actually involved in aerial hijacking and it was he, who ordered, the Pakistan CAA for not letting the plane land on Pakistani soil; eventually, the judge advocate general awarding Sharif the life imprisonment.:57[7]

When the decision was announced, it sparked fury in Sharif's PML(N) but welcomed by many of his political opponents.:58[7] By mid-November 1999, a petition was filed by the PML(N)'s leadership, challenging the legality of the coup, proclamation of state emergency, and demanding the release of Sharif as well as reinstating the writ of the constitution.:118[6] In 2000, the Supreme Court of Pakistan led by Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui viewed this coup as a "violation of constitution" and subsequently resigned, only to be replaced by acting Chief Justice Irshad Hasan who acted towards validating the coup as constitutional after hearing the case.:119–120[6]:112–115[8]

On 10 December 2000, Chief Executive Pervez Musharraf unexpectedly issued a pardon of Nawaz Sharif and allowed the immediate members of former first family to travel to Saudi Arabia on a private jet provided by the Saudi Royal Family.:167–168[9]:73–74[10] In 2016, Musharraf later confessed in an interview given to Kamran Shahid of Dunya that "he pardoned Nawaz Sharif from life imprisonment on the request of King Abdullah and Rafic Hariri."[11]

In 2001, General Musharraf issued the executive decree and eventually forced President Rafiq Tarar to resign in order for General Musharraf to assume the presidency.[12] In the light of Supreme Court's verdict, the national referendum was held on 30 April 2002, allowing himself to continue his rule.[13][14] The controversial referendum, which Musharraf won with almost 98% of the votes in his favour, was alleged by many, including the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, to be fraudulent.[13][14] In 2002, the general elections restored the democracy when the Musharraf-backed PML(Q), the libertarians, were able to form the minority government who would later nominate General Musharraf's for the presidential elections held in 2004. In 2007, President Musharraf eventually imposed another martial law by having suspend the populist Chief Justice IM Chaudhry, leveling charges on corruption and misconduct. Unlike the earlier martial law, Musharraf was widely disapproved, inviting the mass demonstration led by Nawaz Sharif, and eventually resigned in an attempt to avoid impeachment in the Parliament.[15]

In 2009, the Supreme Court acquitted Sharif of hijacking case and quoted that: "Mr. Sharif had neither used force nor ordered its use or employed deceitful mean."[16] In 2014, Sharif was also acquitted from money laundering and corruption cases from an accountability court.[17]

According to the historian, Mazhar Aziz, the 1999 coup d'état in Pakistan makes a "striking example in the case study of civil military relations" in a post–Cold War era.:76[18]

Events leading towards the martial law[edit]

Relief of General Jehangir and Kargil debacle[edit]

In 1997, Nawaz Sharif and his conservative Pakistan Muslim League-N won a landslide victory in the general elections, resulting in a two-thirds majority in the National Assembly– the lower house of bicameral Parliament of Pakistan.[19]

His second tenure was marked with serious legal confrontation with the Supreme Court courted by Chief Justice Sajjad Ali Shah over the legality and technicality of Thirteenth Amendment and the Ehtesab Act, 1997 (lit. Accountability Act, 1997).[19] Chief Justice Shah had been battling in the Supreme Court for his legitimacy due to many senior justices had seen his appointment as "inappropriate and political", having being appointed by former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto in 1994.[20] On 29 October 1997, Chief Justice Shah and his bench decided to hear the petition filed by the Pakistan Peoples Party's lawyers and suspended the implementation of bills.:45–46[21] Prime Minister Sharif reacted angrily by the Court's actions, issuing an intemperate public diatribe particularly against Chief Justice Shah.:45–46[21] On 2 November 1997, Chief Justice Shah summoned Prime Minister Sharif for contempt of court but this order was viewed "null and voided" when two senior justices at the Supreme Court issued a counter-order.:45–46[21] On 30 November 1997, Prime Minister Sharif appeared before the Supreme Court but his partisans stormed the Supreme Court Building forcing Chief Justice Shah to remove the finding of contempt against Sharif.:190[22] While the Police gained control of the situation to restore law and order, the whole nation witnessed traumatizing and terrifying scenes on their television screens broadcast by the news media all over the country.:190[22]

Subsequently, the Supreme Judicial Council took up a case against the appointment of Chief Justice Shah on 23 December and declared Chief Justice Shah's appointment "illegal and unconstitutional" that eventually forced him to resign from his office on 2 December 1997.:46[21] President Farooq Leghari who supported the cause of Chief Justice Shah also had to resign when army chief General Jehangir Karamat and Chairman joint chiefs Air Chief Marshal Feroze Khan intervened to resolve the crises.:175–176[23] Prime Minister Sharif eventually appointed his Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui based on merit qualification and offered presidency to former supreme court justice Rafiq Tarar who was elected in 1998.[19]

In 1998, Prime Minister Sharif effectively relieved Chairman joint chief General Jehangir Karamat from the command of the military when General Karamat delivered a college lecture at the Naval War College in Karachi.:107–108[24] At this lecture, General Karamat called for establishing the National Security Council (NSC) which would be backed by a "team of civil-military experts" for devising policies to seek resolution ongoing problems relating the civil-military issues; also recommended a "neutral but competent bureaucracy and administration of at federal level and the establishment of Local governments in four provinces.:66–68[25]

Relieving of General Karamat plummeted Sharif's own public approvals and his relations with the military, as even his senior Cabinet ministers were in disagreement of Sharif's decision.[26] Many political observers were taken in complete surprise since the dismissal of four-star rank general was never happened before in country's short history.:145–146[27]

Eventually, Sharif chose then-Lieutenant-General Pervez Musharraf over two senior army generals for the appointment to post of the army chief and acting Chairman joint chiefs.:64–67[28] A year later, the civil military relations took a sharp turn in the opposition of Sharif when he invited and received Indian Prime Minister Atal Vajpayee in Lahore for peace talks, much to agitation of General Musharraf who did not welcome outcomes of Lahore Summit.:150–151[29]

In 1999, the Pakistan Army soldiers secretly crossed the Line of Control (LoC) and infiltrated in Kargil on the direct orders issues by General Musharraf, bringing the two nations at the brink of war.:118–121[30] The Indian Army reacted with launching of full-fledged military coordinated military operations while Indian government effectively put diplomatic pressure of Sharif's government to withdraw the soldiers from the Kargil sector.:25–31[31] Both Sharif and General Musharraf held each other responsible for the actions in the Kargil, charging each other of lying and hiding details of war to the nation.[32]

At the public circle, Sharif assigned blame for the political/diplomatic disaster on General Musharraf, and Musharraf placing the blame of disaster on Prime Minister Sharif.[33] On September 1999, General Musharraf retired forcefully retired Lieutenant-General Tariq Pervez who was known to be close to Sharif and cousin of Raja Nadir Pervez, the Communication minister.:39[34]

Upon meeting with Sharif, General Tariq Pervez had ultimately warned Sharif of "making any move against General Musharraf or the army would strike.":39[34]

Revolt of the Admiral[edit]

The revolt of Admiral Fasih Bokhari, the Chief of Naval Staff, over Sharif's public decision of extending General Musharraf's tenure as chairman joint chiefs until 2001 was another issue that saw the breaking down of civil military relations. About the Karil war, Admiral Bokhari was not of the view of supporting Pakistan Army's engagement with Indian Army as appropriate and subsequently lodged a powerful protest against General Musharraf's grand strategy while recommending the constitution of a Commission to completely probe the Kargil issue.[35]

At the country's news media, Admiral Bokhari publicly questioned the effectiveness of the military strategy behind the Kargil infiltration and was very critical of General Musharraf's unilateral decisions involving the national security, as chairman joint chiefs, without considering the opinions of chiefs of staff of air force and the navy.[36]

In 1999, Sharif quarrelled with Admiral Bokhari and his Navy NHQ staff over the merit-based appointment of General Musharraf to the Chairman Joint Chiefs that was only meant to be temporary and it was hoped that Admiral Bokhari would be appointed to the post.:contents[37][38] On August 1999, there were rising tensions between Admiral Bokhari and Prime Minister Sharif over issue of incident took place in Sir Creek, although both had kept the working relations on good terms.[39]

On September 1999, General Musharraf had sent a message Prime Minister Sharif that "anyone in the Navy and Air Force can become the Chairman Joint Chiefs as I did not care.":111[40] General Musharraf reportedly backed Admiral Bokhari's bid for the Chairman Joint Chiefs but he was oversaw by the Prime Minister who confirmed and extended General Musharraf's term until 2001.[41]

The civil-military relations were further damaged when Admiral Bokhari lodged a strong protest against this decision in the news media and reportedly revolted against Prime Minister Sharif's appointment for the Chairman joint chiefs in 1999.[42] Admiral Bokhari abruptly tendered his resignation to the Prime Minister Sharif and noted to Sharif that since General Musharraf was his junior and often referred to him as "Sir."[42]:1265[43]

On 5 October 1999, Admiral Bokhari resigned from the command of the Navy as the news media construed Admiral Bokhari's resignation merely as unhappiness over not being appointed as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee.[42] Admiral Bokhari's revolt saw the meltdown of the civil-military relations between the elected civilian government and the military leaders that eventually led to the military overtaking the civilian government by dismissing Prime Minister Sharif on 12 October 1999.:63[44]

The coup[edit]

The Jinnah International where Musharraf's landed in Karachi, ca. 2006.

Aftermath of the Kargil War, followed by the Atlantique incident, there were widespread rumors and media speculations in the television new media about the either possible military takeover or resignation of General Musharraf on September 1999.[45]

On October 1999, General Musharraf paid an official visit to Sri Lanka on an invitation of Sri Lankan Army Commander Lieutenant-General C. S. Weerasooriya. Ultimately, Prime Minister Sharif dismissed General Musharraf from the command of the military and nominated Lieutenant-General Ziauddin Butt, the DG ISI, over several army officers on 12 October 1999.[46] Development came when General Musharraf, alongside with Major-General Tariq Majid and Brigadier Nadeem Taj, were returning to Pakistan boarded on a PIA's 777-200 commercial airline.[47]

According to the sources, the Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) was ordered by Sharif to divert the plane to India but then it was rerouted to Nawabshah.[47] When this was failed to comprehend by the pilot, the CAA was ordered to close the runways by turning off the edge lights at the Jinnah International Airport in an attempt to refuse the landing.[47] The units of military police led by Lieutenant-General Muzaffar Usmani sealed the civilian airport and seized the control of the control tower, allowing the plane to land on a runway. The military police seized the control of the state-run media television headquarters and encircled the Prime Minister Secretariat building while gaining control of the international airports and cutting off the international phone lines.[48][49]

There were four army generals who were central in staging the coup against Sharif's government that included General Musharraf Aziz Khan, Mahmood Ahmad and Shahid Aziz. They played a crucial role in installing General Musharraf as Chief Executive while they detained Sharif in a local prison.:185-185[50] On 14 October 1999, Musharraf appeared on television to declare a state of emergency and issued a Provisional Constitutional Order that ultimately suspended the writ of the Constitution of Pakistan and dissolved the National Assembly and four provincial assemblies, although they left Muhammad Rafiq Tarar in office as President.[51]

However, General Musharraf strongly objected the wordage use of "martial law" or "coup d'état", instead insisting that: "This is not martial law, only another path towards democracy."[52] The ISPR also confirmed that "here is no martial law in the country."[53]

Text of Proclamation of Emergency[edit]

Soon after taking over the country, emergency was declared in the country. Following is the text of the Proclamation of Emergency declared by Musharraf:[54]

Text of Provisional Constitutional Order 1999[edit]

Following is the text of Provisional Constitutional Order (PCO) promulgated by Musharraf. After its proclamation, the order was modified on multiple occasions:[55]

Impact[edit]

Upon hearing the news of Sharif's arrest, the PML(N) partisans and the party leadership led by Javed Has in Lahore and Mamnoon Hussain in Karachi called out and led massive street demonstrations and protests in the streets of Lahore, Karachi, and other cities.:2432[56] The conservative supporters of Nawaz Sharif did not welcome this coup and saw this event as a conspiracy but many of Sharif's rivals welcome this coup, eventually holding celebration parties around different parts of the country.[20] Although, there were reports of unconfirmed media blackout of Sharif-aligned conservative media but no restrictions were imposed on the liberal/libertarian news media.:416–418[20]

There were reports of repression and human rights abuse taken place by the authorities under General Musharraf, as the pro-democracy demonstrations were forcefully and effectively crushed by Musharraf's regime.[20]

Legality and legitimacy of the coup[edit]

The Supreme Court of Pakistan courted by the Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui partially provided the legality of the martial law in a view of "doctrine of necessity" after Musharraf's lawyer Sharifuddin Pirzada argued for the martial law on technicality, but its legality was only limited to three years.:25[57]:118[6] Meanwhile, Sharif was tried by the military judge advocate general where allegations of corruption, terrorism, and money laundering were leveled against him.:56–57[7] Eventually, the military court's inconclusive rulings found him to be guilty and convicted him for risking the life of all the passengers on board including the sitting Chairman joint chiefs.:57[7]

On 15 November 1999, the Supreme Court of Pakistan decided to hear the petitions filed by PML-N's lawyer Zafar Ali Shah on behalf of Sharif and Aitzaz Ahsan requesting a supreme court's intervention to declare the military takeover "illegal and unconstitutional", and order the restoration of Sharif's government and reinstatement of the National Assembly and four provincial assemblies that were suspended.[58] The PML(N)'s lawyers began their court battle with the Musharraf's lawyers when additional petitions were filed by PML(N), Muslim Welfare Movement, and Wahabul Khairi, an advocate challenging the legality of the coup.[59]

On 1 December 1999, a five-member bench of Supreme Court was constituted to hear these appeals and as lawyers of each side to present cases of their clients. The bench headed by Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui and head Justice Bashir Jahangiri, Justice Nasir Aslam Zahid, Justice Abdur Rehman Khan and Justice Wajihuddin Ahmed as other members.[59]

Provisional Constitutional Order judges oath[edit]

As the hearing progressed at the Supreme Court, the legality and legitimacy of the coup became an important issue while Sharif's lawyers successfully argued for reinstating the writ of the constitution. Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui alongside with other chief justices were in clear view of this coup as a "violation of constitution" as Sharif's lawyers made a ground base for finding Musharraf of treason.:119–120[6][60]

On 26 January 2000, Chief Executive Musharraf, acting on the advice of Sharifuddin Pirzada, quickly promulgated the Provisional Constitutional Order and asked Chief Justice Siddiqui alongside other justices to take a new oath under this provision.[61] Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui and other nine judges of the thirteen Supreme Court justices refused to take oath which became an issue identified as the "biggest challenge" to the new government.:112–115[8] Eventually, Chief Justice Saeeduzzaman Siddiqui and other nine judges resigned from their respected appointments, followed by number of other High Court justices also refused to take the oath. :24[61] The Provisional Constitutional Order disallowed challenging any actions made by the military led by General Musharraf, and many judges who refused to take the oath cited infringements upon the judiciary system such as this as their reasoning for refusing.:115[8] The Provisional Constitutional Order provided Musharraf a legal protection of his actions in regards to the military taker over and bared any court in the country for taking any legal actions against Musharraf or those who were responsible for the military coup.[3]

Asma Jahangir, a Pakistani lawyer and human rights advocate, reportedly quoted: "The military rulers are doing their best to erode the independence of the judiciary. I salute those judges who have refused to take the oath."[3]

Aftermath[edit]

Pardon of Sharif and 2002 Referendum[edit]

On 09/10 December 2000, Chief Executive Pervez Musharraf unexpectedly issued a pardon of Nawaz Sharif and allowed the immediate members of former first family to traveled to Saudi Arabia on a private jet provided by the Saudi Royal Family.:167–168[9]:73–74[10] Details were soon emerge in successive years of this pardon that resulted in a forced sign an agreement that put him in exile for a decade.:366[62][63] However, this agreement was voided in successive years when Musharraf himself went to court to bared Sharif from returning to Pakistan in 2007.:366[62]

In 2016, Musharraf later confessed in an interview given to Kamran Shahid of Dunya that "he pardoned Nawaz Sharif from life imprisonment on the request of King Abdullah and Rafic Hariri."[11]

On 12 May 2000, the Supreme Court of Pakistan courted by Chief Justice Irshad Hasan finally legalized the coup but ordering to hold a nationwide elections to restore the writ of the government.[64]

In 2001, General Musharraf issued the executive decree and, in which, President Tarar was of the view that such decree was unconstitutional and illegal. Eventually, Musharraf forcefully removed President from his office when the latter forced President Tarar to forcefully resigned from the president.[65][12] In the light of Supreme Court's verdict, the national referendum was held on 30 April 2002, allowing himself to continue his rule.[13][14] The referendum, which Musharraf won with almost 98% of the votes in his favour, was alleged by many, including the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan, to be fraudulent.[13][14]

Allegations of illegitimacy[edit]

The Right groups such as Amnesty International Pakistan and Human Rights Commission and others had denounced the referendum as extremely fraudulent in 2002. The Reuters journalists claimed to see ballot stuffing and pressure to vote being placed on governmental employees.[14] Ibn Abdur Rehman, director of the Human Rights Commission, dismissed the referendum as "farcical", also claiming that votes were stuffed.[14] The Amnesty International Pakistan and the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan stated that the voting irregularities "exceeded its worst fears".[14]

The PML(N), backed by the Human Rights Commission, challenged the results of the referendum but Chief Justice Irshad Hasan Khan dismissed the petitions while rejecting the challenge and upholding the results.[13] Information Minister Nisar Memon dismissed allegations of fraud as propaganda created by the opposition and stated that "Those who opposed the referendum preferred to stay at home and didn't create any problem." [13]

Credibility of the claims of illegitimacy is added when American Pattan Development Organization conducted a gallup survey that founded that the "people are likely to elect either Benazir Bhutto or Nawaz Sharif as the next prime minister" in preference to President General Pervez Musharraf.[66] According to the survey, Musharraf had only 9% public approval as opposed to Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif.[66]

Foreknowledge about coup[edit]

In 1999, Tariq Pervez, the FIA agent, had ultimately warned Nawaz Sharif of military take over if Musharraf was dismissed from the command of the military.:39[34] In the television news media and the political pundits had long speculating of military takeover in the country as soon as General Karamat was dismissed by Prime Minister Sharif, and General Musharraf himself had sent a secret message of serious repercussion if he was to be removed.:111[40] It is claimed by authors that Prime Minister Sharif had well political intelligence on Musharraf's intention and had sought US President Bill Clinton's helped against the military intervention.:63–64[67]

In 1999, Benazir Bhutto held all blames on Nawaz Sharif of the military takeover and criticized him of "the man is violating every rule of law and, there is no-one to stop him."[68]

In 2002, Admiral Bokhari quoted that: he knew about General Musharraf’s plans to topple [Prime Minister] Nawaz Sharif and did not want to be part of these "Dirty Games".[69] Admiral Bokhari also noted that a power struggle between an elected Prime Minister and appointed-Chairman joint chiefs ensued and relations were severely damaged after the Kargil war.:37–38[34]

Admiral Bokhari testified in media that:"The two men could not work together, both were preparing to take active actions against each other. I could see that there now two centers of power on a collision course".:37[34] At an informal meeting held at the Navy NHQ in September 1999, Chairman joint chiefs General Musharraf indicated his displeasure with Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif's handling of the country describing Prime Minister Sharif as "incompetent and incapable of running the country.":38[34] Admiral Bokhari firmly got the impression whether General Musharraf was sounding out to rely on the support from the Navy in an events of the coup and Admiral Bokhara discouraged the Chairman joint chiefs from doing so.:38[34]

In 2003, Musharraf squarely blamed Nawaz Sharif for the military take over and held responsible for the martial law against his government while accused him of being an autocrat and weakening the might of the military.[70]

Legacy[edit]

In a views of historian, Mazhar Aziz, the military coup d'état is seen as an "striking example in the case study of civil military relations" in a post–Cold War era.:76[18]

In 1999 and in 2004, Sharif extended his apologizes to various journalists and reporters for any wrongdoings and worked towards mending better relations with influential conservative news media after his exile.[26][52] In 2001, the PML(N) and its rival PPP reached a compromised when the formed democracy restoration alliance in a view to oust President Musharraf.:58[71] Major agitations took place in 2005 against President Musharraf's anti-terrorism policy and controversial amendments made in the constitution.:58[71] In 2006, Sharif joins hand with Benazir Bhutto in opposition to Musharraf when both signed an agreement to restore parliamentary democracy in the country.[72]

In 2006, the PML(N) issued a white paper concerning the Kargil events and Nawaz Sharif personally apologized to former Chief Justice Sajad Ali Shah and the former president Farooq Leghari for his role and his party's actions.[73] Sharif also extended his apology to General Karamat and Admiral Fasih Bokhari for overlooking him for the appointment of the Chairman joint chiefs.[73]

In 2007, Nawaz Sharif with his family, accompanied by his daughter, returned to Pakistan with thousands of his supporters receiving Sharif family.[74] In 2008, Sharif spearheaded the judicial activism in order to protest the suspension of Chief Justice I.M. Chaudhry by Musharraf.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Harding, Luke (11 December 2000). "Pakistan frees Sharif to exile in Saudi Arabia". The Guardian. London. 
  2. ^ Haque, Ihtasham-ul (23 October 1999). "Musharraf addresses nation: Security Council to run state affairs". asianstudies.github.io (5/43). Dawn Wire Service, Haque. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Pakistan Judges Refuse Oath Demanded by Pakistan's Rulers". Waycross Journal-Herald. 31 January 2000. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  4. ^ Bhattacharya, Brigadier Samir (2014). NOTHING BUT! (googlebooks). Partridge Publishing. ISBN 9781482817874. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  5. ^ a b Special report, Editorial (23 August 2007). "How the 1999 Pakistan coup unfolded". news.bbc.co.uk (2). Islamabad Pakistan: BBC Pakistan Bureau. BBC Pakistan Bureau. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  6. ^ a b c d e Hirschl, Ran (2010). "Constitutional Theocracy". Constitutional Theocracy. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674059375. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Baxter, Craig (2003). "Sharif in the Dock". Pakistan on the Brink: Politics, Economics, and Society. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 9780739104989. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c Jan, Abid Ullah (2005). "The Height of Collective Helplessness". The Musharraf factor : leading Pakistan to inevitable demise (Trade paperback ed.). Ottawa: Pragmatic Publishing. ISBN 9780973368710. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  9. ^ a b Joshi, Srivastava (2005). "The Foreign Policy of the United States". International Relations. New Delhi India: Krishna Prakashan Media. p. 199. ISBN 9788185842707. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  10. ^ a b Wolpert, Stanley (2010). "Recent attempts to resolve crises". India and Pakistan Continued Conflict or Cooperation?. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 113. ISBN 9780520948006. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  11. ^ a b Shahid, Kamran (7 November 2016). "King Abdullah said Nawaz was his friend, had to let him go: Musharraf - Pakistan - Dunya News". dunyanews.tv (2). Dunya News, Shahid. Dunya News. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  12. ^ a b Reddy, B. Muralidhar (20 June 2002). "The Hindu : Rafiq Tarar forced to quit?". www.thehindu.com. The Hindu Pakistan Bureau. The Hindu Pakistan Bureau. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f de Vries, Lloyd (1 May 2002). "Musharraf Claims Victory In Pakistan". CBS News. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f g "Musharraf wins huge backing". BBC. 1 May 2002. Retrieved 23 August 2013. 
  15. ^ Dummett, Mark (18 August 2008). "Pakistan's Musharraf steps down". Work and report completed by BBC correspondent for Pakistan Mark Dummett. BBC Pakistan, 2008. BBC Pakistan. Retrieved 5 January 2015. 
  16. ^ Iqbal, Nasir (18 July 2009). "Nawaz acquitted in plane hijacking case". DAWN.COM (5/44). Islamabad: Dawn Newspapers, Iqbal. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  17. ^ Bhatti, Hasib (19 September 2014). "Court acquits Sharifs in money laundering case". DAWN.COM. Dawn Newspapers, Bhatti. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  18. ^ a b Aziz, Mazhar (2008). "The politics of military coup d'état :theoretical implications". Military Control in Pakistan: The Parallel State (googlebooks). London.: Routledge. ISBN 9781134074105. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  19. ^ a b c Staff writers, et.al. (1 June 2003). "Nawaz Sharif Becomes Prime Minister of Pakistan & President of Pakistan Muslim League (N)". storyofpakistan.com. Story Of Pakistan, 1997. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  20. ^ a b c d Jaffrelot, Christophe. The Pakistan Paradox: Instability and Resilience. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190613303. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  21. ^ a b c d Dossani, Rafiq; Rowen, Henry S. (2005). "1997-1999". Prospects for Peace in South Asia (googlebooks). Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 403. ISBN 9780804750851. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  22. ^ a b Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2008). "Nawaz Sharif and the Military Coup". The History of Pakistan (googlebooks). Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 223. ISBN 9780313341373. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  23. ^ Shah, Aqil (2014). "From Zia to Musharraf". The Army and Democracy (googlebooks). Stanford: Harvard University Press. p. 381. ISBN 9780674728936. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  24. ^ Jr, Lenze (2016). "Pakistan". Civil–Military Relations in the Islamic World (googlebooks). Lexington Books. p. 212. ISBN 9781498518741. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  25. ^ Abbas, Hassan (2002). Pakistan's Drift to Extremism. United States: Yale University Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780765614964. 
  26. ^ a b Aziz, Sartaj (2009). Between Dreams and Realities: Some Milestones in Pakistan's History. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press. p. 408. ISBN 978-0-19-547718-4. Archived from the original on 2013-09-19. 
  27. ^ Gannon, Kathy (2005). I is for infidel : from holy war to holy terror in Afghanistan (1. ed.). New York: Public Affairs, Kathy. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-1-58648-312-8. 
  28. ^ Harmon, Daniel E. (2008). "Chief of the Army Staff". Pervez Musharraf: President of Pakistan: Easyread Super Large 24pt Edition (24 ed.). ReadHowYouWant.com. p. 156. ISBN 9781427092083. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  29. ^ Cohen, Stephen Philip (2004). "Political Pakistan". The idea of Pakistan (googlebooks) (1st pbk. ed.). Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 0815797613. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  30. ^ Kapur, S. Paul (2009). "The Overt Nuclear Period". Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia (googlebooks). Singapore: NUS Press. p. 244. ISBN 9789971694432. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  31. ^ Weaver, Mary Anne. "General On Tightrope". Pakistan: in the Shadow of Jihad and Afghanistan. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003. pp. 25–31 ISBN 0374528861
  32. ^ "Musharraf Vs. Sharif: Who's Lying?". The Weekly Voice. 2 October 2006. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. 
  33. ^ Rashid, Ahmed (13 October 1999). "Seeds of conflict lie in summer's Kashmir crisis". Independent.ie. Retrieved 29 March 2011. 
  34. ^ a b c d e f g Jones, Owen Bennett (2003). "The 1999 Coup". Pakistan eye of the storm (2nd ed.). New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300101473. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  35. ^ Editorial, et.al (11 October 2011). "Why Admiral Bokhari is a favourite of Zardari, rejected by Nawaz". www.thenews.com.pk (1/2). The News International, 2011. The News International. Retrieved 19 January 2017. 
  36. ^ Sanj Dutt (2000). War in Peace in Kargil Sector (google books). New Delhi, India: Efficient Offset Printers. p. 478. ISBN 81-7648-151-3. Retrieved 18 May 2012. 
  37. ^ Cloughley, Brian (2012). A History of the Pakistan Army: Wars and Insurrections. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.Cloughley. ISBN 9781631440397. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  38. ^ Haque, Ihtasham ul (10 October 1998). "Karamat retired, Musharraf takes over as COAS :". Dawn Wire Service, Area studies (04/40). Islamabad, Pakistan: Dawn Wire Service, 1998. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  39. ^ "PAKISTAN: PAKISTAN/INDIA CONFLICT: SITUATION UPDATE". 21 July 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  40. ^ a b Musharraf, Pervez. In the Line of Fire: A Memoir. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9780743298438. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  41. ^ Haque, Ihtasham ul (2 October 1999). "DAWN WIRE SERVICE :". DAWN WIRE SERVICE Area Studies (05/40). DAWN newspaper 1999, Haque. DAWN newspaper. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  42. ^ a b c Staff writer, correspondents (9 October 2002). "Musharraf planned coup much before Oct 12". Daily Times Pakistan. Daily Times Pakistan 2002. Daily Times Pakistan. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  43. ^ Darpan, Pratiyogita. Competition Science Vision. Pratiyogita Darpan. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  44. ^ Kukreja, Veena; Singh, M. P. (2005). "Pakistan since 1999 coup". Pakistan: Democracy, Development and Security Issues (google books). London [uk]: SAGE Publications India, Singh. p. 300. ISBN 9788132102663. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  45. ^ Staff writer, et.al (25 September 1999). "COAS denies differences with govt". asianstudies.github.io (05/39). DAWN WIRE SERVICE : 1999. DAWN WIRE SERVICE :. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  46. ^ Dugger, Celia W. (14 October 1999). "Pakistan Calm After Coup; Leading General Gives No Clue About How He Will Rule". New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  47. ^ a b c "'Plot to kill' coup leader". BBC News. 14 October 1999. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  48. ^ Weiner, Tim (17 October 1999). "Countdown to Pakistan's Coup: A Duel of Nerves in the Air". New York Times. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  49. ^ Aqil Shah, The Army and Democracy: Military Politics in Pakistan |(Harvard University Press, 2014), p. 181-182 [1] ISBN 9780674728936
  50. ^ Gutman, Roy (2008). "Hijacking a Regime". How we missed the story : Osama bin Laden, the Taliban, and the hijacking of Afghanistan (google books) (1. ed.). Washington, D.C.: United States Institute of Peace. ISBN 9781601270245. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  51. ^ "Pakistan". Background Notes. U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 4 May 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  52. ^ a b et.al., staff writers. "Attacks on the Press 1999: Pakistan - Committee to Protect Journalists". cpj.org. Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  53. ^ Abbasi, Ansar (16 October 1999). "No martial law in country". asianstudies.github.io (5/42). Dawn wire service, Abbasi. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  54. ^ "Text of Musharraf's declaration". BBC News. 14 October 1999. Retrieved 6 May 2011. 
  55. ^ "Provisional Constitution Order No. 1 of 1999". Pakistani.org. Archived from the original on 15 June 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  56. ^ Bergner, Jeffrey T. (2008). "Human Rights in Pakistan". Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2008: Vols. I and II: Joint Committee Print, U. S. House of Representatives and U. S. Senate. DIANE Publishing. p. 3000. ISBN 9781437905229. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  57. ^ Mayor, John N. (2003). "1999 Pakistani Coup". India: Issues, Historical Background, and Bibliography (1 ed.). New York: Nova Publishers. p. 100. ISBN 9781590332993. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  58. ^ "Court moved on Pak take-over". The Tribune India. 15 November 1999. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  59. ^ a b "Supreme Court bench to hear petitions against coup". Dawn Wire Service. 2 December 1999. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  60. ^ Ali, Rafaqat (29 January 2000). "Irshad new CJ: Saeed, five others refuse to take oath". asianstudies.github.io (06/05). Dawn Wire Service, 2000. Dawn Newspapers. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  61. ^ a b Cotran, Eugene; Lau, M. Yearbook of Islamic And Middle Eastern Law: (2003-2004). BRILL. ISBN 9004144447. 
  62. ^ a b Feeley, edited by Terence C. Halliday, Lucien Karpik, Malcolm M.; Karpik, Lucien; Feeley, Malcolm M. (2012). "Toward the Political Functions: The Return of Sharif and Bhutto". Fates of political liberalism in the British post-colony : the politics of the legal complex. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107012783. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  63. ^ Hashmi, Faraz; Malick, Nasir (16 December 2000). "President pardons Nawaz; entire Sharif family exiled". asianstudies.github.io (06/48). Dawn Wire Service. Dawn newspapers. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  64. ^ "Pakistan court limits army rule". BBC News. 12 May 2000. Retrieved 7 May 2011. 
  65. ^ Correspondent, et.al (14 April 2001). "Musharraf planning to replace Tarar as next president:". asianstudies.github.io (07/15). Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  66. ^ a b Staff reporter, et.al (22 December 2001). "People want Nawaz or Benazir as PM: study". asianstudies.github.io (07/51). Islamabad: Dawn Wire Service, 2001. Dawn newspapers. pp. 1–2. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  67. ^ Kukreja, Veena; Singh, M. P. (2005). "Strains in civil-military relations.". Pakistan democracy, development, and security issues (1 ed.). New Delhi: Sage Publications India, Kukreja. p. 300. ISBN 9788132102663. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  68. ^ Sky News, Uk (16 October 1999). "Benazir blames Nawaz for Army take-over". asianstudies.github.io (05/42). Dawn Wire Service, Skynews. Dawn newspapers. Retrieved 8 February 2017. 
  69. ^ Staff writer, War correspondents (2 October 2002). "Musharraf planned coup much before Oct 12: Fasih Bokhari". Daily Times (4). Daily Times, 2002. Daily Times. Retrieved 17 January 2017. 
  70. ^ Kuma, Sumita. "Sharif Vs Musharraf". www.idsa-india.org. Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses. Retrieved 7 February 2017. 
  71. ^ a b Burki, Shahid Javed (2008). Historical Dictionary of Pakistan (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9781442241480. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  72. ^ "'Democracy charter' for Pakistan". BBC News. 2006-05-15. Retrieved 2008-02-22. 
  73. ^ a b "PML-N apologizes the nation on attack at the SCP". Paktribune. Paktribune 2006. Retrieved 4 February 2017. 
  74. ^ Gall, Carlotta (25 November 2007). Former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif Returns to Pakistan. The New York Times.

External links[edit]