1999 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology
In science
1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 1999.

Plants[edit]

Newly named angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Quercus hiholensis[2]

Sp nov

Valid

Borgardt & Pigg

Middle Miocene

"Yakima Canyon Flora"

 USA

A white oak, permineralized acorns

Arthropods[edit]

Insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Electrostephanus neovenatus[3]

Sp nov

valid

Aguiar & Janzen

Lutetian

Baltic Amber

 Europe

A stephanid wasp

Electrostephanus sulcatus[3]

Sp nov

jr synonym

Aguiar & Janzen

Lutetian

Baltic Amber

 Europe

A stephanid wasp,
now Denaeostephanus sulcatus

Neoephemera antiqua[4]

sp. nov

valid

Sinitchenkova

Ypresian

Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Oldest neoephemerid mayfly species described

Pachycondyla rebekkae[5][6]

sp. nov

valid

  • Rust & Andersen

Ypresian

Fur Formation

 Denmark

moved by Archibald, Cover, & Moreau to Ypresiomyrma

Pachycondyla rebekkae

Mollusca[edit]

Newly named bivalves[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Concavodonta ovalis[7]

sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

 Argentina

third species in the genus

Concavodontinae[7]

subfam nov

Valid

Sánchez

Ordovician

one of two Subfamilies in Praenuculidae

Cuyopsis[7]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

 Argentina

Monotypic with the species C. symmetricus

Emiliania[7]

Gen et sp nov

homonym

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

 Argentina

genus name preoccupied by Emiliania Hay & Mohler, 1967, renamed to Emiliodonta

Hemiconcavodonta[7]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

 Argentina

third genus in the subfamily Concavodontinae

Praenuculinae[7]

subfam nov

Valid

Sánchez

Ordovician

one of two Subfamilies in Praenuculidae

Similodonta ceryx[8]

Sp nov

Valid

Cope

Middle Ordovician

Gilfach Farm No. 1 Borehole

 Wales

oldest species in the genus Similodonta

Trigonoconcha[7]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

 Argentina

Monotypic with the species T. acuta

Villicumia[7]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Sánchez

Caradoc

Don Braulio Formation

 Argentina

Monotypic with the species V. canteraensis

Fish[edit]

Newly named actinopterygii ("ray-finned fish")[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Nardovelifer[9]

gen et sp nov

Valid

C. Sorbini & L. Sorbini

Campanian

Nardo

 Italy

Archosauromorphs[edit]

  • Ornithomimid gastroliths documented.[10]

Newly named dinosauriforms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucoelophysis[11]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Sullivan & Lucas

Norian

Chinle Formation, New Mexico

 USA

Sister genus to the Dinosaurs; first identified as a relative of coelophysid.

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[12]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Achillobator[13]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Perle, Norell, & Clark

Late Cretaceous

Bayan Shireh Formation

 Mongolia

A large dromaeosaurid.

Agustinia[14]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Bonaparte

Albian

Lohan Cura Formation

 Argentina

An armored sauropod

"Airakoraptor"[13]

gen nov

Nomen nudum

Perle, Norell, & Clark

 Mongolia

A possible dromaeosaurid that has yet to be fully described.

Animantarx[15]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Carpenter, Kirkland, Burge, & Bird

Late Cretaceous

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah

 USA

Nodosaur whose name means "living citadel."

"Archaeoraptor"[16]

Hoax

Stephen Czerkas vide:C. P. Sloan vide:Olson

Chimera of Yanornis and Microraptor.

Atlasaurus[17]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Monbaron, Russell, & Taquet

Middle Jurassic

Tiougguit Formation

 Morocco

A primitive sauropod

Beipiaosaurus[18]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Xu, Tang, & Wang

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A therizinosaur

"Bilbeyhallorum"[19]

Nomen nudum

Burge, Bird, McClelland, & Cicconetti

Aptian

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah

 USA

informal name for Cedarpelta.

Cedarosaurus[20]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Tidwell, Carpenter, & Brooks

Barremian

Cedar Mountain Formation, Utah

 USA

A sauropod.

Chaoyangsaurus[21]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Zhao, Cheng, & Xu

Late Jurassic

Tuchengzi Formation

 China

An extremely primitive ceratopsian

Dinheirosaurus[22]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kimmeridgian

Alcobaça Formation

 Portugal

A diplodocid.

"Eugongbusaurus"[23]

gen nov

Nomen nudum

Knoll

Late Jurassic

Shishugou Formation

 China

A ?hypsilophodont that hasn't yet been formally named.

Gondwanatitan[24]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kellner & Azevedo

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

A titanosaur

Guaibasaurus[25]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Bonaparte, Ferigolo, & Ribeiro

Late Triassic

Caturrita Formation

 Brazil

A sauropodomorph.

Jobaria[26]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Sereno, et al

Middle Jurassic

Tiourarén Formation

 Niger

A eusauropod

Lessemsaurus[27]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Bonaparte

Late Triassic

Los Colorados Formation

 Argentina

A primitive sauropodomorph

Lirainosaurus[28]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Sanz et al

Late Cretaceous

Vitoria Formation

 Spain

A titanosaur.

Lurdusaurus[29]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Taquet & Russell

Aptian

Elrhaz Formation

 Niger\

A hadrosaur

"Newtonsaurus"[30]

gen et sp nov

Nomen nudum

Welles vide: Welles & Pickering

Late Triassic

Rhaetic beds

 Wales

Informal name

Nigersaurus[26]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Elrhaz Formation

 Niger

A rebbachisaurid

Nodocephalosaurus[31]

gen et sp nov

Valid taxon

  • Sullivan

Campanian

Kirtland Formation

 USA

An ankylosaurid

Proyandusaurus[23]

gen nov

synonym

Knoll

Bajocian

Shaximiao Formation

 China

informal name for Hexinlusaurus

Qantassaurus[32]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Rich & Vickers-Rich

Early Cretaceous

Wonthaggi Formation

 Australia

A possible hypsilophodontid

Santanaraptor[33]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kellner

Cenomanian

Santana Formation

 Brazil

A theropod

Saturnalia[34]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Langer, Abdala, Richter, & Benton

Carnian

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

A basal sauropodomorph

Sinornithosaurus[35]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Xu, Wang, & Wu

Aptian

Yixian Formation

 China

A Dromaeosaurid

Tangvayosaurus[36]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Allain et at

Early Cretaceous

Grès Supérior Formation

 Laos

A titanosaur

Tehuelchesaurus[37]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Rich et al

Middle Jurassic

Cañadon Asfalto Formation

 Argentina

A eusauropod

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Amplibuteo concordatus [38]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Nicholas J. Czaplewski

Late Pliocene

Florida and Arizona

 USA:

 Florida;

 Arizona

An Accipitridae.

Anatalavis oxfordi [39]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Storrs L. Olson

Early Eocene

Ypresian,

London Clay,

MP 8

 UK:

 England

An Anseranatidae, Anatalavinae Olson, 1999. In 2002 Jíří Mlíkovský made this species the type species of his not widely accepted new genus Nettapterornis.[40]

Aquila bivia [38]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Steven D. Emslie

Nicholas J. Czaplewski

Late Pliocene

Florida

 USA:

 Florida;

 Arizona

An Accipitridae.

Argornis caucasicus [41]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Aleksandr A. Karkhu

Late Eocene

Northern Caucasus

 Russia

An Apodiformes, Jungornithidae Karkhu, 1988.

Canadaga arctica [42]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Late Cretaceous

Middle Maastrichtian

 Canada:

 Nunavut

A Hesperornithidae Marsh, 1872.

Changchengornis hengdaoziensis [43]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Ji Qiang

Luis M. Chiappe

Ji Shu’an

Early Cretaceous

Chaomidianzi Formation

 China

A Confuciusornithidae Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995.

Chaunoides antiquus [44]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Herculano M. F. de Alvarenga

Late Oligocene or Early Miocene

Tremembé Formation

 Brazil

An Anhimidae.

Chauvireria bulgarica [45]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Boev

Pleistocene

 Bulgaria

A Phasianidae.

Confuciusornis dui [46]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Larry D. Martin

Zhou Zhonghe

Alan Feduccia

Zhang Fucheng

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A Confuciusornithidae Hou, Zhou, Gu et Zhang, 1995.

Dryolimnas augusti [47]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Roger Bour

Sonia Ribes

François Moutou

Holocene

Réunion

 Réunion

A Rallidae.

Emberiza alcoveri [48]

Sp. nov.

Valid

J. C. Rando

M. Lopez

B. Seguí

Late Pleistocene-Holocene

Canary Islands, Tenerife

 Spain:

 Canary Islands

An Emberizidae.

Eocuculus cherpinae [49]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Robert M. Chandler

Late Eocene

Early Chadronian

 USA:

 Colorado

A ?Cuculidae.

Eoenantiornis buhleri [50]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Larry D. Martin

Zhou Zongzhe

Alan Feduccia

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Eoenantiornithiformes Hou, Martin, Zhou et Feduccia, 1999, Eoenantiornithidae Hou, Martin, Zhou et Feduccia, 1999, this is the type species of the new genus.

Falco bakalovi [51]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

Villafranchian,

MN 17

 Bulgaria

A Falconidae.

Gallinula balcanica [52]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

Villafranchian,

MN 17

 Bulgaria

A Rallidae.

Graculavus augustus [53]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Sylvia Hope

Late Cretaceous

Late Maastrichtian,

Lance Formation

 USA:

 Wyoming

A Graculavidae Fürbringer, 1888.

Gurilynia nessovi [54]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Late Cretaceous

Gurilyn Tsav

 Mongolia

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, Alexornithiformes Brodkorb, 1976, Enantiornithidae Nessov & Borkin, 1983.

Hebeiornis fengningensis [55]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Yan

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

Ornithothoraces Chiappe et Calvo, 1994, this is the type species of the new genus. Vescornis hebeiensis Zhang, Ericson et Zhou, 2004. is a junior synonym.[56]

Liaoxiornis delicatus [57]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Hou Lianhai

Chen Peiji

Early Cretacous

Yixian Formation

 China

A Liaoxiornithidae L. H. Hou et Chen, 1999, this is the type species of the new genus. Lingyuanornis parvus Ji & Ji, 1999. is a junior synonym.[58]

Longmornis robustirostrata [59]

Gen, nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Walter E. Boles

?Early Miocene

Riversleigh

 Australia:

 Queensland

An Oriolidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Loxia patevi [60]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 17

 Bulgaria

A Fringillidae.

Masillapodargus longipes[61]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A stem Podargidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Ngawupodius minya [62]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Walter E. Boles

Tessa J. Ivison

Late Oligocene

Namba Formation

 Australia:

 South Australia

A stem Megapodiidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Nupharanassa bohemica [63]

Sp. nov.

Valid ?

Jirí Mlíkovský

Early Miocene

MN 4b

 Czech Republic

A Jacanidae. Mourer-Chauviré, 1999 transferred this species to the genus Geranopterus Milne-Edwards, 1892 and later it was placed in the Geranopteridae Mayr & Mourer-Chauviré, 2000.[64]

Paraprefica kelleri[61]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A stem Nyctibiidae, this is the type species of the new genus.

Paraprefica major[61]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A stem Nyctibiidae.

Pelecanus schreiberi [65]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Strorrs L. Olson

Early Pliocene

Yorktown Formation

 USA:

 North Carolina

A Pelecanidae.

Primotrogon wintersteini[66]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Oligocene

MP 23

 France

A stem Trogonidae, the type species of the new genus.

Pumiliornis tessellatus[67]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Gerald Mayr

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

Order and family Incerta Sedis, the type species of the new genus.

Regulus bulgaricus [68]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Zlatozar N. Boev

Late Pliocene

MN 17

 Bulgaria

A Regulidae.

Scolopax carmesinae [69]

Sp. nov.

Valid

Bartomeu Seguí

Late Pliocene

Minorca,

MN 17-18

 Spain:

 Minorca

A Scolopacidae.

Selmes absurdipes [70]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Dieter S. Peters

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11;

MP 13

 Germany:

 Hessen;

 Saxony-Anhalt

A Coliiformes, Selmeidae Zelenkov et Dyke, 2008, the type species of the new genus.

Tyto neddi [71]

Sp. nov.

Valid

David W. Steadman

William B. Hilgartner

Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene

Barbuda

 Antigua and Barbuda

A Tytonidae.

Yandangornis longicaudus [72]

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Valid

Cai Zhengquan

Zhao Lijun

Early Late Cretaceous

Santonian

 China

An Enentiornithes, this is the type species of the new genus.

Newly named pterosaurs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Dendrorhynchoides[73]

gen nov

Valid

Ji S.-A., Ji Q., & Padian

Aptian

Yixian Formation

 China

A new genus for "Dendrorhynchus" curvidentatus (Ji & Ji, 1998)

Siroccopteryx

gen et sp nov

junior synonym?

Mader & Kellner

Cenomanian

Kem Kem Formation

 Morocco

possibly a jr synonym of Coloborhynchus?

Tendaguripterus[74]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Unwin & Heinrich

Kimmeridgian

Tendaguru Formation

 Tanzania

Monotypic with the species T. recki

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named plesiosaurs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Callawayasaurus[75]

gen nov

Valid

Carpenter

Aptian

Paja Formation

 Colombia

New genus for the species "Alzadasaurus" colombiensis Wells, 1962

Newly named scincomorphans[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pachygenys[76]

gen nov

Valid

Gao and Cheng

Early Cretaceous

Eastern China

 China

Has a distinctly small amount of dentary teeth.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
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