|Single by Paul Hardcastle|
|from the album Paul Hardcastle|
|B-side||"Fly by Night"|
|Released||17 February 1985|
|Paul Hardcastle singles chronology|
"19" is a song by British musician Paul Hardcastle released as the first single from his self-titled third studio album Paul Hardcastle (1985).
The song has a strong anti-war message, focusing on America's involvement in the Vietnam War and the effect it had on the soldiers who served. The track was notable for early use of sampled and processed speech, in particular a synthesized stutter effect used on the words 'nineteen' and 'destruction'. It also includes various non-speech, re-dubbed sampling, such as crowd noise and a military bugle call.
"19" features sampled narration (voiced by Peter Thomas), out-of-context interview dialogue ("I wasn't really sure what was going on") and news reports from Vietnam Requiem the ABC television documentary about the post-traumatic stress disorder suffered by Vietnam veterans. In 2009, the song placed at 73 on VH1's 100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders of the 80s.
"19" had huge international success in the charts; it went to No. 1 in the UK (for five weeks), a number of other countries worldwide, and yet only met with muted reception in the US Pop Charts. Despite this, the single had great success in the Dance and Club charts, where it went to number 1. "19" became the top-selling single in 13 countries. This was helped by the fact that versions of the song, spoken by well-known local news anchors, were recorded in French, Spanish, German and Japanese. The song received the Ivor Novello award for Best-selling single of 1985. The song's English-language release came in three different 12" versions - "Extended Version", "Destruction Mix" and "The Final Story", each with an alternative cover design.
Background and content
Hardcastle was inspired to create the song after watching Vietnam Requiem, and comparing his own life at 19 to those of the soldiers featured: "...what struck me was how young the soldiers were: the documentary said their average age was 19. I was out having fun in pubs and clubs when I was 19, not being shoved into jungles and shot at."
The title "19" comes from the documentary's claim that the average age of an American combat soldier in the war was 19, as compared to World War II's 26. This claim has since been disputed. Undisputed statistics do not exist, although Southeast Asia Combat Area Casualties Current File (CACCF), the source for the Vietnam Veterans Memorial, shows a large number of deaths (38%) were ages 19 or 20. According to the same source, 23 is the average age at time of death (or time of declaration of death). The song also comments that while the tour of duty was longer during World War II, soldiers in Vietnam were subjected to hostile fire [more frequently] almost every day.
Musically, the song was inspired by electro, particularly Afrika Bambaataa, although Hardcastle also "added a bit of jazz and a nice melody", and beyond the sampling of the documentary narration, the song incorporated pieces of interviews with soldiers. The song's pivotal hook: the repetitive ""N-n-n-n-nineteen", was chosen due to the limitations of the early sampling technology used. The E-mu Emulator could only sample for two seconds, so the hook was based around "the only bit of the narrative that made sense in two seconds." Hardcastle wasn't optimistic about the song's chances in the charts. His previous two singles for independent labels had failed to make it into the UK's Top 40 and the musical policy at Radio 1 was felt to be unsupportive of dance music. News interest in the song helped, with the 10th Anniversary of the End of the Vietnam War seeing Hardcastle interviewed by Alastair Stewart of ITN.
Tony Blackburn, then breakfast DJ for Radio London was an early supporter of the song and it quickly reached number 1 in the UK and around the world. Hardcastle produced different mixes of the song to help maintain interest in it. Although the song did not climb as high in the United States chart, Hardcastle claims "it outsold everybody else for three weeks solid, it only reached number 15, because back then the chart was based on airplay as well as sales." The song was held back in the US by some radio stations refusing to play it, feeling that the song took an anti-American stance, something Hardcastle denies, noting "I had tons of letters from Vietnam vets thanking me for doing something for them."
The success of "19" meant that Hardcastle's manager Simon Fuller, who had recently left Chrysalis Records to set up on his own label, was able to use the funds to continue his business. He named the business 19 Management in acknowledgment of its great significance to Fuller. Fuller went on to become the most successful British music manager of all time. He was behind the success of the Spice Girls and the talent show American Idol. Hardcastle has continued his connections to 19 Entertainment and in 2009 created the sound for the end card used at the end of 19's shows.
The song's reliance on sampling also caused problems with legal clearance. Ken Grunbaum recalled in 2012 that "there were no precedents for something like this. We ended up having to pay royalties to the narrator, Peter Thomas."
After the song's unexpected, rapid climb to the top of the UK Singles Chart, Chrysalis asked directors Jonas McCord and Bill Couterie to rush a video into production. Due to the lack of a band able to perform the song, the video was primarily composed of clips from the Vietnam Requiem documentary, edited together by Ken Grunbaum. The first version of the video included footage from the television networks NBC and ABC, including a newscast by ABC anchorman Frank Reynolds. After it was aired on MTV in the US, NBC and ABC objected to the "bad taste" of using the serious clips in a "trivial" form of "propaganda." McCord and Couterie were forced to produce a new cut incorporating public domain footage, but ABC permitted Reynolds' audio to remain. Couterie asserted at the time that the television networks opposed the video because it involved rock music:
|“||What is the difference between the words in our song and the 7 o'clock news? The only difference is rock'n'roll. And why did they love the documentary and hate the video so much? Every word in the song is from the film, and there was never any argument with the facts. The only difference is the music.||”|
Charts and certifications
Certifications and sales
In popular culture
In the same year of release, British comedian Rory Bremner, using the band name The Commentators, released a parodied version of the song as "N-N-Nineteen Not Out", about England's tragic performance in test cricket, with references to the England cricket team's disastrous 1984 home series against the West Indies in which the England captain David Gower had averaged 19. In 2002, Hardcastle admitted in an interview with Q magazine that, despite objections from Chrysalis Records, he did actually contribute towards the making of The Commentators' version of the song.
- We-Enhance (16 March 2011). "Simon Fuller: From "American Idol" To Formula 1 Idol.". B*tchBack . We-Enhance Inc. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
Simon Fuller (...) produced "19" for Paul Hardcastle- a very cheesy slice of Eighties' synth pop
- Huey, Steve. "Paul Hardcastle – Artist Biography". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- Vietnam Requiem at the Internet Movie Database
- Ali, Rahsheeda. "100 Greatest One-Hit Wonders of the ’80s". VH1. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Simpson, Dave (24 September 2012). "How we made the pop song 19 by Paul Hardcastle and Ken Grunbaum". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 25 September 2012.
- Perone, James E. (2001). Songs of the Vietnam conflict. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-313-31528-2.
- Roush, Gary (2 June 2008). "Statistics about the Vietnam War". Vietnam Helicopter Flight Crew Network. Archived from the original on 6 December 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2009.
Assuming KIAs accurately represented age groups serving in Vietnam, the average age of an infantryman (MOS 11B) serving in Vietnam to be 19 years old is a myth, it was actually 22. None of the enlisted grades have an average age of less than 20.
- Statistical information about casualties of the Vietnam War at the Wayback Machine (archived 24 September 2008). Retrieved 26 October 2008.
- From Wannabe to Pop Idol: 19 ounder to e presented with MMF's top accolade at the Wayback Machine (archived 17 June 2009). Music Week (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- Zip Design – 19 Sting at the Wayback Machine (archived 15 October 2010). Zip Design. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- Bessman, Jim (1 June 1985). "Anti-War Clip Provokes Network Wrath". Billboard 97 (22): 38–39. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Hits of the World". Billboard 97 (24): 66. 15 June 1985. ISSN 0006-2510.
- "Austriancharts.at – Paul Hardcastle – 19" (in German). Ö3 Austria Top 40. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Ultratop.be – Paul Hardcastle – 19" (in Dutch). Ultratop 50. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Radio2 top 30: 22 juni 1985" (in Dutch). Top 30. Retrieved 25 July 2013.
- CHART NUMBER 1492 – Saturday, July 27, 1985 at the Wayback Machine (archived 29 July 2007). CHUM. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Top RPM Singles: Issue 0560." RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- MusicSeek.info – UK, Eurochart, Billboard & Cashbox No.1 Hits at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 June 2006). MusicSeek.info. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Lescharts.com – Paul Hardcastle – 19" (in French). Les classement single. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Officialcharts.de – Paul Hardcastle – 19". GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "The Irish Charts – Search Results – 19 (re 1)". Irish Singles Chart. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- "SINGOLI – I NUMERI UNO (1959-2006) (parte 3: 1980-1990)" (in Italian). It-charts.150m.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Nederlandse Top 40 – Paul Hardcastle - 19 search results" (in Dutch) Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Dutchcharts.nl – Paul Hardcastle – 19" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Charts.org.nz – Paul Hardcastle – 19". Top 40 Singles. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Norwegiancharts.com – Paul Hardcastle – 19". VG-lista. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "19 – Paul Hardcastle" (in Polish). LP3. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "South African Rock Lists Website SA Charts 1969 – 1989 Acts (H)". Rock.co.za. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- Salaverri, Fernando (September 2005). Sólo éxitos: año a año, 1959–2002 (in Spanish) (1st ed.). Spain: Fundación Autor-SGAE. ISBN 84-8048-639-2.
- "Swedishcharts.com – Paul Hardcastle – 19". Singles Top 100. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Swisscharts.com – Paul Hardcastle – 19". Swiss Singles Chart. Retrieved 21 July 2013.
- "Archive Chart: 1985-05-11" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "Paul Hardcastle – Awards". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 1 June 2013.
- CASH BOX Top 100 Singles – Week ending JULY 27, 1985 at the Wayback Machine (archived 1 October 2012). Cash Box magazine. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Archive Chart: 2011-05-21" UK Singles Chart. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
- "Forum – ARIA Charts: Special Occasion Charts – Top 100 End of Year AMR Charts – 1980s". Australian-charts.com. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Jahreshitparade 1985" (in German). Austriancharts.at. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Jaaroverzichten 1985" (in Dutch). Ultratop. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Top Singles – Volume 43, No. 16, December 28, 1985". RPM. Library and Archives Canada. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- (German) Jahrescharts – 1985 at the Wayback Machine (archived 15 October 2014). Officialcharts.de. GfK Entertainment. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
- "I singoli più venduti del 1985" (in Italian). Hit Parade Italia. Creative Commons. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Top 100-Jaaroverzicht van 1985" (in Dutch). Dutch Top 40. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Jaaroverzichten – Single 1985" (in Dutch). Single Top 100. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Schweizer Jahreshitparade 1985" (in German). Hitparade.ch. Hung Medien. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Chart Archive – 1980s Singles". everyHit.com. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Canadian single certifications – Paul Hardcastle – 19". Music Canada.
- "Gold-/Platin-Datenbank (Paul Hardcastle)" (in German). Bundesverband Musikindustrie.
- "British single certifications – Paul Hardcastle – 19". British Phonographic Industry. Enter 19 in the field Keywords. Select Title in the field Search by. Select single in the field By Format. Select Gold in the field By Award. Click Search
- "West Indies in England, 1984 – Test Averages". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
- Roughley, Gregg (9 May 2011). "Manchester United fans campaign to get 19 to No1 when club wins title". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 July 2013.