19th G7 summit
|19th G7 summit|
State Guesthouse, Akasaka Palace
|Dates||July 7–9, 1993|
|Follows||18th G7 summit|
|Precedes||20th G7 summit|
The Group of Seven (G7) was an unofficial forum which brought together the heads of the richest industrialized countries: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada (since 1976) and the President of the European Commission (starting officially in 1981). The summits were not meant to be linked formally with wider international institutions; and in fact, a mild rebellion against the stiff formality of other international meetings was a part of the genesis of cooperation between France's President Giscard d'Estaing and West Germany's Chancellor Helmut Schmidt as they conceived the first Group of Six (G6) summit in 1975.
Leaders at the Summit
The G7 is an unofficial annual forum for the leaders of Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
Core G7 participants
These summit participants are the current "core members" of the international forum:
|Core G7 members
Host nation and leader are indicated in bold text.
|Canada||Kim Campbell ||Prime Minister|
|France||François Mitterrand ||President|
|Germany||Helmut Kohl ||Chancellor|
|Italy||Carlo Azeglio Ciampi ||Prime Minister|
|Japan||Kiichi Miyazawa ||Prime Minister|
|United Kingdom||John Major ||Prime Minister|
|United States||Bill Clinton ||President|
|European Commission||Henning Christophersen ||Vice President|
|European Council||Jean-Luc Dehaene||President|
The summit was intended as a venue for resolving differences among its members. As a practical matter, the summit was also conceived as an opportunity for its members to give each other mutual encouragement in the face of difficult economic decisions. Issues which were discussed at this summit included:
- World Economy
- The Environment
- Russia and Other Countries in Transition
- The Developing Countries
- International Cooperation and Future Summits
In 1993, the summit leaders called for an "international agreement" to "protect forests," but there is little evidence of follow-up action.
- Cabinet Office, Government of Japan; State Guest House, Akasaka Palace; retrieved 2013-6-19.
- Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA): Summit Meetings in the Past.. Accessed 2009-03-11. Archived 2009-04-30.
- Saunders, Doug. "Weight of the world too heavy for G8 shoulders," Globe and Mail (Toronto). July 5, 2008 -- n.b., the G7 becomes the Group of Eight (G7) with the inclusion of Russia starting in 1997.
- Reuters: "Factbox: The Group of Eight: what is it?", July 3, 2008.
- Reinalda, Bob and Bertjan Verbeek. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations, p. 205.
- Rieffel, Lex. "Regional Voices in Global Governance: Looking to 2010 (Part IV)," Brookings. March 27, 2009; "core" members (Muskoka 2010 G-8, official site).
- MOFA: Summit (19); European Union: "EU and the G8"
- Sadruddin, Aga Khan. "It's Time to Save the Forests," New York Times. July 19, 2000.
- Bayne, Nicholas and Robert D. Putnam. (2000). Hanging in There: The G7 and G8 Summit in Maturity and Renewal. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing. 10-ISBN 0-7546-1185-X; 13-ISBN 978-0-7546-1185-1; OCLC 43186692
- Reinalda, Bob and Bertjan Verbeek. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. London: Routledge. 10-ISBN 0-415-16486-9/13-ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3; 13-ISBN 978-0-203-45085-7;10-ISBN 0-203-45085-X; OCLC 39013643
- No official website is created for any G7 summit prior to 1995 -- see the 21st G7 summit.
- University of Toronto: G8 Research Group, G8 Information Centre