1 Corinthians 15
|1 Corinthians 15|
1 Corinthians 7:33–8:4 in Papyrus 15, written in the 3rd century
|Book||First Epistle to the Corinthians|
|Bible part||New Testament|
|Order in the Bible part||7|
1 Corinthians 15 is the fifteenth chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians by Paul the Apostle. The first eleven verses contain the earliest account of the resurrection appearances of Jesus in the New Testament. The rest of the chapter stresses the primacy of the resurrection for Christianity. Readings from the text are given at Easter Sunday services and funerals – where mourners are assured of the "sure and certain expectation of the resurrection to a better life".
- 1 Text
- 2 Structure
- 3 Resurrection of Jesus: 1–11
- 4 Resurrection of the dead: 12–58
- 5 Catechism of the Catholic Church
- 6 Early Christian creed
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
- The original text is written in Koine Greek.
- Some most ancient manuscripts containing this chapter are:
- Codex Vaticanus (AD 325–350)
- Codex Sinaiticus (AD 330–360)
- Papyrus 123 (4th century; extant: verses 3–6)
- Codex Alexandrinus (c. AD 400–440)
- Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus (c. AD 450; extant: verses 41–58).
- Codex Freerianus (c. 450 M; extant: verses 3, 15, 27–28, 38–39, 49–50)
- Codex Claromontanus (c. AD 550)
- This chapter is divided into 58 verses.
The New King James Version organises this chapter as follows:
- 1 Corinthians 15:1–11 = The Risen Christ, Faith’s Reality
- 1 Corinthians 15:12–19 = The Risen Christ, Our Hope
- 1 Corinthians 15:20–28 = The Last Enemy Destroyed
- 1 Corinthians 15:29–34 = Effects of Denying the Resurrection
- 1 Corinthians 15:35–49 = A Glorious Body
- 1 Corinthians 15:50–58 = Our Final Victory
Resurrection of Jesus: 1–11
The chapter begins with the statement of the Good News, received by Paul from the ascended Jesus Christ. Paul reveals the significance of the death, burial, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ and that if we believe this message that we are saved. The account of the Resurrection appearances of Jesus in verses 3–7 appears to be an early pre-Pauline creedal statement.
The antiquity of the creed has been located by most biblical scholars to no more than five years after Jesus' death, probably originating from the Jerusalem apostolic community. Based on linguistic analysis, the version received by Paul seems to have included verses 3b–6a and 7. The creed has been deemed to be historically reliable and is claimed to preserve a unique and verifiable testimony of the time.
In dissent from the majority view, Robert M. Price and Hermann Detering, writing in the Journal of Higher Criticism (edited by Price) argued that 1 Corinthians 15:3–7 was not an early Christian creed written within five years of Jesus' death. Price  and Detering denied that Paul wrote the verses and believed they were an Interpolation possibly dating to as far back as the beginning of the 2nd century. Price said that "The pair of words in verse 3a, "received / delivered" (paralambanein / paradidonai) is, as has often been pointed out, technical language for the handing on of rabbinical tradition". According to Price, this (supposedly interpolated) text contradicts Paul's tale of conversion described in Galatians 1:13–24 which explicitly denies that Paul had been taught the gospel of Christ by any man, but rather by Jesus himself. However, many commentators have the view that Paul "received" this from Jesus. They point to 1 Cor. 11:23 as evidence of this idea. "For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, That the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread..." (1 Corinthians 11:23, (KJV) ) The Greek words for "received / delivered" are the same here as in 1 Corinthians 15:3.
Against these scholars, Geza Vermes defends the majority view in The Resurrection. Vermes says that the words of Paul are "a tradition he has inherited from his seniors in the faith concerning the death, burial and resurrection of Jesus". Gary R. Habermas argues, "Essentially all critical scholars today agree that in Corinthians 15:3–8, Paul records an ancient oral tradition(s) that summarizes the content of the Christian gospel," in which Paul "uses the explicit language of oral transmission," according to Donald Hagner. In other words, Paul's account has been described by scholars as "the very early tradition that was common to all Christians", as "a sacred tradition", and contained in "the oldest strata of tradition".
Then after three years, I went up to Jerusalem to get acquainted with Cephas and stayed with him fifteen days. I saw none of the other apostles – only James, the Lord's brother. I assure you before God that what I am writing you is no lie. (Galatians 1:18–20)
Moreover, even skeptical scholars agree that the creed in 1 Corinthians 15 is not an interpolation but was a creed formulated and taught at a very early date after Jesus' death. Gerd Lüdemann, a skeptic scholar, maintains that "the elements in the tradition are to be dated to the first two years after the crucifixion of Jesus... not later than three years..." Michael Goulder, another skeptic scholar, states that it "goes back at least to what Paul was taught when he was converted, a couple of years after the crucifixion".
- After that He was seen by over five hundred brethren at once, of whom the greater part remain to the present, but some have fallen asleep.
- After that He was seen by James, then by all the apostles.
- Then last of all He was seen by me also, as by one born out of due time.
- For I am the least of the apostles, that am not meet to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church of God.
Resurrection of the dead: 12–58
Jesus and the believers 12–19
In verses 12–19, St Paul, in response to some expressed doubts of the Corinthian congregation, whom he is addressing in the letter, adduces the fundamental importance of the resurrection as a Christian doctrine. Through those verses, Paul is stressing the importance of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and its relevance to the core of Christianity. Paul rebukes the Corinth Church by saying if Jesus did not resurrect after the crucifixion, then there is no point in the Christianity faith (1 Cor 15:12–19 ESV).
- And if Christ be not raised, your faith is vain; ye are yet in your sins.
Verses 20–28: the last enemy
In verses 20–28, Paul states that Christ will return in power and put his "enemies under his feet" (25) and even death, "the last enemy", shall be destroyed:
- The last enemy that shall be destroyed is death.
Verse 29: baptism for the dead
- Else what shall they do which are baptized for the dead, if the dead rise not at all? why are they then baptized for the dead?
In verse 29 Paul notes that at Corinth there existed a practice whereby a living person would be baptized instead of some convert who had recently died. Mormons interpret this passage to support their practice of Baptism for the dead. This principle of vicarious work for the dead is an important work of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints in the dispensation of the fulness of times. This interpretation is rejected by all other denominations of Christianity.  Teignmouth Shore, writing in Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers, notes that "there have been numerous and ingenious conjectures as to the meaning of this passage. The only tenable interpretation is that there existed amongst some of the Christians at Corinth a practice of baptising a living person in the stead of some convert who had died before that sacrament had been administered to him. Such a practice existed amongst the Marcionites in the second century, and still earlier amongst a sect called the Corinthians." The Jerusalem Bible states that "What this practice was is unknown. Paul does not say if he of approved it or not: he uses it merely for an ad hominem argument".
Be not deceived: 33–4
Verse 33 has a quotation from classical Greek literature. According to the church historian Socrates of Constantinople it is from a Greek tragedy of Euripides, but modern scholarship, following Jerome attributes it to the comedy Thaĩs by Menander, or Menander quoting Euripides. It might not have been a direct quote by Paul: "This saying was widely known as a familiar quotation."
33 Be not deceived: evil communications corrupt good manners.
34 Awake to righteousness, and sin not; for some have not the knowledge of God: I speak this to your shame.
Resurrection of the body: 35–58
51 Behold, I shew you a mystery; We shall not all sleep, but we shall all be changed,
52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an eye, at the last trump: for the trumpet shall sound, and the dead shall be raised incorruptible, and we shall be changed.
53 For this corruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put on immortality.
Through the power of Christ "Death is swallowed up in victory" (54). Referencing a verse in Hosea, Paul asks: "O death where is thy sting? O grave where is thy victory?" (55), equating sin with death and the Judaic Law which have now been conquered and superseded by the victory of Christ.
Catechism of the Catholic Church
FATHER, . . . this is eternal life, that they may know you, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. 1 God our Savior desires all men to be saved and to come to the knowledge of the truth. 2 There is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved 3 than the name of JESUS.
Early Christian creed
Verses 3–5 (plus possible additional verses) may be one of the earliest creeds about Jesus' death and resurrection. The antiquity of the creed has been noted by most biblical scholars, probably originating from the Jerusalem apostolic community.
For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures, and that He appeared to Peter, then to the twelve...
- Commentary on the Apocalypse
- Resurrection of Jesus
- Related Bible parts: Genesis 2, Romans 5, Romans 6, Galatians 1
- Neufeld, The Earliest Christian Confessions (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1964) p. 47; Reginald Fuller, The Formation of the Resurrection Narratives (New York: Macmillan, 1971) p. 10 (ISBN 0281024758); Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90 (ISBN 0664208185); Oscar Cullmann, The Early Church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 64; Hans Conzelmann, 1 Corinthians, translated James W. Leitch (Philadelphia: Fortress 1975) p. 251 (ISBN 0800660056); Bultmann, Theology of the New Testament vol. 1 pp. 45, 80–82, 293; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp. 81, 92 (ISBN 0809117681)
- Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90 (ISBN 0664208185); Oscar Cullmann, The Early church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 66–66; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) pp. 81 (ISBN 0809117681); Thomas Sheehan, First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity (New York: Random House, 1986) pp. 110, 118 (ISBN 0394511980); Ulrich Wilckens, Resurrection translated A. M. Stewart (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 1977) p. 2 (ISBN 071520257X); Hans Grass, Ostergeschen und Osterberichte, Second Edition (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1962) p. 96; Grass favors the origin in Damascus.
- MacGregor, Kirk R. (2006). "1 Corinthians 15:3b–6a, 7 and the Bodily Resurrection of Jesus". Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society. 49 (2): 225–34.
- Hans von Campenhausen, "The Events of Easter and the Empty Tomb," in Tradition and Life in the Church (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1968) p. 44
- Archibald Hunter, Works and Words of Jesus (1973) p. 100 (ISBN 0334018064)
- Price, Robert M (1995). "Apocryphal Apparitions: 1 Corinthians 15:3–11 as a Post-Pauline Interpolation". Journal of Higher Criticism. 2 (2): 69–99.
- Herman Detering. The Falsified Paul. p. 3.
- Robert Jamieson; A. R. Fausset; David Brown (1871). Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible.
- Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible (1871), commentary on 1 Corinthians 15:3.
- Geza Vermes (2008) The Resurrection. London, Penguin: 121–2 (ISBN 0739499696; ISBN 978-0141030050)
- Francis J. Beckwith; William Lane Craig; J. P. Moreland, eds. (2009). To Everyone an Answer: A Case for the Christian Worldview. InterVarsity Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0830877508.
- Donald Hagner (2012). "Part 2.7. The Origin and Reliability of the Gospel Tradition". The New Testament: A Historical and Theological Introduction. Baker Books. ISBN 1441240403.
- N.T. Wright. "Early Traditions and the Origins of Christianity". NTWrightPage.
- Larry W. Hurtado (2005). Lord Jesus Christ: Devotion to Jesus in Earliest Christianity. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 978-0802831675.
- Dale Moody (1987). Robert L. Perkins, ed. Perspectives on Scripture and Tradition: Essays in Honor of Dale Moody. Mercer University Press. p. 109. ISBN 978-0865543058.
- Gerd Lüdemann (1994). The Resurrection of Jesus. p. 38.
- Michael Goulder (1996). The Baseless Fabric of a Vision (as quoted in Gavin D'Costa's Resurrection Reconsidered, p. 48).
- 1 Corinthians 15:5
- 1 Corinthians 15:6
- 1 Corinthians 15:7
- Jamieson-Fausset-Brown Bible Commentary on 1 Corinthians 15, accessed 11 April 2017
- 1 Corinthians 15:8
- 1 Corinthians 15:9
- 1 Corinthians 15:17
- 1 Corinthians 15:26
- 1 Corinthians 15:29
- LCMS Frequently Asked Questions: Other Denominations, Lutheran Church, Missouri Synod
- Vatican Warns of Mormon 'Baptism of the Dead', Catholic Online, retrieved July 3, 2016
- Receive Guidelines for Ministering to Mormons Who Seek to Become United Methodists, United Methodist Church, retrieved July 3, 2016
- Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers on 1 Corinthians 15, accessed 12 April 2017
- Jerusalem Bible (1966), note at 1 Corinthians 15:29
- The Ecclesiastical History of Socrates ... , London: George Bell, 1897. book III, chapter 16, verse 114, page 194. See also the introductory essay to Samson Agonistes by John Milton, Of that sort of Dramatic Poem which is call'd Tragedy.
- Commentarium ad Titum 100.1
- Hans Conzelmann (1975). 1 Corinthians: A Commentary on the First Epistle to the Corinthians. James W. Leach (translator). Philadelphia: Fortress Press. pp. 278–279 fn 132. ISBN 0800660056.
- E.P. Sanders (1991) Paul. Oxford University Press: 29–30 (ISBN 0192876791). For a homiletic application, see "When I Get to the End of the Way" (References).
- "Prologue". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Vatican. Retrieved 2014-08-14.
- see Wolfhart Pannenberg, Jesus – God and Man translated Lewis Wilkins and Duane Pribe (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1968) p. 90; Oscar Cullmann, The Early church: Studies in Early Christian History and Theology, ed. A. J. B. Higgins (Philadelphia: Westminster, 1966) p. 66; R. E. Brown, The Virginal Conception and Bodily Resurrection of Jesus (New York: Paulist Press, 1973) p. 81; Thomas Sheehan, First Coming: How the Kingdom of God Became Christianity (New York: Random House, 1986) pp. 110, 118; Ulrich Wilckens, Resurrection translated A. M. Stewart (Edinburgh: Saint Andrew, 1977) p. 2; Hans Grass, Ostergeschen und Osterberichte, Second Edition (Gottingen: Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1962) p. 96; Grass favors the origin in Damascus.