# Orders of magnitude (length)

(Redirected from 1 E23 m)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Objects of sizes in different order of magnitude.

The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.

## Overview

Scale Range (m) Unit Example items
<
Subatomic 0 Singularity
10−35 P Fixed value (not a range). Quantum foam, string
10−18 am Electron, quark
Atomic to cellular 10−15 10−12 fm Atomic nucleus, proton, neutron
10−12 10−9 pm Wavelength of gamma rays and X-rays, hydrogen atom
10−9 10−6 nm DNA helix, virus, wavelength of optical spectrum
Cellular to human 10−6 10−3 μm Bacterium, fog water droplet, human hair's diameter[note 1]
10−3 1 mm Mosquito, golf ball, domestic cat, violin, football
Human to astronomical 100 103 m Piano, human, automobile, sperm whale, football field, Eiffel Tower
103 106 km Mount Everest, length of Panama Canal and Trans-Siberian Railway, larger asteroid
Astronomical 106 109 Mm The Moon, Earth, one light-second
109 1012 Gm Sun, one light-minute, Earth's orbit
1012 1015 Tm Orbits of outer planets, Solar System
1015 1018 Pm A light-year, the distance to Proxima Centauri
1018 1021 Em Galactic arm
1021 1024 Zm Milky Way, distance to Andromeda Galaxy
1024 Ym Huge-LQG, Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, visible universe

## Detailed list

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various lengths between ${\displaystyle 1.6\times 10^{-35}}$ metres and ${\displaystyle 10^{10^{10^{122}}}}$metres.

### Subatomic scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item
0 0 0 Singularity
10−35 1 Planck length 0.0000000000162 ym  Planck length; typical scale of hypothetical loop quantum gravity or size of a hypothetical string and of branes; according to string theory lengths smaller than this do not make any physical sense.[1] Quantum foam is thought to exist at this level.
10−24 1 yoctometre (ym) 2 ym Effective cross section radius of 1 MeV neutrinos[2]
10−21 1 zeptometre (zm) Preons, hypothetical particles proposed as subcomponents of quarks and leptons; the upper bound for the width of a cosmic string in string theory
7 zm Effective cross section radius of high-energy neutrinos[3]
310 zm De Broglie wavelength of protons at the Large Hadron Collider (4 TeV as of 2012)
10−18 1 attometre (am) Upper limit for the size of quarks and electrons
Sensitivity of the LIGO detector for gravitational waves[4]
Upper bound of the typical size range for "fundamental strings"[1]
10−17 10 am Range of the weak force
10−16 100 am 850 am Approximate proton radius[5]

### Atomic to cellular scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item

10−15 1 femtometre (fm) 1.5 fm Size of an 11 MeV proton[6]
2.81794 fm Classical electron radius[7]
1.75 to 15 fm Diameter range of the atomic nucleus[1][8]
10−12 1 picometre (pm) 0.75 to 0.8225 pm Longest wavelength of gamma rays
1 pm Distance between atomic nuclei in a white dwarf
2.4 pm Compton wavelength of electron
5 pm Wavelength of shortest X-rays
10−11 10 pm
31 pm Radius of helium atom
53 pm Bohr radius (radius of a hydrogen atom)
10−10 100 pm 100 pm 1 ångström (also covalent radius of sulfur atom[9])
154 pm Length of a typical covalent bond (C–C)
280 pm Average size of the water molecule (actual lengths may vary)
500 pm Width of protein α helix
10−9 1 nanometre (nm) 1 nm Diameter of a carbon nanotube[10]
2 nm Diameter of the DNA helix[11]
2.5 nm Smallest microprocessor transistor gate oxide thickness (as of January 2007)
3.4 nm Length of a DNA turn (10 bp)[12]
6–10 nm Thickness of cell membrane
10−8 10 nm 10 nm Thickness of cell wall in Gram-negative bacteria[citation needed]
10 nm As of 2016, the 10 nanometre was the smallest semiconductor device fabrication node[13]
40 nm Extreme ultraviolet wavelength
50 nm Flying height of the head of a hard disk[14]
10−7 100 nm 121.6 nm Wavelength of the Lyman-alpha line[15]
120 nm Typical diameter of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)[16]
400–700 nm Approximate wavelength range of visible light[17]

### Cellular to human scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item

10−6 1 micrometre (μm)

(also called 1 micron)

1–4 μm Typical length of a bacterium[18]
4 μm Typical diameter of spider silk[19]
7 μm Typical size of a red blood cell[20]
10−5 10 μm 10 μm Typical size of a fog, mist, or cloud water droplet
10 μm Width of transistors in the Intel 4004, the world's first commercial microprocessor
12 μm Width of acrylic fiber
17-181 μm Width range of human hair[21]
10−4 100 μm 340 μm Size of a single pixel on a 17-inch monitor with a resolution of 1024×768
560 μm Thickness of the central area of a human cornea[22]
750 μm Maximum diameter of Thiomargarita namibiensis, the largest bacterium ever discovered (as of 2010)
10−3 1 millimetre (mm) 1.5 mm Length of an average flea[23][failed verification]
2.54 mm 1/10th inch; distance between pins in DIP (dual-inline-package) electronic components
5.70 mm Diameter of the projectile in 5.56×45mm NATO ammunition
10−2 1 centimetre (cm) 20 mm Approximate width of an adult human finger
54 mm x 86 mm Dimensions of a credit card, according to the ISO/IEC 7810 ID-1 standard
73–75 mm Diameter of a baseball, according to Major League Baseball guidelines[24]
10−1 1 decimetre (dm) 120 mm Diameter of a compact disk
660 mm Length of the longest pine cones, produced by the sugar pine[25]
900 mm Average length of a rapier, a fencing sword[26]

### Human to astronomical scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item

1 metre 1 metre (m) 1 m (exactly) Since 1983, defined as length of the path travelled by light in vacuum
during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second. See History of the metre for previous definitions.
2.72 m Height of Robert Wadlow, tallest known human being.[27]
8.38 m Length of a London bus (AEC Routemaster)
101 1 decametre (dam) 33 m Length of the longest known blue whale[28]
52 m Height of the Niagara Falls.[29]
93.47 m Height of the Statue of Liberty
102 1 hectometre (hm) 105 m Length of a typical football field
137 m (147 m) Height (present and original) of the Great Pyramid of Giza
300 m Height of the Eiffel Tower, one of the famous monuments of Paris
979 m Height of the Salto Angel, the world's highest free-falling waterfall (Venezuela)
103 1 kilometre (km) 2.3 km Axial length of the Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam in the world[30][failed verification]
3.1 km Narrowest width of the Strait of Messina, separating Italy and Sicily
8.848 km Height of Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth
104 10 km 10.9 km Depth of the Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench, the deepest known point on Earth's surface
27 km Circumference of the Large Hadron Collider, as of May 2010 the largest and highest energy particle accelerator
42.195 km Length of a marathon
105 100 km
100 km The distance the IAU considers to be the limit to space, called the Karman line
163 km Length of the Suez Canal, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea
491 km Length of the Pyrenees, the mountain range separating Spain and France
974.6 km Greatest diameter of the dwarf planet Ceres.[31]

### Astronomical scale

Factor (m) Multiple Value Item
106 1 megametre (Mm) 2.38 Mm Diameter of dwarf planet Pluto, formerly the smallest planet category[note 2] in the Solar System
3.48 Mm Diameter of the Moon
5.2 Mm Typical distance covered by the winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans automobile endurance race
6.4 Mm Length of the Great Wall of China
6.6 Mm Approximate length of the two longest rivers, the Nile and the Amazon
7.821 Mm Length of the Trans-Canada Highway
9.288 Mm Length of the Trans-Siberian Railway, longest in the world
107 10 Mm 12.756 Mm Equatorial diameter of Earth
40.075 Mm Length of Earth's equator
108 100 Mm 142.984 Mm Diameter of Jupiter
299.792 Mm Distance traveled by light in one second
384.4 Mm Moon's orbital distance from Earth
109 1 gigametre (Gm) 1.39 Gm Diameter of the Sun
4.8 Gm Greatest mileage ever recorded by a car (3 million miles by a 1966 Volvo P-1800S, still driving)
1010 10 Gm 18 Gm Approximately one light-minute
1011 100 Gm 150 Gm 1 astronomical unit (AU); mean distance between Earth and Sun
1012 1 terametre (Tm) 1.3 Tm Optical diameter of Betelgeuse
1.4 Tm Orbital distance of Saturn from Sun
2 Tm Estimated optical diameter of VY Canis Majoris, one of the largest known stars
5.9 Tm Orbital distance of Pluto from Sun
~ 7.5 Tm Outer boundary of the Kuiper belt, inner boundary of the Oort cloud (~ 50 AU)
1013 10 Tm Diameter of the Solar System as a whole[1]
21.49 Tm Distance of the Voyager 1 spacecraft from Sun (as of Oct 2018), the farthest man-made object so far[32]
62.03 Tm Estimated radius of the event horizon of the supermassive black hole in NGC 4889, the largest known black hole to date
1014 100 Tm 180 Tm Size of the debris disk around the star 51 Pegasi[33]
200 Tm Total length of DNA molecules in all cells of an adult human body[citation needed]
1015 1 petametre (Pm) ~7.5 Pm Supposed outer boundary of the Oort cloud (~ 50,000 AU)
9.461 Pm Distance traveled by light in one year; at its current speed, Voyager 1 would need 17,500 years to travel this distance
1016 10 Pm 30.857 Pm 1 parsec
39.9 Pm Distance to nearest star (Proxima Centauri)
41.3 Pm As of March 2013, distance to nearest discovered extrasolar planet (Alpha Centauri Bc)
1017 100 Pm 193 Pm As of October 2010, distance to nearest discovered extrasolar planet with potential to support life as we know it (Gliese 581 d)
615 Pm Approximate radius of humanity's radio bubble, caused by high-power TV broadcasts leaking through the atmosphere into outer space
1018 1 exametre (Em) 1.9 Em Distance to nearby solar twin (HIP 56948), a star with properties virtually identical to our Sun[34]
1019 10 Em 9.46 Em Average thickness of Milky Way Galaxy[35] (1000 to 3000 ly by 21 cm observations[36])
1020 100 Em 113.5 Em Thickness of Milky Way Galaxy's gaseous disk[37]
1021 1 zettametre (Zm)
1.54 Zm Distance to SN 1987A, the most recent naked eye supernova
1.62 Zm Distance to the Large Magellanic Cloud (a dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way)
1.66 Zm Distance to the Small Magellanic Cloud (another dwarf galaxy orbiting the Milky Way)
1.9 Zm Diameter of galactic disk of Milky Way Galaxy[38][39][40][41]
6.15 Zm Diameter of the low surface brightness disc halo of the giant spiral galaxy Malin 1
1022 10 Zm 13.25 Zm Radius of the diffuse stellar halo of IC 1101, one of the largest known galaxies
24 Zm Distance to Andromeda Galaxy
30.857 Zm 1 megaparsec
50 Zm Diameter of Local Group of galaxies
1023 100 Zm 300–600 Zm Distance to Virgo cluster of galaxies
1024 1 yottametre (Ym) 2.19 Ym Diameter of the Local Supercluster and the largest voids and filaments
2.8 Ym End of Greatness
~5 Ym Diameter of the Horologium Supercluster[42]
9.461 Ym Diameter of the Pisces–Cetus Supercluster Complex, the supercluster complex where we live
1025 10 Ym 13 Ym Length of the Sloan Great Wall, a giant wall of galaxies (galactic filament)[43]
30.857 Ym 1 gigaparsec
37.84 Ym Length of the Huge-LQG, a group of 73 quasars
1026 100 Ym 95 Ym Estimated light travel distance to certain quasars. Length of the Hercules–Corona Borealis Great Wall, a colossal wall of galaxies, the largest and the most massive structure in the observable universe as of 2014
127 Ym Estimated light travel distance to UDFj-39546284, the most distant object ever observed
870 Ym Approximate diameter (comoving distance) of the visible universe[1]
1027 1000 Ym 1200 Ym Lower bound of the (possibly infinite) radius of the universe, if it is a 3-sphere, according to one estimate using the WMAP data at 95% confidence[44] It equivalently implies that there are at minimum 21 particle horizon-sized volumes in the universe.
${\displaystyle 10^{10^{115}}}$[note 3] ${\displaystyle 10^{10^{115}}}$ Ym ${\displaystyle 10^{10^{115}}}$Ym According to the laws of probability, the distance one must travel until one encounters a volume of space identical to our observable universe with conditions identical to our own.[45][46]
${\displaystyle 10^{10^{10^{122}}}}$ ${\displaystyle 10^{10^{10^{122}}}}$ Ym ${\displaystyle 10^{10^{10^{122}}}}$Ym Maximum size of universe after cosmological inflation, implied by one resolution of the No-Boundary Proposal[47]

## less than 10 yoctometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths shorter than 10−23 m (10 ym).

## 10 yoctometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−23 metres and 10−22 metres (10 ym and 100 ym).

## 100 yoctometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−22 m and 10−21 m (100 ym and 1 zm).

## 1 zeptometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−21 m and 10−20 m (1 zm and 10 zm).

## 10 zeptometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−20 m and 10−19 m (10 zm and 100 zm).

## 100 zeptometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−19 m and 10−18 m (100 zm and 1 am).

## 1 attometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−18 m and 10−17 m (1 am and 10 am).

## 10 attometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−17 m and 10−16 m (10 am and 100 am).

## 100 attometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−16 m and 10−15 m (100 am and 1 fm).

• 100 am – all lengths shorter than this distance are not confirmed in terms of size[citation needed]
• 850 am – approximate proton radius[citation needed]

## 1 femtometre

The femtometre (symbol fm) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to 10−15 metres. In particle physics, this unit is more commonly called a fermi, also with abbreviation "fm". To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−15 metres and 10−14 metres (1 femtometre and 10 fm).

## 10 femtometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−14 m and 10−13 m (10 fm and 100 fm).

## 100 femtometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−13 m and 10−12 m (100 fm and 1 pm).

• 570 fm – typical distance from the atomic nucleus of the two innermost electrons (electrons in the 1s shell) in the uranium atom, the heaviest naturally-occurring atom

## 1 picometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−12 and 10−11 m (1 pm and 10 pm).

## 10 picometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−11 and 10−10 m (10 pm and 100 pm).

## 100 picometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−10 and 10−9 m (100 pm and 1 nm).

## 1 nanometre

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−9 and 10−8 m (1 nm and 10 nm).

## 10 nanometres

To help compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 10−8 and 10−7 m (10 nm and 100 nm).

## 100 nanometres

Comparison of sizes of semiconductor manufacturing process nodes with some microscopic objects and visible light wavelengths. At this scale, the width of a human hair is about 10 times that of the image.[55]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−7 and 10−6 m (100 nm and 1 μm).

## 1 micrometre

The silk for a spider's web is around 5–7μm wide.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists some items with lengths between 10−6 and 10−5 m (between 1 and 10 micrometres, or μm).

## 10 micrometres

Fog particles are around 10–50 μm long.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−5 m and 10−4 m (10 μm and 100 μm).

## 100 micrometres

A paramecium is around 300 μm long.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−4 m and 10−3 m (100 μm and 1 mm). The term myriometre (abbr. mom, equivalent to 100 micrometres; frequently confused with the myriametre, 10 kilometres)[68] is deprecated; the decimal metric prefix myrio-[69] is obsolete[70][71][72] and was not included among the prefixes when the International System of Units was introduced in 1960.

## 1 millimetre

An average red ant is about 5 mm long.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−3 m and 10−2 m (1 mm and 1 cm).

## 1 centimetre

An average human fingernail is about 1 cm wide.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10−2 m and 10−1 m (1 cm and 1 dm).

## 1 decimetre

An adult human foot is about 28 centimetres long.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10 centimetres and 100 centimetres (10−1 metre and 1 metre).

### Conversions

10 centimetres (abbreviated to 10 cm) is equal to:

### Human-defined scales and structures

• 10.16 cm = 1.016 dm – 1 hand used in measuring height of horses (4 inches)
• 12 cm = 1.2 dm – diameter of a compact disc (CD) (= 120 mm)
• 15 cm = 1.5 dm – length of a Bic pen with cap on
• 22 cm = 2.2 dm – diameter of a typical association football (soccer ball)
• 30 cm = 3 dm – typical school-use ruler length (= 300 mm)
• 30.48 cm = 3.048 dm – 1 foot (measure)
• 60 cm = 6 dm – standard depth (front to back) of a domestic kitchen worktop in Europe (= 600 mm)
• 90 cm = 9 dm – average length of a rapier, a fencing sword[26]
• 91.44 cm = 9.144 dm – one yard (measure)

### Nature

• 10 cm = 1 dm – diameter of the human cervix upon entering the second stage of labour
• 11 cm = 1.1 dm – diameter of an average potato
• 15 cm = 1.5 dm – approximate size of largest beetle species
• 19 cm = 1.9 dm – length of a banana
• 26.3 cm = 2.6 dm – length of average male human foot
• 29.98 cm = 2.998 dm – distance light travels in one nanosecond
• 31 cm = 3.1 dm – wingspan of largest butterfly species Ornithoptera alexandrae
• 46 cm = 4.6 dm – length of an average domestic cat
• 50 to 65 cm = 5–6.5 dm – a coati's tail
• 66 cm = 6.6 dm – length of the longest pine cones (produced by the sugar pine[84])

### Astronomical

• 84 cm = 8.4 dm – approximate diameter of 2008 TS26, a meteoroid

## 1 metre

Leonardo da Vinci drew the Vitruvian Man within a square of side 1.83 metres and a circle about 1.2 metres in radius

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between one metre and ten metres. Light travels 1 metre in ​1299,792,458, or 3.3356409519815E-9 of a second.

1 metre is:

### Human-defined scales and structures

• 1 m – approximate height of the top part of a doorknob on a door
• 1 m – diameter of a very large beach ball
• 1.435 m – standard gauge of railway track used by about 60% of railways in the world = 4' 8½"
• 2.5 m – distance from the floor to the ceiling in an average residential house[85]
• 2.7 m – length of the Starr Bumble Bee II, the smallest plane
• 2.77–3.44 m – wavelength of the broadcast radio FM band 87–108 MHz
• 3.05 m – the length of an old Mini
• 8.38 m – the length of a London Bus (AEC Routemaster)

### Nature

• 1 m – height of Homo floresiensis (the "Hobbit")
• 1.15 m – a pizote (mammal)
• 1.37 m – average height of an Andamanese person
• 1.63 m – (5 feet 4 inches) (or 64 inches) - height of average US female human as of 2002 (source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC))
• 1.75 m – (5 feet 8 inches) - height of average US male human as of 2002 (source: US CDC as per female above)
• 2.5 m – height of a sunflower
• 2.72 m – (8 feet 11 inches) - tallest known human being (Robert Wadlow)[27]
• 3.63 m – the record wingspan for living birds (a wandering albatross)
• 5 m – length of an elephant
• 5.20 m – height of a giraffe[89]
• 5.5 m – height of a Baluchitherium, the largest land mammal ever lived
• 7 m – wingspan of Argentavis, the largest flying bird known
• 7.50 m – approximate length of the human gastrointestinal tract

## 1 decametre

A blue whale has been measured as 33 metres long; this drawing compares its length to that of a human diver and a dolphin

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10 metres and 100 metres.

### Conversions

10 metres (very rarely termed a decametre which is abbreviated as dam) is equal to:

### Sports

• 11 metres – approximate width of a doubles tennis court
• 15 metres – width of a standard FIBA basketball court
• 15.24 metres – width of an NBA basketball court (50 feet)
• 18.44 metres – distance between the front of the pitcher's rubber and the rear point of home plate on a baseball field (60 feet, 6 inches)[91]
• 20 metres – length of cricket pitch (22 yards)[92]
• 27.43 metres – distance between bases on a baseball field (90 feet)
• 28 metres – length of a standard FIBA basketball court
• 28.65 metres – length of an NBA basketball court (94 feet)
• 49 metres – width of an American football field (53⅓ yards)
• 59.436 metres – width of a Canadian football field (65 yards)
• 70 metres – typical width of soccer field
• 91 metres – length of American football field (100 yards, measured between the goal lines)
• 105 metres – length of football pitch (UEFA Stadium Category 3 and 4)

## 1 hectometre

The Great Pyramid of Giza is 138.8 metres high.
British driver location sign and location marker post on the M27 in Hampshire. The location marker posts are installed at 100-metre intervals[95]

To compare different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths between 100 metres and 1000 metres (1 kilometre).

### Conversions

100 metres (sometimes termed a hectometre) is equal to:

• 328 feet
• one side of a 1 hectare square
• a fifth of a modern li, a Chinese unit of measurement
• the approximate distance travelled by light in 300 nanoseconds

## 1 kilometre

Mount Fuji is 3.776 kilometres (3,776 metres) high

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 1 kilometre and 10 kilometres (103 and 104 metres).

### Conversions

1 kilometre (unit symbol km) is equal to:

## 10 kilometres

The Strait of Gibraltar is 13 kilometres wide

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 10 and 100 kilometres (104 to 105 metres). The myriametre[112] (sometimes also spelled myriameter, myriometre and myriometer) (10,000 metres) is a deprecated unit name; the decimal metric prefix myria-[69] (sometimes also written as myrio-[113][114][115]) is obsolete[70][71][72] and not included among the prefixes when the International System of Units was introduced in 1960.

### Conversions

10 kilometres is equal to:

Distance marker on the Rhine: 36 (XXXVI) myriametres from Basel. The stated distance is 360 km; comma is the decimal separator in Germany.

## 100 kilometres

The Suez Canal is 163 kilometres long

A length of 100 kilometres (about 62 miles), as a rough amount, is relatively common in measurements on Earth and for some astronomical objects. It is the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin.

To help compare orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths between 100 and 1,000 kilometres (105 and 106 metres).

### Conversions

A distance of 100 kilometres is equal to about 62 miles (or 62.13711922 miles).

## 1 megametre

Small planets, the Moon and dwarf planets in our solar system have diameters from one to ten million metres. Top row: Mars (left), Mercury (right); bottom row: Moon (left), Pluto (center), and Haumea (right), to scale.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths starting at 106 m (1 Mm or 1,000 km).

### Conversions

1 megametre is equal to:

## 10 megametres

Planets from Venus up to Uranus have diameters from ten to one hundred million metres. Top row: Uranus (left), Neptune (right); middle row: Earth (left), Sirius B (center), and Venus (right), to scale

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths starting at 107 metres (10 megametres or 10,000 kilometres).

### Conversions

10 megametres (10 Mm) is

## 100 megametres

The Earth-Moon orbit, Saturn, OGLE-TR-122b, Jupiter, and other objects, to scale. Click on image for detailed view and links to other length scales.

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists lengths starting at 108 metres (100 megametres or 100,000 kilometres or 62,150 miles).

## 1 gigametre

Upper part: Gamma Orionis, Algol B, the Sun (centre), underneath their darker mirror images (artist's interpretation), and to scale.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 109 metres (1 gigametre (Gm) or 1 billion metres).

## 10 gigametres

Rigel and Aldebaran (top left and right) compared to smaller stars, the Sun (very small dot in lower middle, with orbit of Mercury as yellow ellipse) and transparent sphere with radius of one light minute.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1010 metres (10 gigametres (Gm) or 10 million kilometres, or 0.07 Astronomical units).

## 100 gigametres

From largest to smallest: Jupiter's orbit, red supergiant star Betelgeuse, Mars' orbit, Earth's orbit, star R Doradus, and orbits of Venus, Mercury. Inside R Doradus' depiction are the blue giant star Rigel and red giant star Aldebaran. The faint yellow glow around the Sun represents one light minute. Click image to see more details and links to their scales.

To help compare distances at different orders of magnitude this section lists lengths starting at 1011 metres (100 gigametre|Gm or 100 million kilometres or 0.7 astronomical units).

• 109 Gm – 0.7 AU – Distance between Venus and the Sun
• 149.6 Gm (93.0 million mi) – 1.0 AU – Distance between the Earth and the Sun - the definition of the astronomical unit
• 180 Gm – 1.2 AU – Maximum diameter of Sagittarius A*, the supermassive black hole in the center of Milky Way galaxy
• 228 Gm – 1.5 AU – Distance between Mars and the Sun
• 570 Gm – 3.8 AU – Length of the tail of Comet Hyakutake measured by Ulysses; the actual value could be much higher
• 591 Gm – 4.0 AU – Minimum distance between the Earth and Jupiter
• 780 Gm – 5.2 AU – Distance between Jupiter and the Sun
• 947 Gm – 6.4 AU – Diameter of Antares A
• 965 Gm – 6.4 AU – Maximum distance between the Earth and Jupiter

## 1 terametre

8 things in the terameter group
Comparison of size of the Kuiper belt (large faint torus) with the star VY Canis Majoris (within Saturn's orbit), Betelgeuse (inside Jupiter's orbit) and R Doradus (small central red sphere) together with the orbits of Neptune and Uranus, to scale. The yellow ellipses represent the orbits of each planet and the dwarf planet Pluto.

To help compare different distances, this section lists lengths starting at 1012 m (1 Tm or 1 billion km or 6.7 astronomical units).

• 1.079 Tm – 7.2 AU – One light-hour
• 1.4 Tm – 9.5 AU – Distance between Saturn and the Sun
• 1.83 Tm – 12.2 AU – Diameter of HR 5171 A, the largest known yellow hypergiant star although the latest research suggests it is a red hypergiant with a diameter about 2.1 Tm (14 AU)[137][138]
• 1.5 Tm - 10 AU - Estimated diameter of VV Cephei A, a red supergiant.[139]
• 2 Tm – 13.2 AU – Estimated diameter of VY Canis Majoris, one of the largest known stars.[140]
• 2.9 Tm – 19.4 AU – Distance between Uranus and the Sun
• 4 Tm – 26.7 AU – Previous estimated diameter of VY Canis Majoris based on direct measurements of the radius at infrared wavelengths.[141] The size was revised in 2012 through improved measurement techniques. (see above)[140]
• 4.4 Tm – 29.4 AU – Perihelion distance of Pluto
• 4.5 Tm – 30.1 AU – Distance between Neptune and the Sun
• 4.5 Tm – 30.1 AU – Inner radius of the Kuiper belt
• 5.7 Tm – 38.1 AU – Perihelion distance of Eris
• 7.3 Tm – 48.8 AU – Aphelion distance of Pluto
• 7.5 Tm – 50.1 AU – Outer radius of the Kuiper Belt, inner boundary of the Oort Cloud

## 10 terametres

Sedna's orbit (left) is longer than 100 Tm, but other lengths are between 10 and 100 Tm: Comet Hale-Bopp's orbit (lower, faint orange); one light-day (yellow spherical shell with yellow Vernal point arrow as radius); the heliosphere's termination shock (blue shell); and other arrows show positions of Voyager 1 (red) and Pioneer 10 (green). Click on image for larger view and links to other scales.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1013 m (10 Tm or 10 billion km or 67 astronomical units).

• 10 Tm – 67 AU – Diameter of a hypothetical Quasi-star
• 11.1 Tm – 74.2 AU – Distance that Voyager 1 began detecting returning particles from termination shock
• 11.4 Tm – 76.2 AU – Perihelion distance of 90377 Sedna
• 12.1 Tm – 70 to 90 AU – Distance to termination shock (Voyager 1 crossed at 94 AU)
• 12.9 Tm – 86.3 AU – Distance to 90377 Sedna in March 2014
• 13.2 Tm – 88.6 AU – Distance to Pioneer 11 in March 2014
• 14.1 Tm – 94.3 AU – Estimated radius of the solar system
• 14.4 Tm – 96.4 AU – Distance to Eris in March 2014 (now near its aphelion)
• 15.1 Tm – 101 AU – Distance to heliosheath
• 16.5 Tm – 111 AU – Distance to Pioneer 10 as of March 2014
• 16.6 Tm - 111.2 AU - Distance to Voyager 2 as of May 2016
• 20.0 Tm - 135 AU - Distance to Voyager 1 as of May 2016
• 20.6 Tm – 138 AU - Distance to Voyager 1 as of late February 2017
• 21.1 Tm – 141 AU - Distance to Voyager 1 as of November 2017
• 25.9 Tm – 172 AU – One light-day
• 55.7 Tm – 371 AU – Aphelion distance of the comet Hale-Bopp

## 100 terametres

The largest yellow sphere indicates one light month distance from the Sun. Click the image for larger view, more details and links to other scales.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1014 m (100 Tm or 100 billion km or 670 astronomical units).

## 1 petametre

Largest circle with yellow arrow indicates one light year from Sun; Cat's Eye Nebula on left and Barnard 68 in middle are depicted in front of Comet 1910 A1's orbit. Click image for larger view, details and links to other scales.

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1015 m (1 Pm or 1 trillion km or 6685 astronomical units (AU) or 0.11 light years).

## 10 petametres

Objects with size order of magnitude 1e16m: Ten light years (94.6 Pm) radius circle with yellow Vernal Point arrow; Bubble Nebula (NGC 7635), left; Dumbbell Nebula (NGC 6853), right; one light year shell lower right with the smaller Cat's Eye Nebula (NGC_6543) and Barnard 68 adjacent.
1e16m lengths: Ten light years (94.6 Pm) yellow shell; Sirius below right; BL Ceti below left; Proxima and Alpha Centauri upper right; light year shell with Comet 1910 A1's orbit inside top right

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths starting at 1016 m (10 Pm or 66,800 AU, 1.06 light years).

## 100 petametres

Lengths with order of magnitude 1e17m: yellow Vernal Point arrow traces hundred light year radius circle with smaller ten light year circle at right; globular cluster Messier 5 in background; 12 light year radius Orion Nebula middle right; 50 light year wide view of the Carina Nebula bottom left; Pleiades cluster and Bubble nebula with similar diameters each around 10 light years bottom right; grey arrows show distances from Sun to stars Aldebaran (65 light years) and Vega (25 light years).

To help compare different distances this section lists lengths between 1017 m (100 Pm or 11 light years) and 1018 m (106 light years).

• 110 Pm – 12 light years – Distance to Tau Ceti
• 230 Pm – 24 light years – Diameter of the Orion Nebula[147][148]
• 240 Pm – 25 light years – Distance to Vega
• 260 Pm – 27 light years – Distance to Chara, a star approximately as bright as our Sun. Its faintness gives us an idea how our Sun would appear when viewed from even so close a distance as this.
• 350 Pm – 37 light years – Distance to Arcturus
• 373.1 Pm – 39.44 light years - Distance to TRAPPIST-1, a star recently discovered to have 7 planets around it
• 400 Pm – 42 light years – Distance to Capella
• 620 Pm – 65 light years – Distance to Aldebaran
• 750 Pm - 79.36 light years - Distance to Regulus
• 900 Pm - 92.73 light years - Distance to Algol

## 1 exametre

Lengths with order of magnitude 1e18m: thousand light year radius circle with yellow arrow and 100 light year circle at right with globular cluster Messier 5 within and Carina Nebula in front; globular cluster Omega Centauri to left of both; part of the 1400 light year wide Tarantula Nebula fills the background.

This list includes distances between 1 and 10 exametres (1018 m). To help compare different distances this section lists lengths between 1018 m (1 Em or 105.7 light years) and 1019 m (1057 light years).

## 10 exametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 10 Em (1019 m or 1,100 light years).

## 100 exametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 100 Em (1020 m or 11,000 light years).

## 1 zettametre

The zettametre (SI symbol: Zm) is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1021 metres.[155]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 1 Zm (1021 m or 110,000 light years).

## 10 zettametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 10 Zm (1022 m or 1.1 million light years).

## 100 zettametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 100 Zm (1023 m or 11 million light years).

## 1 yottametre

The yottametre, or yottameter in the US, ( SI symbol: Ym) is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1024 metres[155]

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 1 Ym (1024 m or 105.702 million light years).

## 10 yottametres

The universe within 1 billion light years of Earth

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 10 Ym (1025 m or 1.1 billion light-years). At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant. Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used.

## 100 yottametres

To help compare different orders of magnitude, this section lists distances starting at 100 Ym (1026 m or 11 billion light years). At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant. Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depend on the cosmological models used.

Distances longer than 100 Ym

• 130 Ym – redshift 6.41 – 13 billion light years – Light travel distance (LTD) to the quasar SDSS J1148+5251
• 130 Ym – redshift 1000 – 13.8 billion light years – Distance (LTD) to the source of the cosmic microwave background radiation; radius of the observable universe measured as a LTD
• 260 Ym – 27.4 billion light years – Diameter of the observable universe (double LTD)
• 440 Ym – 46 billion light years – Radius of the universe measured as a comoving distance
• 590 Ym – 62 billion light years – Cosmological event horizon: the largest comoving distance from which light will ever reach us (the observer) at any time in the future
• 886.48 Ym – 93.7 billion light years – The diameter of the observable universe; however, there might be unobserved distances that are even greater.
• >1,000 Ym (1 kYm or xennameter in older usage) – Size of universe beyond the cosmic light horizon, depending on its curvature; if the curvature is zero (i.e. the universe is spatially flat), the value can be infinite (see Shape of the universe) as previously mentioned

## Notes

1. ^ The diameter of human hair ranges from 17 to 181 μm Ley, Brian (1999). Elert, Glenn (ed.). "Diameter of a human hair". The Physics Factbook. Retrieved 8 December 2018.
2. ^ a b The exact category (asteroid, dwarf planet, or planet) to which particular Solar System objects belong, has been subject to some revision since the discovery of extrasolar planets and trans-Neptunian objects
3. ^ 10115 is 1 followed by 115 zeroes, or a googol multiplied by a quadrillion. 1010115 is 1 followed by a quadrillion googol zeroes. 101010122is 1 followed by 1010122 (a googolplex10 sextillion) zeroes.
4. ^ But not cloud or high-level fog droplets; droplet size increases with altitude. For a contradictory study indicating larger drop sizes even in ground fog, see Eldridge, Ralph G. (October 1961). "A Few Fog Drop-Size Distributions". Journal of Meteorology. 18 (5): 671–6. Bibcode:1961JAtS...18..671E. doi:10.1175/1520-0469(1961)018<0671:AFFDSD>2.0.CO;2.

## References

1. Cliff Burgess; Fernando Quevedo (November 2007). "The Great Cosmic Roller-Coaster Ride". Scientific American. p. 55. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
2. ^ Carl R. Nave. "Cowan and Reines Neutrino Experiment". Hyperphysics. Retrieved 4 December 2008. (6.3 × 10−44 cm2, which gives an effective radius of about 2 × 10−24 m)
3. ^ Carl R. Nave. "Neutron Absorption Cross-sections". Hyperphysics. Retrieved 4 December 2008. (area for 20 GeV about 10 × 10−42 m2 gives effective radius of about 2 × 10−21 m; for 250 GeV about 150 × 10−42 m2 gives effective radius of about 7 × 10−21 m)
4. ^ Abbott, B. P.; et al. (2016). "Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger". Physical Review Letters. 116 (6): 061102. arXiv:1602.03837. Bibcode:2016PhRvL.116f1102A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.061102. PMID 26918975. On 14 September 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10−21.
5. ^ Pohl, R.; et al. (July 2010). "The size of the proton". Nature. 466 (7303): 213–6. Bibcode:2010Natur.466..213P. doi:10.1038/nature09250. PMID 20613837.
6. ^ Carl R. Nave. "Scattering Cross Section". Retrieved 10 February 2009. (diameter of the scattering cross section of an 11 MeV proton with a target proton)
7. ^ "CODATA Value: classical electron radius". The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. NIST.
8. ^ H. E. Smith. "The Scale of the Universe". UCSD. Retrieved 10 February 2009. ~10−13cm
9. ^ Mark Winter (2008). "WebElements Periodic Table of the Elements / Sulfur / Radii". Retrieved 6 December 2008.
10. ^ Flahaut E, Bacsa R, Peigney A, Laurent C (June 2003). "Gram-scale CCVD synthesis of double-walled carbon nanotubes" (PDF). Chemical Communications. 12 (12): 1442–3. doi:10.1039/b301514a. PMID 12841282.
11. ^ Stewart, Robert. "Dr". Radiobiology Software. Archived from the original on 30 June 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
12. ^ Langevin, Dominique (2008). "Chapter 10: DNA-Surfactant/Lipid Complexes at Liquid Interfaces". In Dias, Rita S; Lindman, Bjorn (eds.). DNA Interactions with Polymers and Surfactants. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 265. doi:10.1002/9780470286364.ch10. ISBN 978-0-470-25818-7. DNA has 20 elementary charges per helical turn over the corresponding length of 3.4nm
13. ^
14. ^ "Hard drive basics – Capacities, RPM speeds, interfaces, and mechanics". helpwithpcs.com. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
15. ^ Cohn, J. University of California, Berkeley Lyman alpha systems and cosmology. Retrieved 21 February 2009.
16. ^ Seth, S.D.; Seth, Vimlesh (2009). Textbook of Pharmacology (3rd ed.). Elsevier. p. X111. ISBN 978-81-312-1158-8.
17. ^ Nave, Carl R (2016). "Color". HyperPhysics. Georgia State University.
18. ^ "Size of bacteria". What are bacteria?. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
19. ^ Ko, Frank K.; Kawabata, Sueo; Inoue, Mari; Niwa, Masako; Fossey, Stephen; Song, John W. "Engineering properties of spider silk" (PDF). web.mit.edu.
20. ^ Doohan, Jim. "Blood cells". biosbcc.net. Archived from the original on 23 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016.
21. ^ a b c d According to The Physics Factbook, the diameter of human hair ranges from 17 to 181 μmLey, Brian (1999). "Width of a Human Hair". The Physics Factbook.
22. ^ a b Liu Z, Huang AJ, Pflugfelder SC (July 1999). "Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system". The British Journal of Ophthalmology. 83 (7): 774–8. doi:10.1136/bjo.83.7.774. PMC 1723104. PMID 10381661.
23. ^ a b Order Siphonaptera – Fleas – BugGuide.Net Accessed 29 April 2014
24. ^ a b "Official Rules". MLB. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
25. ^ Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr. and William H. Scheuner. "Pinus lambertiana". Retrieved 19 January 2017.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
26. ^ a b "What is a rapier - Renaissance swords Rapiers". 2-Clicks Swords.
27. ^ a b
28. ^ "Animal Records". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on 23 August 2004.
29. ^ a b "Niagara Falls Geology Facts & Figures". Niagara Parks Commission. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 29 June 2011.
30. ^ a b "Three Gorges Dam". encyclopedia.com. Cengage Learning.
31. ^ a b Thomas PC, Parker JW, McFadden LA, Russell CT, Stern SA, Sykes MV, Young EF (September 2005). "Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape". Nature. 437 (7056): 224–6. Bibcode:2005Natur.437..224T. doi:10.1038/nature03938. PMID 16148926.
32. ^ "Spacecraft escaping the Solar System". Heavens Above. Archived from the original on 7 October 2018. Retrieved 19 October 2018.
33. ^ "Twin Keck telescopes probe dual dust disks". (e) Science News. 24 September 2009.
34. ^ Shiga, David. "Sun's 'twin' an ideal hunting ground for alien life". New Scientist. Retrieved 3 October 2007.
35. ^ Christian, Eric; Samar, Safi-Harb. "How large is the Milky Way?". Retrieved 14 November 2008.
36. ^ Duncan, Martin (2008). "16" (PDF). Physics 216 – Introduction to Astrophysics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 December 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2008.
37. ^ "Milky Way fatter than first thought". The Sydney Morning Herald. Australian Associated Press. 20 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 14 November 2008.
38. ^ M. López-Corredoira, C. Allende Prieto, F. Garzón, H. Wang, C. Liu and L. Deng (2018). "Disk stars in the Milky Way detected beyond 25 kpc from its center". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 612: L8. arXiv:1804.03064. Bibcode:2018A&A...612L...8L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201832880.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
39. ^ David Freeman (25 May 2018). "The Milky Way galaxy may be much bigger than we thought" (Press release). CNBC.
40. ^ Mary L. Martialay (11 March 2015). "The Corrugated Galaxy—Milky Way May Be Much Larger Than Previously Estimated" (Press release). Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Archived from the original on 13 March 2015.
41. ^ Hall, Shannon (4 May 2015). "Size of the Milky Way Upgraded, Solving Galaxy Puzzle". Space.com. Archived from the original on 7 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2015.
42. ^ "The Horologium Supercluster". Atlas of the Universe.
43. ^ Gott, J. Richard; Jurić, Mario; Schlegel, David; Hoyle, Fiona; Vogeley, Michael; Tegmark, Max; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jon (2005). "A Map of the Universe". The Astrophysical Journal. 624 (2): 463. arXiv:astro-ph/0310571. Bibcode:2005ApJ...624..463G. doi:10.1086/428890.
44. ^ Scott, Douglas; Zibin, J.P. (2006). "How Many Universes Do There Need To Be?". International Journal of Modern Physics D. 15 (12): 2229–2233. arXiv:astro-ph/0605709v2. Bibcode:2006IJMPD..15.2229S. doi:10.1142/S0218271806009662.
45. ^ Tegmark, M. (2003). "Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations". Scientific American. 288 (5): 40–51. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329.
46. ^ Tegmark M (May 2003). "Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations". Scientific American. 288 (5): 40–51. arXiv:astro-ph/0302131. Bibcode:2003SciAm.288e..40T. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329.
47. ^ Page, Don N.; Allende Prieto, C.; Garzon, F.; Wang, H.; Liu, C.; Deng, L. (2007). "Susskind's challenge to the Hartle Hawking no-boundary proposal and possible resolutions". Journal of Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics. 2007 (1): 004. arXiv:hep-th/0610199. Bibcode:2007JCAP...01..004P. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2007/01/004.
48. ^
49. ^ "Buckminsterfullerene: Molecule of the Month". www.chm.bris.ac.uk. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
50. ^ Annis, Patty J. October 1991. Kansas State University. Fine Particle POLLUTION. Figure 1. (tobacco smoke: 10 to 1000 nm; virus particles: 3 to 50 nm; bacteria: 30 to 30000 nm; cooking oil smoke: 30 to 30000 nm; wood smoke: 7 to 3000 nm)
51. ^ Stryer, Lubert (1988). Biochemistry. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman. ISBN 978-0-7167-1843-7.
52. ^ "Through the Microscope". www.microbiologytext.com.
53. ^ "Moore's Law Marches on at Intel". Physorg.com. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
54. ^ "Hard drive basics - Capacities, RPM speeds, interfaces and mechanics". www.helpwithpcs.com.
55. ^ Graham T. Smith (2002). Industrial metrology. Springer. p. 253. ISBN 978-1-85233-507-6.
56. ^ Eninger, Robert M.; Hogan, Christopher J.; Biswas, Pratim; Adhikari, Atin; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A. (2009). "Electrospray versus Nebulization for Aerosolization and Filter Testing with Bacteriophage Particles". Aerosol Science and Technology. 43 (4): 298–304. Bibcode:2009AerST..43..298E. doi:10.1080/02786820802626355.
57. ^ Seth (18 November 2009). Textbook Of Pharmacology. Elsevier India. ISBN 9788131211588 – via Google Books.
58. ^ Spencer RC (March 2003). "Bacillus anthracis". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 56 (3): 182–7. doi:10.1136/jcp.56.3.182. PMC 1769905. PMID 12610093.
59. ^ Walker K, Skelton H, Smith K (November 2002). "Cutaneous lesions showing giant yeast forms of Blastomyces dermatitidis". Journal of Cutaneous Pathology. 29 (10): 616–8. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0560.2002.291009.x. PMID 12453301.
60. ^ Smith, D.J. (2009). "Human sperm accumulation near surfaces: a simulation study" (PDF). Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 621: 295. Bibcode:2009JFM...621..289S. doi:10.1017/S0022112008004953. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
61. ^ "NAC Audio Cassette Glossary – Cassetro". nactape.com. Retrieved 16 March 2018.
62. ^ "Genes are real things :: DNA from the Beginning". www.dnaftb.org.
63. ^ Gordon Ramel. "Spider Silk". Archived from the original on 4 December 2008. Retrieved 4 December 2008. garden spider silk has a diameter of about 0.003 mm ... Dragline silk (about 0.00032 inch (0.008 mm) in Nephila)
64. ^ Wise, R.R.; Hoober, J.K. (2007). The Structure and Function of Plastids. Springer. p. 14. ISBN 978-1-4020-6570-5.
65. ^ Zak, J. Allen (April 1994). Drop Size Distributions and Related Properties of Fog for Five Locations Measured From Aircraft (PDF) (Report). Hampton, VA: NASALangley Research Center. 4585.
66. ^ a b IST - Innovative Sintering Technologies Ltd. "Fibreshape applications". Retrieved 4 December 2008. Histogram of cotton thickness
67. ^ Morton Lippmann (2000). Environmental Toxicants: Human Exposures and Their Health Effects. John Wiley and Sons. p. 453. ISBN 978-0-471-29298-2. Retrieved 4 December 2008. 20 μm .. 5 μm
68. ^ Gyllenbok, Jan (2018). Encyclopedia of Historical Metrology, Weights, and Measures. Birkhäuser. ISBN 9783319575988.
69. ^ a b "La Loi Du 18 Germinal An 3 - Décision de tracer le mètre, unité fondamentale, sur une règle de platine. Nomenclature des "mesures républicaines". Reprise de la triangulation" (in French). histoire.du.metre.free.fr. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
70. ^ a b Comité International des Poids et Mesures (1935). "Procès-Verbaux des Séances" (in French). 17 (2 ed.). Paris, France: Gauthier-Villars, imprimeur-libraire du Bureau des Longitudes, de l'École Polytechnique: 76.
71. ^ a b Roberts, Richard W. (1 June 1975). Metric System of Weights and Measures - Guidelines for Use. USA: Director of the National Bureau of Standards. Federal Register FR Doc.75-15798 (1975-06-18). Accordingly, the following units and terms listed in the table of metric units in section 2 of the act of 28 July 1866, that legalized the metric system of weights and measures in the United States, are no longer accepted for use in the United States: myriameter, stere, millier or tonneau, quintal, myriagram, kilo (for kilogram).
72. ^ a b Judson, Lewis V. (1 October 1976) [1963]. "Appendix 7" (PDF). In Barbrow, Louis E. (ed.). Weights and Measures Standards of the United States, a brief history. Derived from a prior work by Louis A. Fisher (1905). USA: US Department of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. p. 33. LCCN 76-600055. NBS Special Publication 447; NIST SP 447; 003-003-01654-3. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
73. ^ Kim Popiolek. "Dr. Charles Lindemann's Lab: Sperm Facts". Oakland University.
74. ^ Santoso, Alex (17 June 2006). "World's Biggest Sperm Belongs to a Tiny Fly". Neatorama.
75. ^ House Dust Mites HYG-2157-97. Retrieved 2008-12-04
76. ^ "CNN - Scientists discover biggest bacteria ever - April 15, 1999". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
77. ^ "World's Smallest Frog Found—Fly-Size Beast Is Tiniest Vertebrate". 13 January 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
78. ^
79. ^ "World's smallest vertebrate has a big secret". New Scientist. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
80. ^ Lindstrom, Hannah. "The Smallest Salamander". Mongabay.com. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
81. ^ "Comparing quail eggs". BackYard Chickens. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
82. ^ "USGA: Guide to the Rules on Clubs and Balls". USGA. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
83. ^ "Credit Card Dimensions". Dimensions Info. 11 January 2014.
84. ^ Bohun B. Kinloch, Jr. & William H. Scheuner. "Pinus lambertiana". Archived from the original on 8 June 2011. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
85. ^ "HTwins.net - The Scale of the Universe". htwins.net. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
86. ^ a b Laws of the Game (PDF), FIFA, 1 June 2017
87. ^ IAAF International Association of Athletics Federations - IAAF.org - Statistics - Top Lists, archived from the original on 16 January 2008, retrieved 9 April 2010
88. ^ IAAF International Association of Athletics Federations - IAAF.org - Past Results, archived from the original on 4 June 2011, retrieved 9 April 2010
89. ^ Dagg, A. I. (1971), Mammalian Species 5 (Giraffa camelopardalis ed.), pp. 1–8
90. ^ Plait, P. (6 October 2008). "Incoming!!!". Bad Astronomy. Archived from the original on 7 October 2008. Retrieved 8 October 2008.
91. ^ "Rule 1.04 The Playing Field" (PDF). Official Baseball Rules. Major League Baseball. 25 January 2010. pp. 1–5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 April 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011. See especially Diagram No. 1, page 3.
92. ^ "Law 7 (The pitch)". Laws of Cricket. Marylebone Cricket Club. October 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2011.
93. ^ "Animal Records". Smithsonian National Zoological Park. Archived from the original on 28 March 2009. Retrieved 29 May 2007.
94. ^ "Longest Animal". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 15 June 2019.
95. ^ Highways Agency. "Driver Location Signs - Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2010.
96. ^ "Kingda Ka (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Archived from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2009.
97. ^ "Tour Eiffel". Archived from the original on 16 December 1996. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
98. ^ Campbell, Marilyn (17 February 2018). "How Tall is the CN Tower?". TripSavvy. Retrieved 20 May 2017.
99. ^ "Burj Dubai all set for 09/09/09 soft opening". Emirates Business 24-7. Archived from the original on 19 January 2009. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
100. ^ "Tallest tree in the world: coast redwood". Monumental Trees, an inventory of big and old trees worldwide.
101. ^ Fujiwara A, Kawaguchi J, Yeomans DK, Abe M, Mukai T, Okada T, Saito J, Yano H, Yoshikawa M, Scheeres DJ, Barnouin-Jha O, Cheng AF, Demura H, Gaskell RW, Hirata N, Ikeda H, Kominato T, Miyamoto H, Nakamura AM, Nakamura R, Sasaki S, Uesugi K (June 2006). "The rubble-pile asteroid Itokawa as observed by Hayabusa". Science. 312 (5778): 1330–4. Bibcode:2006Sci...312.1330F. doi:10.1126/science.1125841. PMID 16741107.
102. ^ "long wave". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 12 March 2011. wavelength above one kilometre (and a frequency below 300 kHz)
103. ^ "Golden Gate Bridge official website". Retrieved 10 June 2012.
104. ^ "Nautical mile". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 12 March 2011.
105. ^ Akashi Kaikyo Bridge @ Everything2.com, Everything2, 9 September 2002, retrieved 19 April 2009
106. ^ Jeffrey Friedl (9 December 2008), Supporting the Longest Suspension Bridge in the World, archived from the original on 3 March 2009, retrieved 19 April 2009
107. ^ New height of world's railway born in Tibet, Xinhua News Agency, 24 August 2005, archived from the original on 3 June 2009, retrieved 19 April 2009
108. ^
109. ^ "Russians in landmark Baikal dive". BBC News. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 12 March 2011. current record of 1,637m was set in Lake Baikal in the 1990s
110. ^ "Kosciuszko National Park lookouts and scenery". Office of Environment & Heritage: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
111. ^ "Carstensz Pyramid details". Carstensz Pyramid Site. Archived from the original on 16 December 2014.
112. ^ Appell, Wolfgang (16 September 2009) [2002]. "Königreich Frankreich" [Kingdom of France]. Amtliche Maßeinheiten in Europa 1842 [Official units of measure in Europe 1842] (in German). Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. (Website based on Alte Meß- und Währungssysteme aus dem deutschen Sprachgebiet, ISBN 3-7686-1036-5)
113. ^ Brewster, David (1830). The Edinburgh Encyclopædia. 12. Edinburgh, UK: William Blackwood, John Waugh, John Murray, Baldwin & Cradock, J. M. Richardson. p. 494. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
114. ^ Brewster, David (1832). The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia. 12 (1st American ed.). Joseph and Edward Parker. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
115. ^ Dingler, Johann Gottfried (1823). Polytechnisches Journal (in German). 11. Stuttgart, Germany: J.W. Gotta'schen Buchhandlung. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
116. ^ Haugen, Einar, Norwegian English Dictionary, 1965, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget and Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, s.v. mil
117. ^ "What is a farsakh or farsang?". sizes.com.
118. ^ "IAAF Competition Rules 2008" (PDF). IAAF. p. 195. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 March 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
119. ^ Gregory Kennedy. "Stratolab, an Evolutionary Stratospheric Balloon Project".
120. ^ Wise, Jeff (1 October 2009). "Turkey Building the World's Deepest Immersed Tube Tunnel". Popular Mechanics. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
121. ^ "Facts and History about the Panama Canal". Archived from the original on 14 March 2016.
122. ^ Highest and lowest points on Mars Archived 31 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine NASA
123. ^ Plescia, Jeff (1 October 1997). "Height of Martian vs. Earth mountains". Questions and Answers about Mars terrain and geology. Archived from the original on 14 October 2008. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
124. ^ "High Speed 1 Project Hoem". www.betchel.com. Betchel Corporation. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
125. ^ "Bordeaux-Paris | the event". www.bordeauxparis.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2017. Retrieved 30 April 2017.
126. ^ "FAQ-Alaska Highway Facts". The MILEPOST. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 25 August 2007. 1,390 miles ... Alaska Route 2 and often treated as a natural extension of the Alaska Highway
127. ^ Downward, R.J.; Bromell, J.E. (March 1990). "The development of a policy for the management of dingo populations in South Australia". Proceedings of the Fourteenth Vertebrate Pest Conference 1990. University of Nebraska - Lincoln. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2009.
128. ^ "China's Great Wall far longer than thought: survey". AFP. 20 April 2009. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
129. ^ CIS railway timetable, route No. 002, Moscow-Vladivostok. Archived 2009-12-03.
130. ^ CIS railway timetable, route No. 350, Kiev-Vladivostok. Archived 2009-12-03.
131. ^ McGourty, Christine (14 December 2005). "Hubble finds mass of white dwarf". BBC News. Retrieved 13 October 2007.
132. ^ NASA Staff (10 May 2011). "Solar System Exploration - Earth's Moon: Facts & Figures". NASA. Archived from the original on 7 November 2011. Retrieved 6 November 2011.
133. ^ "Sun Fact Sheet". nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov.
134. ^ Neuroscience: The Science of the Brain"Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 February 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link) p.44
135. ^ Moravveji, Ehsan; Guinan, Edward F; Shultz, Matt; Williamson, Michael H; Moya, Andres (4 January 2012). "Asteroseismology of the Nearby SN-II Progenitor: Rigel Part I. The MOST High Precision Photometry and Radial Velocity Monitoring". Astrophysical Journal. 747 (2): 2. arXiv:1201.0843. Bibcode:2012ApJ...747..108M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/747/2/108.
136. ^ Richichi, A.; Roccatagliata, V.; Shultz, Matt; Williamson, Michael H.; Moya, Andres (2005). "Aldebaran's angular diameter: How well do we know it?". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 433 (1): 305–312. arXiv:astro-ph/0502181. Bibcode:2005A&A...433..305R. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20041765. They derived an angular diameter of 20.58±0.03 milliarcsec, which given a distance of 65 light years yields a diameter of 61 million km.
137. ^ Chesneau, O.; Meilland, A.; Chapellier, E.; Millour, F.; Van Genderen, A. M.; Nazé, Y.; Smith, N.; Spang, A.; Smoker, J. V.; Dessart, L.; Kanaan, S.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Feast, M. W.; Groh, J. H.; Lobel, A.; Nardetto, N.; Otero, S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Tekola, A. G.; Whitelock, P. A.; Arcos, C.; Curé, M.; Vanzi, L. (2014). "The yellow hypergiant HR 5171 A: Resolving a massive interacting binary in the common envelope phase". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 563: A71. arXiv:1401.2628v2. Bibcode:2014A&A...563A..71C. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201322421.
138. ^ Wittkowski, M; Abellan, F. J; Arroyo-Torres, B; Chiavassa, A; Guirado, J. C; Marcaide, J. M; Alberdi, A; De Wit, W. J; Hofmann, K.-H; Meilland, A; Millour, F; Mohamed, S; Sanchez-Bermudez, J (28 September 2017). "Multi-epoch VLTI-PIONIER imaging of the supergiant V766 Cen: Image of the close companion in front of the primary". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 1709: L1. arXiv:1709.09430. Bibcode:2017A&A...606L...1W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201731569.
139. ^ Bauer, W. H.; Gull, T. R.; Bennett, P. D. (2008). "Spatial Extension in the Ultraviolet Spectrum of Vv Cephei". The Astronomical Journal. 136 (3): 1312. Bibcode:2008AJ....136.1312H. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/136/3/1312.
140. ^ a b Wittkowski, M.; Hauschildt, P.H.; Arroyo-Torres, B.; Marcaide, J.M. (5 April 2012). "Fundamental properties and atmospheric structure of the red supergiant VY CMa based on VLTI/AMBER spectro-interferometry". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 540: L12. arXiv:1203.5194. Bibcode:2012A&A...540L..12W. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219126.
141. ^ Monnier, J. D; Millan-Gabet, R; Tuthill, P. G; Traub, W. A; Carleton, N. P; Coudé Du Foresto, V; Danchi, W. C; Lacasse, M. G; Morel, S; Perrin, G; Porro, I. L; Schloerb, F. P; Townes, C. H (2004). "High-Resolution Imaging of Dust Shells by Using Keck Aperture Masking and the IOTA Interferometer". The Astrophysical Journal. 605 (1): 436–461. arXiv:astro-ph/0401363. Bibcode:2004ApJ...605..436M. doi:10.1086/382218.
142. ^ "Comet Hyakutake: Orbital elements and 10-day ephemeris". European Space Agency. Retrieved 7 December 2008.
143. ^ Parthasarathy, M. (2000). "Birth and early evolution of planetary nebulae". Bulletin of the Astronomical Society of India. 28: 217–224. Bibcode:2000BASI...28..217P.
144. ^
145. ^ radius = distance times sin(angular diameter/2) = 0.2 light year. Distance = 3.3 ± 0.9 kly; angular diameter = 20 arcseconds(Reed et al. 1999)
146. ^ Michael Szpir (May – June 2001). "Bart Bok's Black Blobs". American Scientist. Archived from the original on 29 June 2003. Retrieved 19 November 2008. Bok globules such as Barnard 68 are only about half a light-year across and weigh in at about two solar masses
147. ^ Sandstrom, Karin M; Peek, J. E. G.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Plambeck, Richard L. (1999). "A Parallactic Distance of 389+24
−21
parsecs to the Orion Nebula Cluster from Very Long Baseline Array Observations". The Astrophysical Journal. 667 (2): 1161–1169. arXiv:0706.2361. Bibcode:2007ApJ...667.1161S. doi:10.1086/520922.
148. ^ diameter=sin(65 arcminutes)*1270 light years=24; where "65.00 x 60.0 (arcmin)" sourced from Revised NGC Data for NGC 1976
149. ^ distance × sin( diameter_angle ), using distance of 5kpc (15.8 ± 1.1 kly) and angle 36.3', = 172 ± 12.5 ly.
150. ^ van de Ven, G.; van den Bosch, R. C. E.; Verolme, E. K.; de Zeeuw, P. T. (2006). "The dynamical distance and intrinsic structure of the globular cluster ω Centauri". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 445 (2): 513–543. arXiv:astro-ph/0509228. Bibcode:2006A&A...445..513V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20053061. best-fit dynamical distance D=4.8±0.3 kpc ... consistent with the canonical value 5.0±0.2 kpc obtained by photometric methods
151. ^ a b van Leeuwen, F. (2007). "Validation of the new Hipparcos reduction". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 474 (2): 653–664. arXiv:0708.1752. Bibcode:2007A&A...474..653V. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078357. Vizier catalog entry
152. ^ Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Guinan, Edward F. (April 2008). "A New VLA-Hipparcos Distance to Betelgeuse and its Implications" (PDF). The Astronomical Journal. 135 (4): 1430–40. Bibcode:2008AJ....135.1430H. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/135/4/1430.
153. ^ Harris, Hugh C.; Dahn, Conard C.; Canzian, Blaise; Guetter, Harry H.; et al. (2007). "Trigonometric Parallaxes of Central Stars of Planetary Nebulae". The Astronomical Journal. 133 (2): 631–638. arXiv:astro-ph/0611543. Bibcode:2007AJ....133..631H. doi:10.1086/510348.
154. ^ Reid, M. J.; et al. (2009). "Trigonometric Parallaxes of Massive Star Forming Regions: VI. Galactic Structure, Fundamental Parameters and Non-Circular Motions". Astrophysical Journal. 700 (1): 137–148. arXiv:0902.3913. Bibcode:2009ApJ...700..137R. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/700/1/137.
155. ^ a b "SI Brochure: The International System of Units (SI)". International Committee for Weights and Measures. Organisation Intergouvernementale de la Convention du Mètre. Retrieved 11 October 2014.