1st Parachute Division (Germany)
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|1st Parachute Division|
7th Air Division
|Active||1938–43 (as 7. Flieger-Division)|
|Engagements||World War II|
The 1st Parachute Division (German: 1. Fallschirm-Jäger-Division) was an elite German military parachute-landing division that fought during World War II. A division of paratroopers was termed a Fallschirmjäger Division. For reasons of secrecy, it was originally raised as the 7th Air Division, or Flieger-Division, before being renamed and reorganized as the 1st Parachute Division in 1943.
The division was formed in October 1938 under the command of Major-General Kurt Student. At the start of World War II, the Division contained two parachute regiments; it was brought up to full strength in 1941. In April 1940, division took part in the invasion of Denmark and Norway during Operation Weserübung, successfully seizing several airfields.
The German plan for the invasion of Belgium and the Netherlands in May 1940 called for the use of the 7th Fliegerdivision to aid in the advance through the capture of key bridges and the fortress of Eben Emael. The invasion of the Netherlands included the majority of the 7th Fliegerdivision in cooperation with the 22nd Air Landing Division. This force was grouped as the 7th Fliegerkorps, and commanded by Kurt Student. The attack on The Hague was a failure: the high loss of transport planes grew to quite dramatic proportions. Many paratroopers and airlanding troops were captured, hundreds were killed or wounded and over 1,200 prisoners of both divisions were transported to England. (The Rotterdam Blitz on 14 May 1940 led to Rotterdam's surrender.) The Eben Emael assault was a complete success with both the fort itself and 1,000+ enemy captured.
The division took part in the Battle of Crete. The Allied forces on the island put up a stubborn defense and the troops of the 7th Fliegerdivision took heavy losses. With the aid of the follow-on reinforcements, however, the Allies were forced to evacuate the island by 29 May.
The division took part in the July 1943 fight against the Allied invasion of Sicily. For the remainder of the war, the division fought in the Italian Campaign. From 14–27 December 1943, the division, under General-Lieutenant Richard Heidrich, saw action against the 1st Canadian Division in the Battle of Ortona. Later the division was concentrated in the defense of the Winter Line south of Rome, defending against the advance of the British Eighth Army, commanded by Lieutenant-General Oliver Leese. In February to May 1944, the 1st Parachute Division took part in the Battle of Monte Cassino, and in late May and June it fought against the Allied Operation Diadem later retreating to the north of Rome. They formed part of the German I Parachute Corps, along with the German 4th Parachute Division.
By January 1945, the German I Parachute Corps was deployed to the Adriatic coast behind the Senio Rivier. The Allied advance resumed on 8 April, and the 1st Parachute Division was forced into a steady withdrawal toward the Po River by the British Eighth Army. By 25 April, the division had completed the river crossing. They immediately set off on a final march toward the Alpine Mountains. Finally the German surrender in Italy came on 2 May 1945, and included the men of the 1st Parachute Division. The unconditional surrender of Germany followed a week later.
The division was responsible for the complete and deliberate destruction of Roccaraso and later on for the Pietransieri massacre, where 128 Italian civilians were executed on 21 November 1943. Of these victims, 60 were women, 34 children under the age of 10, 23 elders over 60 years old. The reasons of the massacre are unknown to this day, and none of the perpetrators ever faced any trial. 
- HQ Staff
- 1. Fallschirmjäger Regiment
- 3. Fallschirmjäger Regiment
- 4. Fallschirmjäger Regiment
- 1. Artillery Regiment
- Supply Troops
|September 9, 1938||Generalleutnant Kurt Student|
|May 16, 1940||Generalleutnant Richard Putzier|
|October 1, 1940||Generalleutnant Wilhelm Süssmann|
|May 20, 1941||Generalmajor Alfred Sturm|
|October 1, 1941||Generalleutnant Erich Petersen|
|August 1, 1942||General der Fallschirmtruppe Richard Heidrich|
|January 4, 1944||Generalmajor Hans Korte|
|February 21, 1944||General der Fallschirmtruppe Richard Heidrich|
|November 18, 1944||Generalmajor Karl-Lothar Schulz|
- "PIETRANSIERI ROCCARASO 21.11.1943". Atlas of Nazi and Fascist Massacres in Italy (in Italian). Retrieved 21 August 2018.
- "Eccidio di Limmari" (in Italian). Retrieved 17 August 2019.
- Bohmler, Rudolf. Monte Cassino: a German View. Cassell, 1964. ASIN: B000MMKAYM