2×2 (TV channel)
|Launched||November 1, 1989 (first start)|
September 1, 2003 (restart)
April 1, 2007 (rebranding)
|Closed||February 13, 1994 (first start)|
|Owned by||LLP Firm TV Channel 2x2|
TV Channel 2x2-Moscow
(February 2006—February 2014)
|Picture format||SECAM 576i (4:3 SDTV)|
|Audience share||2.09% (Jan—Sep 2012, TNS Russia)|
|Slogan||All will be Cyber-pan|
|Broadcast area||Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Latvia, Mongolia, Norway, Canada|
|Replaced by||TV Centre|
|NTV Plus (Russia)||-|
|Natsionalnye Kabelnye Seti||Channel 21|
2x2 (Russian: Дважды два, English: "Twice Two") is a Russian television channel. Founded in 1989, it was the first commercial TV station in the Soviet Union (USSR). The station shut down in 1994, and it re-opened in 2003. Since then, the channel predominantly broadcasts foreign animated TV series, including anime and Adult Swim shows.
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Trial period (July — November 1989)
2x2 was established by order of the USSR radio and television department as a structural unit in the General Directorate of Programs (GDP). Initially, under Presidence and direction of Pier Luigi Stefani, Managing Director of Videomusic and executive vice-President of Superchannel (London-Europe), there were four people involved in the channel's establishment: Sergey Alexeev (Director), Olga Smirnova, Oleg Schoor (Director) and Olga Lukasik (Administrator) . In August 1989, Sergey Lavrov also joined the team as an administrator. The channel broadcast its first pilot in July 1989, under the name "Commercial Channel" . Broadcasting was conducted during the daytime due to the fact that the state "Moscow" was broadcast in the evening on the same frequency. Length esters , called "Commercial Television Channel," were not fixed. Music videos that were broadcast included, "All She Wants Is" by Duran Duran, "Always on My Mind," by the group Pet Shop Boys, "Pendant que les champs brûlent," by the group Niagara, "Everywhere," by Fleetwood Mac, "Around My Heart," by singer Sandra, "The Soldier," by Thomas Anders, "Mon mec à moi," by Patricia Kaas, as well as fragments of the concert "Space in Moscow." At this time, the channel's staff was limited to a small room "No. 115" behind a bar. to ask three (Olympic television and radio) and two hardware and essential installation, APB 8, and AWSM 6-1 .
The name "2x2" was invented by the channel's team around the end of July 1989. At the same time, Pier Luigi Stefani created the channel's characteristic style and the original version of the logo, which still exists today with minor modifications. Since November 1, 1989, 2x2 started broadcasting under its own name on the channel "Moscow" DH, then known as "MTK". From 18:00 to 23:00, 2x2 was broadcast by the television channel "ITC" .
The first time 2x2 was live on television, it broadcast half-an-hour of ad units, foreign music videos, and cartoons. The "Soviet Screen" was later broadcast and repeated multiple times, alongside the television series "Captain Power and the Soldiers of the Future" and "I Spy." An advertising clip of the company "Video of Interneshnl" was also very frequently broadcast. A patriotic collection of clips including a clip of Oleg Bloodless' "And knock" (the main character of this collection was Igor talc) was also broadcast. Clips of the theatre song "Alla Pugacheva" by the company "Video of Interneshnl," clips of "Accountant" by the group "The Combination," clips of Alena Apinoj's "Street of love" and "Xenia", and a transmission of "Billboard" DJ Ale-Alena was also aired. 2x2 also aired videos of Russian artists like Bogdan Titomir and Oleg Gazmanov . 2x2 has been broadcasting Sergei Selenourea's "Batalla!" since its inception. During this period, "2x2" was the only Russian TV channel showing music videos, which greatly distinguished it from the other few available Soviet channels. The channel therefore enjoyed tremendous popularity among Soviet students who waited excitedly for the 20-minute broadcast of music videos and ad units, which could also last up to 40 minutes without a break sometimes. According to a survey of 586 high school students of Moscow schools conducted in late 1991, the channel was immensely popular: it was favored by 34.2% of the respondents.
Since August 1990 approximately, the station began to broadcast programs from the British television channel, "Super Channel." One of these programs was "A Blue Night." 2x2's comprehensive media collection had become impressive — the collection entailed multiple one-or two-hour compilations of video clips, thematic programs in the domain of music, fashion, sports, and movies.
The channel then began to broadcast some educational programs, including those shown on the Discovery Channel like "After 2000".
From 1 July 1992, the channel broadcast a host of Latin American series. These included: "Nobody but you", "Señorita", "The Forbidden Woman", "Revenge", "The Ugly Duckling", "Guadeloupe", "Sweet enemy", "Widow Blanco", "La Usurpadora", "Stolen Love", "I can't live without you", "Once we grow wings", and many others.
Beginning around 1992, 2x2 began to broadcast heavy rock music like "Green Corridor," produced by Studio "BIZ Enterprises" businessman Boris Zosimova. From this point onwards, 2x2 was largely governed by Zosimova, who steered the channel to sign a contract with the owners of "MTV Europe" in 1993. One of the broadcast programs was a concert performed by ABBA in January, 1994. Clips from MTV Europe aired throughout the day between other programs. MTV, including the VJ units, aired quite often even without translation. Among some of the broadcast programs was the show "Beavis and Butthead". Soon, the place MTV clips began to take paid videos Russian artists such as Vlad Stashevsky and Eugene Kemerovo. By the summer of 1994 remains a daily one-hour compilation of clips from MTV live (out in the afternoon), which soon also disappeared. Music videos, but not show where MTV rarely aired in the future, still in between series. Despite the fact that some of the ideas Zosimova (MTV) was not justified, he further took part in the broadcast, creating a TV-producer of "BIZ-TV", in which came a number of music programs and formed almost all of the musical component of the channel. Also in the framework of this project aired out the transfer of "Forgotten names" devoted to the Soviet stage, later moved to channel "TV-6", where he aired in the program "Disc channel" as the "Whirling wheels". The leading program was Cyril Nemolyaev.
In 1993, 2x2 first appeared on satellite television, which resulted in broadcasting some regional partners. Before this, the satellite TV channel broadcast only in the Moscow area via its own transmitters in Tver and Ryazan, with the delivery of the signal in real-time with terrestrial radio relay.
In 1993-1994 on 2x2 also regularly showed commercials of the organization "Greenpeace", because of which Joanna Stingray and Boris Grebenschikov often made appearances on the channel. In 1993, 2x2 began broadcasting the news. In 1994, the main character of the compilation of clips was Philip. During days of mourning, the song "My Country" (which was included in the album Kirkorov "I not Raphael") was aired.
From 1992 to 1994 inclusive, the channel broadcast BBC news, ITN and Worldnet throughout the day. One of the morning editions was always broadcast without translation.
In 13 February 1994, after which it was replaced by the channel Russian television M1 and Domashny
In 1994, the channel had problems with the Australian television series "Chances", which is of the usual melodrama gradually moved to more explicit erotic genre.
In 1994-1995, the channel reached its peak of popularity because of the diverse terrestrial broadcasting, but also because of programs such as "Dendy — the New reality" and animated series such as "teenage mutant ninja Turtles".
Later, in 1996, for the first time in Russia began the show the animated series in the genre of anime "sailor moon" as well as telenovelas of Mexican origin like "Nobody but you" and "My second mother" and TV series "Thunder in Paradise", "Highlander", "Sledgehammer" and "Lassie".
9 June 1997, the channel has lost its place on the "third button" new TV channels "TV Center" and "Muscovy" moved to the UHF band, in the 51st UHF channel, where from 7:00 to 11:00 and from 19:00 until late night broadcast "Muz-TV". On 51-m the channel "2x2" broadcast from 11 to 19 hours, with very low quality content and a predominance of "home shopping".
On 14 August 1997, the channel has stopped broadcasting on Moscow and the region on the 51st channel and called "AST 2x2" (hereinafter repeatedly changing the concept, owners, and its name — "AST", "Prometheus-AST", "ASTV", "Asteks-TV") started to use only regional broadcasting via satellite and microwave transmission, until the complete absorption of the TV channel "Rambler".
27 February 2002 won a competition at the 43rd UHF channel with the concept of "shop on a sofa". 1 September 2003, the channel has returned to the air, according to plans, the channel was launched on 11 November 2002 but because of problems the launch was postponed for a year. According to the results of technical tests for electromagnetic compatibility 43rd UHF channel in Moscow proved to be unsuitable for permanent broadcasting it, the TV channel instead of the 43rd was selected 60th UHF channel, where the "2×2" and broadcast until 31 December 2015, after which it was replaced by the channel ТNТ4.
From the first days of broadcasting the "revival" of "2×2" most of the airtime of TV channel transmission was a popular TV channel about fashion "Fashion TV" and clips of domestic artists production Studio "a Difficult Childhood". The name of the program bore the name of a popular song by Vladimir Markin - Purple haze.
In the autumn of 2003 the channel "2x2" has become almost women's — 8 out of 20 hours of airtime was given to the programme of the French channel Fashion TV. The rest of the time there was music of different styles and trends.
In the summer of 2004 a contract was signed with the Style TV channel on long-term cooperation.
In the same year on the frequency of the channel is relayed by network utility partner — TV channel "Style TV" logo "2x2" (interrupting broadcasting of teleshopping).
By 2005-2006, it is a critical time for teleshopping almost entirely superseded the transmission of mesh broadcast channel (logo and pictures). Mostly in the grid, attended the presentation of products from TV shop "TV Club". Broadcast TV has been broken into subject categories ranging from kitchen goods to fitness equipment. In the night from Friday to Saturday on channel was broadcast feature films and TV series. Also in the broadcasting network aired music videos. Despite this popularity, in early 2007 the company "TV Club" has decided to launch its channel on the basis of 2x2. The first channel I saw only the residents of Moscow and Moscow region thanks to the cable networks of AKADO, and soon the channel became available throughout Russia.
In 2006, the holding company Prof-Media bought the TV station. "2x2". 3 October 2006 holding "Prof-Media" introduced a new concept of broadcasting of the TV channel "2x2". Updated "2×2" was launched 1 April 2007 on the technical basis of the abolished of the TV Rambler Teleset. We show movies are translated or dubbed in Russian language. Some of them have already appeared on other Russian channels, for example, "the Simpsons", "Futurama" and "family Guy" (REN TV).
At the end of March 2007 the channel broadcast fragments of cartoons, then showed the time of airing, as well as promos with the slogan "Turn off brain, turn on 2x2!". Underneath was the caption: "Demo channel".
On 30 November 2010 it was announced that from February 5, 2011 the channel would begin a demonstration program WWE RAW. Their obtaining a two-year contract was announced on wwe.com. WWE also spoke positively about the return of WWE demonstration programs on Russian television.
On the 5th of September in 2012 it was announced that from September 14, 2x2 would be planning to implement changes to the existing satellite distribution network. This news was delivered via the newsletter for cable operators. Start broadcasting of the program with a shift of "2 MSK"; program shift "+4 MSK", will have a time shift of "+5 MSK".
From 1 January 2016, the channel switched to broadcasting only in cable and satellite networks, losing their air frequencies channel "ТНТ4" (before rebranding — "TNT-Comedy"), the broadcast of which consists of archival content "TNT". The possibility of selling advertising channel retains broadcast frequency in Birobidzhan.
From 1 April 2019, the channel switched to broadcasting only TDK and 2x2.
Controversies and criticism
As the country's largest adult-oriented animation channel, 2×2 is prone to protest among various conservative and religious groups, and occasionally with authorities. Since 'animation' as a genre was traditionally viewed as exclusively children's media in Russia, 2×2 struggles with continually highlighting that its programs are not recommended for children.
In February 2008, the Russian Media Culture Protection Department (Rossvyazokhrankultura), a regulatory body for TV in Russia, issued warnings about Happy Tree Friends and The Adventures of Big Jeff, claiming that the shows promote "violence and brutality." This "violence and brutality" was claimed to harm the psychic health, moral development and social morality of children, all of this being a violation of license agreement. The department warned 2×2, which broadcasts the shows, to remove them in order to avoid legal issues. The owners of 2×2 voiced their disagreement, but reluctantly fulfilled the request.
Later that year, activists of the Russian Pentecostalist Church criticized 2×2 for airing South Park and The Simpsons. Their appeal to close 2×2 was rejected by the Russian media officials. On September 24, 2008 the channel's license was extended for an additional 5 years.
In July 2009, 2×2 cut a scene from the episode "Free Willzyx" of South Park, because it depicted Vladimir Putin as "a greedy and desperate leader," prompting "criticism and furious discussion on Russia blogs".
Shows and films airing on 2×2
- "2x2" (PDF). Retrieved 18 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
- Россвязьохранкультура выносит предупреждения редакции телепрограммы «Телеканал 2х2» и ЗАО «Телеканал 2х2» (in Russian). Russian Media Culture Protection Department. Archived from the original on 2008-03-08.
- "Российские протестанты потребовали закрыть телеканал "2x2"" (in Russian). Lenta.Ru. 2008-03-12. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
- Holdsworth, Nick (2008-10-20). "Russia's 2X2 wins license renewal". Variety. Archived from the original on 26 October 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-20.
- "Russian channel cuts Vladimir Putin scene on 'South Park'". The Daily Telegraph. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2009-08-03.