2,2'-Bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl

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2,2'-Bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl
Skeletal formula of 2,2'-bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl
Ball-and-stick model of the 2,2'-bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl molecule
IUPAC name
3D model (Jmol)
Molar mass 382.51 g·mol−1
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

2,2'-Bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl is a ligand used to make organometallic complexes involving two aromatic-stabilized cyclopentadienyl-type carbocycle-to-metal atom bonds,[citation needed] complexes with distinct shapes and catalytic properties.[citation needed] The symmetry of the molecule--apparent in corresponding "top" and "bottom" halves of the molecule, connected together by a carbon-carbon bond between the two benzene rings (phenyl rings, see picture)--allows the two five-membered rings to participate in bonding on opposite sides of a metal atom, creating a type of sandwich compound.[citation needed] A prerequisite for the bonding is deprotonation of the cyclopentadiene-type five-membered ring to form the two anionic carbocycles that bind to the metal atom.[citation needed]

Metals studied with 2,2'-bis(2-indenyl) biphenyl include titanium, zirconium, and hafnium.[citation needed] The ligand and its complexes were originally prepared by the research group of the late Brice Bosnich at The University of Chicago.[1][non-primary source needed][better source needed][2] Zirconium and hafnium complexes made from this ligand were found to be active catalysts for the polymerization of the smallest alkenes--compounds with carbon-carbon double bonds--namely, ethylene and propylene.[by whom?] The use of such complexes in the polymerisation of alkenes has since been reported, and patented by DSM Research,[3][4][non-primary source needed]


  1. ^ Ellis, W.W.; Hollis, T.K.; OdenkirK, W.; Whelan, J.; Ostrander, R.; Rheingold, A.L. & Bosnich, B. (1993). "Synthesis, Structure, and Properties of Chiral Titanium and Zirconium Complexes Bearing Biaryl Strapped Substituted Cyclopentadienyl Ligands". Organometallics. 12 (11): 4391–4401. doi:10.1021/om00035a026. [non-primary source needed]
  2. ^ co-author Bill Odenkirk later became known for his work on television shows such as Futurama and The Simpsons.[citation needed]
  3. ^ H. J. Arts, M. Kranenburg, R. H. A. M. Meijers, E. G. Ijpeij, G. J. M. Gruter and F. H. Beijer. Indenyl Compounds for the Polymerization of Olefins US Patent 6,342,622; Jan. 29, 2002.[non-primary source needed]
  4. ^ E. G. Ijpeij; F. H. Beijer; H. J. Arts; C. Newton; J. G. de Vries; G. J. M. Gruter (2002). "A Suzuki Coupling Based Route to 2,2'-Bis#2-indenyl#biphenyl Derivatives". J. Org. Chem. 67 (1): 169–176. doi:10.1021/jo016040i. PMID 11777455. [non-primary source needed]