Sample of pure compound
|Preferred IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|UN number||0076, 1320, 1599|
|Molar mass||184.11 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||108 °C (226 °F; 381 K)|
|Boiling point||113 °C (235 °F; 386 K)|
|H201, H300, H311, H331, H373, H400|
|P261, P273, P280, P301+310, P311|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is ?)(|
2,4-Dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP or simply DNP) is an organic compound with the formula HOC6H3(NO2)2. It is a yellow, crystalline solid that has a sweet, musty odor. It sublimes, is volatile with steam, and is soluble in most organic solvents as well as aqueous alkaline solutions. It is a precursor to other chemicals and is biochemically active, inhibiting energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) production in cells with mitochondria. Its use in high doses as a dieting aid has been identified with severe side-effects, including a number of deaths.
Commercial DNP is used as an antiseptic and as a non-selective bioaccumulating pesticide. It is a chemical intermediate in the production of sulfur dyes and wood preservatives. DNP has also been used to make photographic developers and explosives (see shellite). DNP is classified as an explosive in UK and USA
Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air. May explosively decompose on shock, friction or concussion. May explode on heating. DNP forms explosive salts with strong bases and ammonia, and emits toxic fumes of nitrogen dioxide when heated to decomposition.
In living cells, DNP acts as a proton ionophore, an agent that can shuttle protons (hydrogen cations) across biological membranes. It dissipates the proton gradient across mitochondria and chloroplast membranes, collapsing the proton motive force that the cell uses to produce most of its ATP chemical energy. Instead of producing ATP, the energy of the proton gradient is lost as heat.
DNP is considered to have high acute toxicity. Acute oral exposure to DNP has resulted in increased basal metabolic rate, nausea, vomiting, sweating, dizziness, headache, and loss of weight. Chronic oral exposure to DNP can lead to the formation of cataracts and skin lesions and has caused effects on the bone marrow, central nervous system, and cardiovascular system.
DNP was used extensively in diet pills from 1933 to 1938 after Cutting and Tainter at Stanford University made their first report on the drug's ability to greatly increase metabolic rate. After only its first year on the market Tainter estimated that at least 100,000 people had been treated with DNP in the United States, in addition to many others abroad. DNP acts as a protonophore, allowing protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane and thus bypass ATP synthase. This makes ATP energy production less efficient. In effect, part of the energy that is normally produced from cellular respiration is wasted as heat. The inefficiency is proportional to the dose of DNP that is taken. As the dose increases and energy production is made more inefficient, metabolic rate increases (and more fat is burned) in order to compensate for the inefficiency and to meet energy demands. DNP is probably the best known agent for uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation. The "phosphorylation" of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by ATP synthase gets disconnected or "uncoupled" from oxidation.
The factor that limits ever-increasing doses of DNP is not a lack of ATP energy production, but rather an excessive rise in body temperature due to the heat produced during uncoupling. Accordingly, DNP overdose will cause fatal hyperthermia, with body temperature rising to as high as 44 °C (111 °F) shortly before death. In light of this, when it was used clinically, the dose was slowly titrated according to personal tolerance, which varies greatly.
Case reports have shown that an acute administration of 20–50 mg per kilogram of body weight in humans can be lethal. The lowest published fatal ingested dose is 4.3 mg/kg. Concerns about dangerous side-effects and rapidly developing cataracts resulted in DNP being discontinued in the United States by the end of 1938. DNP, however, continues to be used by some bodybuilders and athletes to rapidly lose body fat. Fatal overdoses include cases of accidental exposure, suicide, and excessive intentional exposure (overdose). The substance's use as a dieting aid has also led to a number of accidental fatalities. In England and Wales alone, between 2007 and 2016 dinitrophenol was mentioned on the death certificate as being involved in 15 deaths. The Food Standards Agency are aware about 8 deaths involving DNP between 1 January 2017 and 30 June 2018.
Although DNP is widely considered too dangerous for clinical use, its mechanism of action remains under investigation as a potential approach for treating obesity. Currently, research is being conducted on uncoupling proteins naturally found in humans.
The United Kingdom's Food Standards Agency identifies DNP as "an industrial chemical known to have serious short-term and long-term effects, which can be extremely dangerous to human health." and advises "consumers not to take any product containing DNP at any level. This chemical is not suitable for human consumption."
Information about pharmacokinetics of DNP in humans is limited and conflicting. The EPA states that "Data on the elimination kinetics of the dinitrophenols or their metabolic products in humans were not found." The ATSDR's Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols also states that "No studies were located regarding distribution in humans after oral exposure to 2,4-DNP. Limited information is available regarding distribution in animals after oral exposure to 2,4-DNP." However, they do state that "Elimination from the body appears to be rapid, except possibly in cases of compromised liver function." This coincides with a review in the NEJM on the biological actions of dinitrophenol, which stated that "Judging from the metabolic response, DNP appears to be eliminated entirely in three or four days; in the presence of liver or kidney damage it is possible that the drug will be retained over a longer period." Oddly, more recent papers give an array of possible half-lives, ranging from 3 hours, to 5–14 days. Other recent papers maintain that the half-life in humans is unknown.
Although further investigation is needed, one case report notes that dinitrophenol-induced hyperthermia has been successfully resolved with dantrolene administration. "Dinitrophenol uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, causes release of calcium from mitochondrial stores and prevents calcium re-uptake. This leads to free intracellular calcium and causes muscle contraction and hyperthermia. Dantrolene inhibits calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum which reduces intracellular calcium. The resulting muscle relaxation allows heat dissipation. There is little risk to dantrolene administration. Since dantrolene may be effective in reducing hyperthermia caused by agents that inhibit oxidative phosphorylation, early administration may improve outcome."
In 2003, a vendor of DNP was sentenced to prison for mail fraud, with the FDA's OCI investigators having gathered evidence that the vendor's encapsulation of DNP was neither accurate nor sanitary. In 2018, a seller in United Kingdom was convicted of manslaughter for selling DNP as "fatburner" for human consumption.
DNP is considered an important environmental contaminant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. It has been found in 61 of 1400 priority sites that need clean-up of industrial waste. It can enter the air from automobile exhaust, burning of certain industrial substances, and from reaction of nitrogen in air with other atmospheric chemicals. The major site of degradation is the soil, where microorganisms metabolize it.
However, the effects of DNP on anaerobic micro-organisms are still largely undetermined. Some studies suggest that there is anaerobic toxicity due to a reduced methane production.
- The Merck index : an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. Budavari, Susan. (11th ed., centennial ed.). Rahway, N.J., U.S.A.: Merck. 1989. p. 1900. ISBN 091191028X. OCLC 21297020.
- Grundlingh J, Dargan PI, El-Zanfaly M, Wood DM (2011). "Summary of previously published fatalities relating to exposure to DNP including basic demographics, amount of exposure and maximal temperature recorded pre-death". J Med Toxicol. 7: 205–12. doi:10.1007/s13181-011-0162-6. PMC . PMID 21739343.
- Gerald Booth "Nitro Compounds, Aromatic" in "Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry" 2007; Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a17_411[dead link]
- "2,4-Dinitrophenol" (PDF). Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- Grundlingh, Johann; Dargan, Paul I.; El-Zanfaly, Marwa; Wood, David M. (September 2011). "2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP): a weight loss agent with significant acute toxicity and risk of death". Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology. 7 (3): 205–212. doi:10.1007/s13181-011-0162-6. ISSN 1937-6995. PMC . PMID 21739343.
- Urben, Peter (2017-03-18). Bretherick's Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. Elsevier. ISBN 9780081010594.
- "Commerce in Explosives; 2017 Annual List of Explosive Materials". Federal Register. 2017-12-28. Retrieved 2018-07-22.
- Reproductive and developmental toxicology. Gupta, Ramesh C. London: Academic Press. 2011. p. 509. ISBN 9780123820327. OCLC 717387050.
- Stellman, Jeanne Mager (1998). Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety: Guides, indexes, directory. International Labour Organization. ISBN 9789221098171.
- Sax, N.Irving; Bruce, Robert D (1989). Dangerous properties of industrial materials. 3 (7th ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-442-27368-1.
- Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (1995). "Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
- Cutting WC, Mehrtens HG, Tainter ML (1933). "Actions and uses of dinitrophenol: Promising metabolic applications". J Am Med Assoc. 101 (3): 193–195. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740280013006.
- Tainter ML, Stockton AB, Cutting WC (1933). "Use of dinitrophenol in obesity and related conditions: a progress report". J Am Med Assoc. 101 (19): 1472–1475. doi:10.1001/jama.1933.02740440032009.
- Tainter ML, Cutting WC, Stockton AB (1934). "Use of Dinitrophenol in Nutritional Disorders : A Critical Survey of Clinical Results" (pdf). Am J Public Health. 24 (10): 1045–1053. doi:10.2105/AJPH.24.10.1045. PMC . PMID 18014064.
- Simkins S. (1937). "Dinitrophenol and desiccated thyroid in the treatment of obesity: a comprehensive clinical and laboratory study". J Am Med Assoc. 108: 2110–2117. doi:10.1001/jama.1937.02780250024006.
- Hsiao AL, Santucci KA, Seo-Mayer P, et al. (2005). "Pediatric fatality following ingestion of dinitrophenol: postmortem identification of a "dietary supplement"". Clin Toxicol. 43 (4): 281–285. doi:10.1081/clt-200058946. PMID 16035205.
- Horner WD (1941). "A Study of Dinitrophenol and Its Relation to Cataract Formation". Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 39: 405–37. PMC . PMID 16693262.
- Colman, Eric (July 2007). "Dinitrophenol and obesity: an early twentieth-century regulatory dilemma". Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology: RTP. 48 (2): 115–117. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2007.03.006. ISSN 0273-2300. PMID 17475379.
- Leftwich RB, Floro JF, Neal RA, Wood AJ (February 1982). "Dinitrophenol poisoning: a diagnosis to consider in undiagnosed fever". South. Med. J. 75 (2): 182–184. doi:10.1097/00007611-198202000-00016. PMID 7058360. Retrieved 18 November 2008.
- A. Hahn, K. Begemann, R. Burger, J. Hillebrand, H. Meyer, K. Preußner: "Cases of Poisoning Reported by Physicians in 2006", page 40. BfR Press and Public Relations Office, 2006.
- Bartlett J, Brunner M, Gough K (February 2010). "Deliberate poisoning with dinitrophenol (DNP): an unlicensed weight loss pill". Emerg Med J. 27 (2): 159–160. doi:10.1136/emj.2008.069401. PMID 20156878.
- McFee RB, Caraccio TR, McGuigan MA, Reynolds SA, Bellanger P (2004). "Dying to be thin: a dinitrophenol related fatality". Veterinary and human toxicology. 46 (5): 251–254. PMID 15487646.
- Miranda EJ, McIntyre IM, Parker DR, Gary RD, Logan BK (2006). "Two deaths attributed to the use of 2,4-dinitrophenol". Journal of analytical toxicology. 30 (3): 219–222. doi:10.1093/jat/30.3.219. PMID 16803658.
- McFee RB, Caraccio TR, McGuigan MA, Reynolds SA, Bellanger P (October 2004). "Dying to be thin: a dinitrophenol related fatality". Vet Hum Toxicol. 46: 251–4. PMID 15487646.
- "Dwudziestolatka zmarła po kuracji odchudzającej. Zażywała DNP". Retrieved 15 October 2017.
- "21-year-old's insides 'explode like TNT' after taking deadly diet pills". Metro. 2015-04-20. Retrieved 2017-10-14.
- "Chris Mapletoft parents 'shocked' over diet pills death". BBC News. 17 September 2013.
- "Hyderabad millionaire's son dies after taking bodybuilding pills".
- "Number of deaths where dinitrophenol (DNP) was mentioned on the death certificate, England and Wales, 2007 to 2016". www.ons.gov.uk. 2017-10-24. Retrieved 2018-06-06.
- "FSA Freedom of Information request" (PDF). www.food.gov.uk. 2018-07-23. Retrieved 2018-08-06.
- Harper JA, Dickinson K, Brand MD (2001). "Mitochondrial uncoupling as a target for drug development for the treatment of obesity". Obesity Reviews. 2 (4): 255–265. doi:10.1046/j.1467-789X.2001.00043.x. PMID 12119996.
- Busiello, Rosa A.; Savarese, Sabrina; Lombardi, Assunta (2015-02-10). "Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and energy metabolism". Frontiers in Physiology. 6. doi:10.3389/fphys.2015.00036. ISSN 1664-042X. PMC . PMID 25713540.
- "Warning about 'fat-burner' substances containing DNP". Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- "Ambient water quality criteria for nitrophenols, 440/5-80-063" (PDF). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 1980. Retrieved 9 June 2008.
- Harris, M. O.; Cocoran, J. J. (1995). "Toxicological Profile for Dinitrophenols". Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Retrieved 23 April 2013.
- Edsall, G. (1934). "Biological actions of dinitrophenol and related compounds: a review". The New England Journal of Medicine. 211 (9): 385–390. doi:10.1056/NEJM193408302110901.
- Korde AS, Pettigrew LC, Craddock SD, Maragos WF (September 2005). "The mitochondrial uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol attenuates tissue damage and improves mitochondrial homeostasis following transient focal cerebral ischemia". J. Neurochem. 94 (6): 1676–1684. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2005.03328.x. PMID 16045446.
- Kumar S, Barker K, Seger D (2002). "Dinitrophenol-Induced Hyperthermia Resolving With Dantrolene Administration. Abstracts of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology". Clin Toxicol. 40: 599–673. doi:10.1081/clt-120016859.
- Barker K, Seger D, Kumar S (2006). "Comment on "Pediatric fatality following ingestion of Dinitrophenol: postmortem identification of a 'dietary supplement'"". Clin Toxicol. 44 (3): 351. doi:10.1080/15563650600584709. PMID 16749560.
- "Office of Criminal Investigation 2003". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 8 Jun 2015. Retrieved 10 Sep 2015.
- "Harrow Council wins landmark DNP manslaughter case". 2018-06-27. Retrieved 2018-06-28.
- "Food Standards Agency issues urgent advice on consumption of 'fat burner' capsules containing DNP" (Press release). Food Standards Agency. 17 June 2003. Retrieved 30 September 2007.
- "Warning about 'fat-burner' substances containing DNP" (Press release). Food Standards Agency. 1 Nov 2012.