2-Hydroxyestrone

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2-Hydroxyestrone
2-Hydroxyestrone.svg
Names
IUPAC name
(8R,9S,13S,14S)-2,3-dihydroxy-13-methyl-7,8,9,11,12,14,15,16-octahydro-6H-cyclopenta[a]phenanthren-17-one
Other names
2-OHE1; 2,3-Dihydroxyestra-1,3,5(10)-trien-17-one; Estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-2,3-diol-17-one
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.164.607
KEGG
UNII
Properties
C18H22O3
Molar mass 286.371 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Infobox references

2-Hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1), also known as estra-1,3,5(10)-trien-2,3-diol-17-one, is an endogenous, naturally occurring catechol estrogen and a major metabolite of estrone and estradiol.[1][2][3] It is formed irreversibly from estrone in the liver and to a lesser extent in other tissues via 2-hydroxylation mediated by cytochrome P450 enzymes, mainly the CYP3A and CYP1A subfamilies.[1][3] 2-OHE1 is the most abundant catechol estrogen in the body.[3]

2-Hydroxyestrone is not significantly uterotrophic in bioassays, whereas other hydroxylated estrogen metabolites including 2-hydroxyestradiol, 16α-hydroxyestrone, estriol (16α-hydroxyestradiol), 4-hydroxyestradiol, and 4-hydroxyestrone all are.[1][4] In addition, although not antiestrogenic in the uterus,[5][6] 2-hydroxyestrone shows antiestrogenic effects on luteinizing hormone and prolactin levels.[7][8][9][10] The lack of estrogenic or antiestrogenic activity of 2-hydroxyestrone in the uterus may be attributable to an extremely high metabolic clearance rate.[6][11] When incubated at very high concentrations or in combination with a catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitor to prevent its metabolism, 2-hydroxyestrone shows antiestrogenic effects in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer cells.[12][13]

2-Hydroxyestrone dissociates from the estrogen receptors much more rapidly than does estradiol.[14]

Selected biological properties of endogenous estrogens in rats
Estrogen ER RBA (%) Uterine weight (%) Uterotrophy LH levels (%) SHBG RBA (%)
Control 100 100
Estradiol 100 506 ± 20 +++ 12–19 100
Estrone 11 ± 8 490 ± 22 +++ ? 20
Estriol 10 ± 4 468 ± 30 +++ 8–18 3
Estetrol 0.5 ± 0.2 ? Inactive ? 1
17α-Estradiol 4.2 ± 0.8 ? ? ? ?
2-Hydroxyestradiol 24 ± 7 285 ± 8 +b 31–61 28
2-Methoxyestradiol 0.05 ± 0.04 101 Inactive ? 130
4-Hydroxyestradiol 45 ± 12 ? ? ? ?
4-Methoxyestradiol 1.3 ± 0.2 260 ++ ? 9
4-Fluoroestradiola 180 ± 43 ? +++ ? ?
2-Hydroxyestrone 1.9 ± 0.8 130 ± 9 Inactive 110–142 8
2-Methoxyestrone 0.01 ± 0.00 103 ± 7 Inactive 95–100 120
4-Hydroxyestrone 11 ± 4 351 ++ 21–50 35
4-Methoxyestrone 0.13 ± 0.04 338 ++ 65–92 12
16α-Hydroxyestrone 2.8 ± 1.0 552 ± 42 +++ 7–24 <0.5
2-Hydroxyestriol 0.9 ± 0.3 302 +b ? ?
2-Methoxyestriol 0.01 ± 0.00 ? Inactive ? 4
Notes: Values are mean ± SD or range. ER RBA = Relative binding affinity to estrogen receptors of rat uterine cytosol. Uterine weight = Percentage change in uterine wet weight of ovariectomized rats after 72 hours with continuous administration of 1 μg/hour via subcutaneously implanted osmotic pumps. LH levels = Luteinizing hormone levels relative to baseline of ovariectomized rats after 24 to 72 hours of continuous administration via subcutaneous implant. Footnotes: a = Synthetic (i.e., not endogenous). b = Atypical uterotrophic effect which plateaus within 48 hours (estradiol's uterotrophy continues linearly up to 72 hours). Sources: See template.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Oettel M, Schillinger E (6 December 2012). Estrogens and Antiestrogens I: Physiology and Mechanisms of Action of Estrogens and Antiestrogens. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 227. ISBN 978-3-642-58616-3.
  2. ^ Rakel D (2012). Integrative Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences. pp. 338–. ISBN 1-4377-1793-4.
  3. ^ a b c Buchsbaum HJ (6 December 2012). The Menopause. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-1-4612-5525-3.
  4. ^ Bhavnani BR, Nisker JA, Martin J, Aletebi F, Watson L, Milne JK (2000). "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of a conjugated equine estrogen preparation (premarin) and a synthetic mixture of estrogens (C.E.S.) in postmenopausal women". Journal of the Society for Gynecologic Investigation. 7 (3): 175–83. doi:10.1016/s1071-5576(00)00049-6. PMID 10865186.
  5. ^ Martucci C, Fishman J (December 1977). "Direction of estradiol metabolism as a control of its hormonal action--uterotrophic activity of estradiol metabolites". Endocrinology. 101 (6): 1709–15. doi:10.1210/endo-101-6-1709. PMID 590186.
  6. ^ a b Kono S, Brandon DD, Merriam GR, Loriaux DL, Lipsett MB (January 1981). "Metabolic clearance rate and uterotropic activity of 2-hydroxyestrone in rats". Endocrinology. 108 (1): 40–3. doi:10.1210/endo-108-1-40. PMID 7460827.
  7. ^ Martucci CP, Fishman J (December 1979). "Impact of continuously administered catechol estrogens on uterine growth and luteinizing hormone secretion". Endocrinology. 105 (6): 1288–92. doi:10.1210/endo-105-6-1288. PMID 499073.
  8. ^ Katayama S, Fishman J (April 1982). "2-Hydroxyestrone suppresses and 2-methoxyestrone augments the preovulatory prolactin surge in the cycling rat". Endocrinology. 110 (4): 1448–50. doi:10.1210/endo-110-4-1448. PMID 7199421.
  9. ^ Okatani Y, Fishman J (September 1984). "Suppression of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone surge in the rat by 2-hydroxyestrone: relationship to endogenous estradiol levels". Endocrinology. 115 (3): 1082–9. doi:10.1210/endo-115-3-1082. PMID 6378602.
  10. ^ Okatani Y, Fishman J (July 1986). "Inhibition of the preovulatory prolactin surge in the rat by catechol estrogens: functional and temporal specificity". Endocrinology. 119 (1): 261–7. doi:10.1210/endo-119-1-261. PMID 3013588.
  11. ^ MacLusky NJ, Naftolin F, Krey LC, Franks S (December 1981). "The catechol estrogens". J. Steroid Biochem. 15: 111–24. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(81)90265-x. PMID 6279963.
  12. ^ Gupta, Mona; McDougal, Andrew; Safe, Stephen (1998). "Estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities of 16α- and 2-hydroxy metabolites of 17β-estradiol in MCF-7 and T47D human breast cancer cells". The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 67 (5–6): 413–419. doi:10.1016/S0960-0760(98)00135-6. ISSN 0960-0760.
  13. ^ Schneider J, Huh MM, Bradlow HL, Fishman J (April 1984). "Antiestrogen action of 2-hydroxyestrone on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells". J. Biol. Chem. 259 (8): 4840–5. PMID 6325410.
  14. ^ Barnea ER, MacLusky NJ, Naftolin F (May 1983). "Kinetics of catechol estrogen-estrogen receptor dissociation: a possible factor underlying differences in catechol estrogen biological activity". Steroids. 41 (5): 643–56. doi:10.1016/0039-128x(83)90030-2. PMID 6658896.

External links[edit]