2000 Summer Paralympics

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XI Paralympic Games
Paralympic logo 2000 Sydney.jpg
Host city Sydney, Australia
Motto Performance,Power and Pride
Nations participating 127
Athletes participating 3846
(2867 men, 979 women)
Events 551 in 20 sports
Opening ceremony 18 October
Closing ceremony 29 October
Officially opened by Governor-General William Deane
Paralympic Torch Louise Sauvage
Paralympic Stadium Stadium Australia
Summer:
Atlanta 1996 Athens 2004  >
Winter:
Nagano 1998 Salt Lake 2002  >



Brief Overview[edit]

The 2000 Paralympic Games were held in Sydney, Australia, from 18 to 29 October. In September 1993, Sydney won the rights to host the 2000 Paralympic Games. To secure this right it was expected that the New South Wales Government would underwrite the budget for the games. [1] The eleventh Summer Paralympic Games, an estimated 3800 athletes took part in the Sydney programme. They commenced with the opening ceremony on 18 October 2000. It was followed by the 11 days of fierce international competition and was the second largest sporting event ever held in Australia. They were also the first Paralympic Games outside the Northern Hemisphere.

Excited school children in green and gold show their support for the Australian Paralympic Team at the 2000 Summer Paralympics

The games was estimated to cost $157 million, with the NSW Government and Commonwealth Government contributing $25 million each. The Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games (SOCOG) contributed $18 million, within the bid estimates. The Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee (SPOC) entered into a Host City contract with the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), which outlines the SPOC’s obligations in hosting the Paralympic Games. To cover the costs, other revenue was raised via sponsorship and ticket sales. The 110,000 seat Stadium Australia was completed three months early in February 1999, this stadium was funded mainly by the private sector at an estimated cost of $690 million, the Government contributed $124 million to this project. Though there is no budgeted profit, if any profit is made though the games, repayment to the Federal and State Governments is the first priority. In October 1998, governing bodies of the Paralympics including the SOCOG and the Sydney Olympic Organising Committee initiated a call for volunteers. An estimated total of forty-one thousand Australians answered this call, non-including those sourced from specialist community groups. [2] [3]


Environment[edit]

Daytime view of pond with waterlilies at Sydney Olympic Park during the 2000 Sydney Paralympic Games

The major focus between 1999-2000 was completion of the first stage of the Millennium Parklands. This is composed of 450 hectares of landscape, with up to 40 kilometers of pedestrian and cycle trails. This major first stage included focus on the surrounding Olympic facilities, providing a beautiful landscape for recreational activities, conservation and environmental education/preservation. During this time work on the Water Reclamation and Management Scheme (WRAMS) will continue to progress. The WRAMS will be in use during the games with the first stage (recycled water to be used for flushing and irrigation) to be implemented. This system will continue after the games and will be fully developed after the games has been completed. The WRAMS system is only one of the many water saving management strategies to be used during the games period. Plans to use stormwater runoff from Newington to be used as irrigation and a requirement for Olympic venues to utilise water saving techniques and devices are also some of the other water saving plans. Stormwater from the Stadium Australia roof is to be collected and used to irrigate the central stadium. An environmental education program is also delivered throughout 1999-2000 to ensure that Homebush Bay and the Sydney Olympics and Paralympics continue to be recognised for their commitment to the environment.[4]

Political Context[edit]

The Sydney 2000 Paralympics was only the sixth time that the Paralympics had been held in the same city as the Olympic Games. Removal of the Olympic Rings was viewed by some as just another snub in a long line of poor decisions made by the IOC. The launch of the Paralympics was somewhat overshadowed as the Olympics minister Michael Knight announced his retirement on the same day. His timing was viewed by many as insensitive to the Paralympics. A day after this, Sydney politicians organised a large city rally to thank Olympic volunteers, however they had arranged for this to occur on the same day as the Paralympic torch relay. The Government soon realised the clash, it refused to alter the day of the rally.

201000 - Opening Ceremony Yothu Yindi perform 3 - 3b - 2000 Sydney opening ceremony photo

Paralympic organisers received praise for selecting Kylie Minogue and indigenous Australian band Yothu Yindi for its opening party, Olympic organisers took note of this and quickly booked both for their closing ceremony. [5]






Controversy[edit]

The Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games was not without controversy. Thirteen years after the games had concluded, a former basketball boss was found guilty of fraud. Fernando Martin Vicente, former head of the Spanish Federation for Mentally Handicapped Sports, allowed athletes with no disabilities to compete at the Games in order to win the gold medal. He has now been fined 4,600 pounds and ordered to return 120,500 pounds in government subsidies which the Federation received.[6]

Mascot[edit]

2000 Summer Paralympics mascot Lizzie the Lizard waves to the audience during the games. The character represents an Australian frilled-neck lizard.

The mascot for the 2000 Paralympics was "Lizzie" the Frill-necked Lizard.[7] The frill of the Paralympic mascot was coloured in green and gold and represented the country via the shape. The ochre colour of Lizzie’s body aimed to mirror the colour of the land. The frill neck lizard is a native Australian animal which inhabits northern parts of the country. The lizard was chosen because of its will to survive along with its tenacity, it carries the Paralympic message of power and pride to both Australians and international audiences. Lizzie has been given the voice of Olivia Newton-John, a well-known Australian singer, actor and entertainer. Olivia made performances with Lizzie leading up the the Games, spreading the word about excellence within the Paralympic Community.[8] [9]









Ceremonies[edit]

151100 - Opening Ceremony Australian team - 3b - 2000 Sydney opening ceremony

Australian artist Jeffrey St. John sang "Advance Australia Fair" and "The Challenge" at the Opening Ceremony. Kylie Minogue sang "Waltzing Matilda" and "Celebration" at the Opening Ceremony. Other performers for the Opening Ceremony included Nathan Cavaleri, Melissa Ippolito, Bryan Brown, Taxiride, Billy Thorpe, Jack Thompson, Renee Geyer, Tina Harris, Vanessa Amorosi and Christine Anu. Australian country artist Graeme Connors sang his song 'Being Here', which was specially written for the event.


The Australian group, The Seekers, sang their hit song "The Carnival Is Over" as the finale to the Closing Ceremony. Judith Durham, who had a broken hip, sang from a wheelchair.

151100 - Closing Ceremony floats view - 3b - 2000 Sydney closing ceremony photo









Administration[edit]

The Paralympic Games are governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC). The Games were organised by the Sydney Paralyampic Organising Committee led by President Dr John Grant and Chief Executive Officer Lois Appleby. The SOCOG was established at the same time as the Sydney Paralympic organising Committee on the 12 November 1993 by the Office of Olympic Co-ordination. In January 1995, SPOC became a public company controlled by the Government, receiving support by both State and Commonwealth Governments. A board of directors including the Premier, Minister for the Olympics, the Treasurer and the Minister for Sport and Recreation conducted administration. The Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee was responsible for planning and staging the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games including tickets, information on events and disability categorisation, converting Olympic venues to Paralympic venues, conducting events, facilitating drug testing, arranging broadcasting, housing for athletes, arranging medal ceremonies, transporting athletes and conducting the Paralympic torch relay. The Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee also regulated the use of Paralympic Games indicia and images. A committee known as the Joint Working Group was established in June 1997, linking the Boards of both the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee and the Sydney Organising Committee for the Olympic Games. On the 29 November, the Sydney Games Administration Act 2000 was passed. The legislation caused the Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee to dissolve from 1 January 2001, its assets and liabilities were transferred to the Olympic Coordination Authority. [10]

Torch relay[edit]

Paralympic Torch, designed by Robert Jurgens, now placed in front of ANZ Stadium
Australian athletics competitor Louise Sauvage lights the cauldron with the Paralympic Flame at the finish of the torch relay, 2000 Summer Paralympics Opening Ceremony

The Torch Relay Programme's objectives were to develop a route and an event which would help maintain momentum between the Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games, promote the Paralympic Games and encourage ticket purchases. It was also to safely deliver the Paralympic flame to the Opening Ceremony.

While the relay visited each Australian capital city, it also focused strongly on Sydney and the surrounding region, as this was the main catchment area for ticket sales.

The Paralympic Torch Relay succeeded in generating community and media support for the Games, with crowds in many areas and significant crowds lining the Sydney metropolitan route in the final two days of the relay.

The event, which commenced with a lighting ceremony at Parliament House, Canberra on 5 October 2000, involved 920 torchbearers, each of whom carried the flame an average of 500 metres. After visiting each capital city (except Sydney) by air, the relay travelled in New South Wales (NSW) from Moss Vale through the Southern Highlands, Illawarra, Campbelltown, Penrith, Windsor, Hunter and Central Coast areas before heading to Sydney.

Highlights included:

  • The creation of the Paralympic flame during an Indigenous lighting ceremony on the forecourt of Parliament House, Canberra, with Paralympian David Hall (a tennis player) as the first torchbearer. The Australian Prime Minister attended this event.
  • The use of a Royal Australian Air Force Falcon 900 Executive jet to convey the Paralympic flame around Australia.
  • The Paralympic flame being carried across the arch of the Sydney Harbour Bridge (17 October 2000) by four torchbearers.

Sports[edit]

The games included 550 separate events in 19 sports. For the first time, women's events were included in the powerlifting programme and wheelchair rugby, a demonstration sport at the 1996 Paralympics, was contested as a medal-awarding sport.[11]

Games highlights[edit]

Action shot of Australian swimming star Siobhan Paton, who won six gold medals at the 2000 Summer Paralympics

The Sydney Paralympics were deemed the “best Games ever” by Dr. Robert Steadwood (then president of the International Paralympic Committee). The games were Australia’s most successful in history, with the nation achieving their highest medal count. Of the 149 medals won, 63 were gold, 29 silver, and 47 were bronze, from ten different sports. Ticket sales exceeded organisers’ initial targets, with 1.1 million tickets sold; nearly twice that of the previous 1996 Atlanta Paralympics 1996 Summer Paralympics.

The Australian team had a number of notable gold-medal winning performances. Individual achievements included swimmer Siobhan Paton’s six gold medals in the 200m SM14 individual medley, and S14 100m freestyle, 50m butterfly, 50m backstroke, 200m freestyle, and 50m freestyle.

Tim Sullivan topped the track and field medal tally with five gold medals. Sullivan won three gold medals in the T38 200m, 100m, and 400m events, and won two gold medals in relay events alongside Darren Thrupp, Adrian Grogan and Kieran Ault-Connell (T38 4X400m and 4X100m races). The top performing female track and field athlete was Lisa Llorens, who won three gold medals from the F20 high jump, long jump and T20 200m. Lorens also won a silver medal in the T20 100m. Other track medallists included Neil Fuller won two golds in the T44 200m, and 400m events, as well as one individual bronze medal in the T44 100m. Fuller later combined with Tim Matthews, Stephen Wilson and Heath Francis to win another two gold medals in the T45 4X100m relay and T46 4X400m relay. Heath Francis went on to win a total of three golds and one silver after also winning an individual gold and silver in the T46 400m and T46 200m events respectively. Other track medallists were Amy Winters with two golds in the T46 200m and 100m T46, and a bronze in the T46 400m. Greg Smith also won three gold medals in the 800m, 5,000m and 1,500m T52 events.

In Cycling, Matthew Gray won two golds in the velodrome in the individual cycling mixed 1km time trial LC1, and a gold in the mixed team sprint with Paul Lake and Greg Ball. Sarnya Parker and Tania Morda also won two golds in the women’s cycling tandem 1km time trial and women’s tandem cycling individual pursuit open.[14]

Medal count[edit]

Australian cyclist Lyn Lepore shows a gold, silver and bronze medal from the 2000 Sydney Paralympic Games plus the diamond pin presented to her by BHP for winning gold

A total of 1657 medals were awarded during the Sydney games: 550 gold, 549 silver, and 558 bronze. The host country, Australia, topped the medal count with more gold medals and more medals overall than any other nation. Great Britain took the most silver medals, with 43, and tied Australia for the most bronze medals, with 47.[15]

In the table below, the ranking sorts by the number of gold medals earned by a nation (in this context a nation is an entity represented by a National Paralympic Committee). The number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals.

      Host country (Australia)

Rank Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Australia (AUS) 63 39 47 149
2  Great Britain (GBR) 41 43 47 131
3  Canada (CAN) 38 33 25 96
4  Spain (ESP) 38 30 38 106
5  United States (USA) 36 39 34 109
6  China (CHN) 34 22 17 73
7  France (FRA) 30 28 28 86
8  Poland (POL) 19 23 11 53
9  South Korea (KOR) 18 7 7 32
10  Germany (GER) 16 41 38 95

Participating delegations[edit]

One-hundred and twenty-three delegations participated in the Sydney Paralympics. Included among them was a team of "Individual Paralympic Athletes" from East Timor. The newly independent country had not yet established a National Paralympic Committee, so the International Paralympic Committee invited East Timorese athletes to compete at the games under the title of Individual Paralympic Athletes.[16]

Barbados, Benin, Cambodia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guinea, Iraq, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mongolia, Niger, Palestine, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Sudan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Vanuatu and Vietnam, who had not participated in the Atlanta Games, competed in Sydney.[17]

Views[edit]

Dame Tanni Grey-Thompson, multiple Paralympic gold medallist for Great Britain, later said of the Sydney Games:

"Sydney 2000 will always hold a special place in the hearts of everyone who was there. The Aussies love their sport and they treated us simply as sportsmen and women. We weren’t regarded as role models or inspirations, we were competitors. Some of us won gold medals, most didn’t, but, hey, that’s life. Sydney was phenomenal because, from day one, you felt there was something extraordinarily special in the air. Sydney was an athletic Disneyland, it was where magic happened. It probably marked the time and place when Paralympians genuinely became part of the Olympic Movement."[18]

See also[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games" (PDF). NSW Treasury. 1999–2000. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ "Performance Audit Report" (PDF). The Audit Office of New South Wales. n.d. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  4. ^ "Sydney 2000 Olympic and Paralympic Games" (PDF). NSW Treasury. 1999–2000. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  5. ^ "Don't forget 'les autres'". Patrick Barkham. 9 October 2000. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  6. ^ "Man that led shameful Spanish basketball team who pretended to be disabled to win Paralympic gold found guilty of fraud". Simon Tomlinson. 15 October 2013. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  7. ^ "A Brief History of the Olympic and Paralympic Mascots". Beijing2008. 5 August 2004. Retrieved 25 October 2006. 
  8. ^ "Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games - Lizzy". International Paralympic Committee (IPC). n.d. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  9. ^ "Olympic Games" (PDF). Olympic Information Center. 1997. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  10. ^ "Sydney Paralympic Organising Committee (SPOC)". NSW Government State Records. 1 January 2001. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  11. ^ "Sydney 2000 - General Information". International Paralympic Committee. August 2001. Retrieved 2011-07-12. 
  12. ^ "Superpowers struggle to perform at Paralympics", Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 30 October 2000
  13. ^ "Beauts", CNN, 27 October 2000
  14. ^ "A look back at the Sydney Paralympics". Australian Bureau of Statistics. 25 January 2002. Retrieved 22 August 2015. 
  15. ^ "Medal Standings - Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games". International Paralympic Committee. 2008. Retrieved 2011-07-12. [dead link]
  16. ^ "East Timor's tiny team gets warm welcome". ESPN. 18 October 2000. Retrieved 2009-03-13. 
  17. ^ "Still growing: Paralympics world's second-largest sporting event", Sports Illustrated, 20 September 2000
  18. ^ "Please don't cry for them", The National, 31 August 2008

External links[edit]