2000 World Monuments Watch

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The World Monuments Watch is a flagship advocacy program of the New York-based private non-profit organization World Monuments Fund (WMF) and American Express to call upon every government in the world, preservation organizations, and other groups and individuals to nominate sites and monuments that are particularly endangered. At the same time, the nominators commit themselves to participate in a carefully planned preservation project.[1]

Selection process[edit]

Every two years, the program publishes a select list known as the Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites that is in urgent need of preservation funding and protection. The sites are chosen from these nominations by an independent panel of international experts, based on the significance of the site, the urgency of the problem, and the viability of the proposal for action.[1] WMF would then publicize their plight and help find the resources and expertise to carry out the preservation projects for the 100 sites on the Watch List.[1] The leverage from the listing also spurs government agencies and local donors to allocate funds and take an active role in protecting the cultural landmark,[2] in addition to grants directly coming from WMF and American Express.

2000 Watch List[edit]

The 2000 World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites was launched on 14 September 1999 by WMF President Bonnie Burnham.[2][3]

[World Monuments] Watch is a bold challenge to local and national authorities to step up to their responsibilities—and an appeal to the public to take immediate action—to save these irreplaceable sites that define the history and the humanity of the peoples of the world[…] Once these sites are lost, they are gone forever. They are the very definition of the word irreplaceable.

— Bonnie Burnham, WMF president, launch of 2000 Watch List[1]

List by country/territory[edit]

Tipasa in Algeria was an ancient Punic trading post conquered by Rome and turned into a strategic base for the conquest of the kingdoms of Mauritania.[4]
Suchitoto is widely known throughout El Salvador for its church and for its cobblestone roads.
Gartenreich Dessau-Worlitz, the Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm, is one of the first and largest English parks in Germany and continental Europe.
The Kahal Shalom Synagogue is the oldest synagogue in Greece today.[5]
Uch in Pakistan is thought to be one of the Alexandrias founded by Alexander the Great.[6]
Began in the 16th century, the Banffy Castle is considered to be Romania's most important Renaissance-style castle.[6]
The settlement of Jodensavanne in Suriname was once the largest and only autonomous Jewish agrarian community in the New World.[6]
Merv in Turkmenistan was a major oasis-city in Central Asia, on the historical Silk Road. It is claimed that Merv was briefly the largest city in the world in the 12th century.[7]
Saint Francis Church and Monastery in Manchester, England is believed to be one of the finest examples of High Victorian Gothic architecture in the world.[8]
The Vietnamese site of My Son was the religious and political capital of the Champa Kingdom for most of its existence.[9]
The discovery of objects from Europe and China shows that Zimbabwe's Khami was a major centre for trade over a long period of time.[10]
Number[A] Country/Territory Site[B] Location[C] Period[C]
1 Albania Butrint Archaeological Site Sarande 8th century BC–18th century AD
2 Algeria Tipasa Archaeological Park Tipasa 40 BC
3 Belgium Tour and Taxis (transport hub) Brussels 1897–1907
4 Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostar Historic Center Mostar 16th century
5 Brazil Santo Antonio do Paraguacu, Sao Francisco do Paraguacu Bahia 1650–1700
6 Brazil Vila de Paranapiacaba Santo Andre 1868
7 Bulgaria Ivanovo Rock Chapels Rousse Region 13th–14th century
8 Cambodia Banteay Chhmar Temple of Jayavarman VII Thmar Puok 12th century
9 Chile Orongo Ceremonial Site Easter Island 15th–18th century
10 China Dulan County Tibetan Royal Tomb Group Reshuixiang-Xuewei, Dulan 7th–9th century
11 China Palpung Monastery Babang Village, Sichuan 1725
12 China Temple of Agriculture (Xiannongtan) Beijing 15th century
13 China Xuanjian Tower Yuci City, Shanxi 1515
14 Croatia Vukovar City Center Vukovar Mid–18th century
15 Cuba National Art Schools Cubanacan, Havana 1961–1965
16 Cuba San Isidro de los Destiladeros Valle de los Ingenios, Trinidad 1828
17 Cuba Santa Teresa de Jesus Cloisters Havana 18th century
18 Czech Republic Kuks Forest Sculptures Kuks 1695–1732
19 Dominican Republic Puerto Plata Lighthouse Puerto Plata 1879
20 El Salvador Suchitoto City Cuscatlan 16th century
21 Egypt Khasekhemwy at Hierakonpolis Edfu, Kom el Ahmar 28th century BC
22 Egypt Sultan Qa'itbay Complex Cairo 1477
23 Egypt Valley of the Kings Thebes, Luxor 16th–11th century BC
24 Ethiopia Mentewab-Qwesqwam Palace Gondar 18th century
25 France Saint Pierre Cathedral Beauvais 1225–1272
26 Georgia Ikorta Church of the Archangel Zemo Artsevi Village 1172
27 Georgia Tbilisi Historic District Tbilisi 6th century-Present
28 Germany Gartenreich Dessau-Worlitz Dessau 1784–1810
29 Germany Thomaskirche Leipzig 1212–1889
30 Greece Kahal Shalom Synagogue Rhodes 1577
31 India Basgo Gompa (Maitreya Temples) Ladakh, Leh 1530–1699
32 India Champaner Archaeological Site Panchmahal, Gujarat 15th–16th century
33 India Jaisalmer Fort Rajasthan 12th century
34 India Metropolitan Building Calcutta 1908
35 India Saint Anne Church Talaulim, Goa 1681–1689
36 Indonesia Omo Hada (Royal Palace Complex) Nias, Teluk Dalam, North Sumatra 1715
37 Indonesia Tanah Lot Temple Tabanan, Bali 15th century
38 Iraq Citadel of Arbil Kurdish Autonomous Region 6th millennium BC
39 Ireland Saint Brendan's Cathedral Clonfert, County Galway 1165
40 Israel Tel-Dan Canaanite Gate Near Kibbutz Dan, Upper Galilee 18th century BC
41 Israel Ramle White Mosque Archaeological Site Ramle 8th century
42 Italy Ancient Pompeii Naples 1st century BC–AD 79
43 Italy Bridge of Chains Bagni di Lucca 1839–1860
44 Italy Cinque Terre Liguria 1200
45 Italy Santi Quattro Coronati Cloister Rome Early 13th century
46 Jamaica Falmouth Historic Town Trelawny Parish 1770s
47 Jordan Petra Archaeological Site Wadi Mousa 1st–6th century
48 Kenya Thimlich Ohinga Cultural Landscape Migori 14th century
49 Lebanon Enfeh Archaeological Site Enfeh, near Tripoli 2nd millennium BC–13th century AD
50 Malaysia George Town Historic Enclave Penang State 1786–mid–20th century
51 Malaysia Kampung Cina River Frontage Kuala Terengganu Late 19th–early 20th century
52 Malta Mnajdra Prehistoric Temples Mnajdra 3600 BC–2500 BC
53 Mexico Madera Cave Dwellings Madera, Chihuahua 10th–14th century
54 Mexico San Juan de Ulua Fort Veracruz 1535–1786
55 Mexico Santa Prisca Parish Church Taxco de Alarcon, Guerrero 1751–1758
56 Mexico Teotihuacan Archaeological Site San Juan Teotihuacan 100 BC–AD 750
57 Mexico Yaxchilan Archaeological Zone Cuenca del Usumacinta, Chiapas 400–900
58 Mongolia Bogd Khaan Palace Museum Ulaanbaatar 1893–1903
59 Nepal Itum Monastery Kathmandu Before 1241
60 Nepal Teku Thapatali Monument Zone Kathmandu 18th–19th century
61 Niger Giraffe Rock Art Site Agadez 6th millennium BC
62 Pakistan Uch Monument Complex Uch, Bahawalpur District, Punjab Province ca. 2nd millennium BC–16th century AD
63 Panama San Lorenzo Castle and San Geronimo Fort Colon and Portobelo 1595–1770 and 1653–1760
64 Peru Cusco Historic Center Cusco 13th–17th century
65 Peru Los Pinchudos Archaeological Site Rio Abiseo National Park 16th century
66 Peru Machu Picchu Urubamba, Cusco 15th century
67 Philippines Rice Terraces of the Cordilleras Ifugao 1st century–Present
68 Poland Vistulamouth Fortress Gdańsk 1482–1800
69 Romania Bánffy Castle Bonţida 16th–18th century
70 Russia Arkhangelskoye State Museum Moscow 1751–1831
71 Russia Irkoutsk Historic Center Irkoutsk 1770–1799
72 Russia Oranienbaum State Museum Lomonosov 1711–1774
73 Russia Paanajarvi Village Kemi Province 14th century–Present
74 Russia Rostov Veliky Historic Center Rostov Veliky 9th century–early 20th century
75 Russia Russakov Club Moscow 1929
76 Russia Viipuri Library Vyborg 1935
77 Slovakia Basil the Great Church Krajne Cierno 1750
78 Sudan Gebel Barkal Archaeological Site Karima 1460 BC–AD 100
79 Suriname Jodensavanne Archaeological Site Redi Doti 1660–1830
80 Turkey Ani Archaeological Site Ocarli Koyu, Kars 3rd–14th century
81 Turkey Çatalhöyük Cumra, Konya 10th millennium BC
82 Turkey Mount Nemrut Archaeological Site Kahta 80 BC–72 BC
83 Turkey Zeyrek Mosque Istanbul 1118–1136
84 Turkmenistan Merv Archaeological Site Bairam Ali 6th century BC–15th century AD
85 Ukraine Kamyanets Podilsky Castle Bridge Kamyanets Podilsky ca. 2nd century–1942
86 Ukraine Zhovkva Synagogue Zhovkva 1692
87 United Kingdom Abbey Farmstead Faversham, Kent, England 13th century–Present
88 United Kingdom Saint Francis Church and Monastery East Manchester, England 1863–1872
89 United States of America Eastern State Penitentiary Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1822–1836
90 United States of America Lancaster County Lancaster County, Pennsylvania 1710 – present
91 United States of America Seventh Regiment Armory New York City 1877–1881
92 United States of America Tree Studios and Medinah Temple Chicago, Illinois 1894–1913
93 United States of America VDL Research House II Los Angeles 1932; rebuilt 1966
94 Uzbekistan Abdulazizkhan Complex Bukhara 1417
95 Venezuela San Francisco Church Coro, Falcon 1720–1887
96 Vietnam Minh Mang Tomb Hue 1840
97 Vietnam My Son Temple Complex Duy Xuyen, Quang Nam 4th–13th century
98 Yemen Tarim Historic City Wadi Hadramaut 1870–1920
99 Yugoslavia Subotica Synagogue Subotica 1902
100 Zimbabwe Khami National Monument Bulawayo Mid–15th century–Mid–17th century

Statistics by country/territory[edit]

The following countries/territories have multiple sites entered on the 2000 Watch List, listed by the number of sites:

Number of sites Country/Territory
7 Russia
5 India, Mexico and United States of America
4 China, Italy and Turkey
3 Cuba, Egypt and Peru
2 Brazil, Georgia, Germany, Indonesia, Israel, Malaysia, Nepal, Ukraine, United Kingdom and Vietnam


^ A. Numbers list only meant as a guide on this article. No official reference numbers have been designated for the sites on the Watch List.
^ B. Names and spellings used for the sites were based on the official 2000 Watch List as published.
^ C. The references to the sites' locations and periods of construction were based on the official Watch List as published.


  1. ^ a b c d James Wiseman (November–December 1999). "Insight: The World's Most Endangered Sites". Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "Palpung named to list of endangered monuments". World Monuments Fund. September 1997. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  3. ^ "1998 World Monuments Watch" (PDF). World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 8 September 2009. [dead link]
  4. ^ "Tipasa". World Heritage Center. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  5. ^ "United States Holocaust Memorial Museum – Rhodes, Greece". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 27 May 2005. 
  6. ^ a b c "World Monuments Watch". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  7. ^ "Merv". Archived from the original on 24 June 2007. 
  8. ^ "The History of Gorton Monastery". gortonmonastery.co.uk. Archived from the original on 20 October 2007. Retrieved 14 December 2007. 
  9. ^ "My Son Sanctuary". World Heritage Center. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 
  10. ^ "Khami Ruins National Monument". World Heritage Center. Retrieved 8 September 2009. 

External links[edit]