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2001: A Space Odyssey (film)

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2001: A Space Odyssey
A painted image of a space station suspended in space, in the background the Earth is visible. Above the image appears "An epic drama of adventure and exploration" in blue block letters against a white background. Below the image in a black band, the title "2001: a space odyssey" appears in yellow block letters.
Theatrical release poster by Robert McCall
Directed by Stanley Kubrick
Produced by Stanley Kubrick
Screenplay by
Starring
Cinematography Geoffrey Unsworth
Edited by Ray Lovejoy
Production
company
Stanley Kubrick Productions
Distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release date
  • April 2, 1968 (1968-04-02) (Uptown Theater)
  • April 3, 1968 (1968-04-03) (United States)
  • May 15, 1968 (1968-05-15) (United Kingdom)
Running time
  • 161 minutes (premiere)[1]
  • 142 minutes (theatrical)[2]
Country
  • United Kingdom[3]
  • United States[3]
Language English
Budget $10.5–12 million[4][5]
Box office $138–190 million[6][7]

2001: A Space Odyssey is a 1968 epic science fiction film produced and directed by Stanley Kubrick. The screenplay was written by Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, and was inspired by Clarke's short story "The Sentinel". A novel also called 2001: A Space Odyssey, written concurrently with the screenplay, was published soon after the film was released. The film, which follows a voyage to Jupiter with the sentient computer HAL after the discovery of a mysterious black monolith affecting human evolution, deals with themes of existentialism, human evolution, technology, artificial intelligence, and the possibility of extraterrestrial life. The film is noted for its scientifically accurate depiction of spaceflight, pioneering special effects, and ambiguous imagery. Sound and dialogue are used sparingly and often in place of traditional cinematic and narrative techniques. The soundtrack incorporates a number of pieces of classical music, among them Also sprach Zarathustra by Richard Strauss, The Blue Danube by Johann Strauss II, and works by Aram Khachaturian and György Ligeti.

2001: A Space Odyssey was financed and distributed by American studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer,[8][9] but filmed and edited almost entirely in England, where Kubrick lived, using the facilities of MGM-British Studios and Shepperton Studios. Production was subcontracted to Kubrick's production company, and care was taken that the film would be sufficiently "British" to qualify for the Eady Levy, a UK tax on box-office receipts.[8]:98 The film received mixed reactions from critics and audiences upon its release, but garnered a cult following and became the highest-grossing North American film of 1968. It was nominated for four Academy Awards; Kubrick received one for his direction of visual effects. A sequel, 2010: The Year We Make Contact, directed by Peter Hyams, was released in 1984.

2001: A Space Odyssey is widely regarded as one of the greatest and most influential films ever made.[10] In 1991, it was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.[11] Sight & Sound magazine ranked 2001: A Space Odyssey sixth in the top ten films of all time in its 2002[12] and 2012 critics' polls editions; it also tied for second place in the magazine's 2012 directors' poll. In 2010, it was named the greatest film of all time by The Moving Arts Film Journal.[13]

Plot[edit]

In an African desert millions of years ago, a tribe of hominids is driven away from its water hole by a rival tribe. They awaken to find a featureless black monolith has appeared before them. Seemingly influenced by the monolith, they discover how to use a bone as a weapon and drive their rivals away from the water hole.

Millions of years later, a Pan Am spaceplane carries Dr. Heywood Floyd to the huge Space Station 5 orbiting Earth for a layover on his trip to Clavius Base, a United States outpost on the Moon. After Floyd has a videophone call with his daughter, he deflects questions from his Soviet scientist friend and her colleague about rumors of a mysterious epidemic at Clavius. Floyd speaks to a meeting of Clavius personnel, apologizing for the epidemic cover story but stressing secrecy. His mission is to investigate a recently found artifact buried four million years ago near the crater Tycho. Floyd and others ride in a Moonbus to the artifact, a monolith identical to the one encountered by the ape-men. When sunlight strikes the monolith for the first time in millions of years, a loud high-pitched radio signal is heard.

Eighteen months later, the United States spacecraft Discovery One is bound for Jupiter. On board are mission pilots and scientists Dr. David Bowman and Dr. Frank Poole, along with three other scientists in suspended animation. Most of Discovery's operations are controlled by the ship's computer, a HAL 9000 with a human personality that the crew calls "Hal". Hal says he is "foolproof and incapable of error". Hal raises concerns about the nature of the mission to Bowman, but their conversation is interrupted when Hal reports the imminent failure of an antenna control device. The astronauts retrieve it in an extravehicular activity (EVA) pod but find nothing wrong. Hal suggests reinstalling the device and letting it fail so the problem can be found. Mission Control advises the astronauts that results from their twin HAL 9000 indicate that Hal is in error about the device's imminent failure. Hal says the discrepancy must be due to human error. Concerned about Hal's behavior, Bowman and Poole enter an EVA pod to talk without Hal overhearing, and agree to disconnect Hal if he is proven wrong. Hal secretly follows their conversation by lip reading. While Poole is on a space walk outside his EVA pod attempting to replace the unit, Hal takes control of the pod, severs his oxygen hose and sets him adrift. Bowman takes another pod to rescue Poole.

Meanwhile, Hal turns off the life support functions of the crewmen in suspended animation. When Bowman returns to the ship with Poole's body, Hal refuses to let him in, stating that the astronauts' plan to deactivate him jeopardizes the mission. Bowman opens the ship's emergency airlock manually, enters the ship, and proceeds to Hal's processor core. Hal tries to reassure Bowman, then pleads with him to stop, and finally expresses fear. As Bowman gradually deactivates the circuits controlling Hal's higher intellectual functions, Hal regresses to his earliest programmed memory, the song "Daisy Bell", which he sings for Bowman. When Bowman disconnects Hal, a prerecorded video message from Floyd plays, revealing that the mission's true objective is to investigate a radio signal, sent from a lunar artifact (the monolith) to Jupiter. Only Hal and the hibernating crew had been told this.

At Jupiter, Bowman leaves Discovery One in an EVA pod to investigate another monolith orbiting the planet. The pod is pulled into a vortex of colored light, the Star Gate, and Bowman races across vast distances of space, viewing bizarre cosmological phenomena and strange landscapes of unusual colors.

Bowman finds himself in a bedroom appointed in the neoclassical style. He sees, and then becomes, older versions of himself, first standing in the bedroom, middle-aged and still in his spacesuit, then dressed in leisure attire and eating dinner, and finally as an old man lying in the bed. A monolith appears at the foot of the bed, and as Bowman reaches for it, he is transformed into a fetus enclosed in a transparent orb of light, The Star Child. The new being floats in space beside the Earth, gazing at it.

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Development[edit]

After completing Dr. Strangelove (1964), director Stanley Kubrick became fascinated by the possibility of extraterrestrial life,[15] and resolved to make "the proverbial good science fiction movie".[16] Kubrick's interest in science fiction films was sparked by Japanese tokusatsu films such as Warning from Space (1956). According to his biographer John Baxter, despite their "clumsy model sequences, the films were often well-photographed in colour ... and their dismal dialogue was delivered in well-designed and well-lit sets."[17]

Meeting of Kubrick and Clarke[edit]

Searching for a collaborator in the science fiction community, Kubrick was advised by a mutual acquaintance, Columbia Pictures staffer Roger Caras, to talk to writer Arthur C. Clarke, who lived in Ceylon. Although convinced that Clarke was "a recluse, a nut who lives in a tree", Kubrick allowed Caras to cable the film proposal to Clarke. Clarke's cabled response stated that he was "frightfully interested in working with [that] enfant terrible", and added "what makes Kubrick think I'm a recluse?"[18][19] Meeting for the first time at Trader Vic's in New York on April 22, 1964, the two began discussing the project that would take up the next four years of their lives.[20] Clarke kept a diary throughout his involvement with 2001, excerpts of which were published in 1972 as The Lost Worlds of 2001.[21]

Search for source material[edit]

Kubrick told Clarke he wanted to make a film about "Man's relationship to the universe",[22] and was, in Clarke's words, "determined to create a work of art which would arouse the emotions of wonder, awe  ... even, if appropriate, terror".[20] Clarke offered Kubrick six of his short stories, and by May 1964, Kubrick had chosen "The Sentinel" as the source material for the film. In search of more material to expand the film's plot, the two spent the rest of 1964 reading books on science and anthropology, screening science fiction films, and brainstorming ideas.[23] They spent two years transforming the short story into a novel, and then into a script for 2001.[24] Clarke said that his story "Encounter in the Dawn" inspired the film's "Dawn Of Man" sequence.[25]

Kubrick and Clarke privately referred to the project as How the Solar System Was Won, a reference to MGM's 1962 Cinerama epic How the West Was Won. On February 23, 1965, Kubrick issued a press release announcing the title as Journey Beyond The Stars.[26] Other titles considered include Universe, Tunnel to the Stars, and Planetfall. In April 1965, eleven months after they began working on the project, Kubrick selected 2001: A Space Odyssey; Clarke said the title was "entirely" Kubrick's idea.[27] Intending to set the film apart from the "monsters-and-sex" type of science-fiction films of the time, Kubrick used Homer's The Odyssey as inspiration for the title. Kubrick said, "It occurred to us that for the Greeks the vast stretches of the sea must have had the same sort of mystery and remoteness that space has for our generation."[28]

Writing[edit]

Parallel development of film and novel[edit]

How much would we appreciate La Gioconda today if Leonardo had written at the bottom of the canvas: "This lady is smiling slightly because she has rotten teeth"—or "because she's hiding a secret from her lover"? It would shut off the viewer's appreciation and shackle him to a reality other than his own. I don't want that to happen to 2001.

—Stanley Kubrick, Playboy, 1968[29]

Kubrick and Clarke planned to develop the 2001 novel first, free of the constraints of film, and then write the screenplay. They planned the writing credits to be "Screenplay by Stanley Kubrick and Arthur C. Clarke, based on a novel by Arthur C. Clarke and Stanley Kubrick" to reflect their preeminence in their respective fields.[30] In practice, the screenplay developed in parallel to the novel, and elements were shared between both. In a 1970 interview, Kubrick said:

There are a number of differences between the book and the movie. The novel, for example, attempts to explain things much more explicitly than the film does, which is inevitable in a verbal medium. The novel came about after we did a 130-page prose treatment of the film at the very outset. This initial treatment was subsequently changed in the screenplay, and the screenplay in turn was altered during the making of the film. But Arthur took all the existing material, plus an impression of some of the rushes, and wrote the novel. As a result, there's a difference between the novel and the film  ... I think that the divergences between the two works are interesting.[31]

Clarke and Kubrick wrote the novel and screenplay simultaneously. Clarke opted for clearer explanations of the mysterious monolith and Star Gate in the novel; Kubrick made the film more cryptic by minimising dialogue and explanation.[32] Kubrick said the film is "basically a visual, nonverbal experience" that "hits the viewer at an inner level of consciousness, just as music does, or painting".[33]

The screenplay credits were shared whereas the 2001 novel, released shortly after the film, was attributed to Clarke alone. Clarke wrote later that "the nearest approximation to the complicated truth" is that the screenplay should be credited to "Kubrick and Clarke" and the novel to "Clarke and Kubrick".[34] The tensions involved in the writing of the film script reached a point where Kubrick was so dissatisfied with the collaboration that he approached other writers who could replace Clarke, including Michael Moorcock and J.G. Ballard. But they felt it would be disloyal to accept Kubrick's offer.[35]

Depiction of alien life[edit]

Astronomer Carl Sagan wrote in his book The Cosmic Connection that Clarke and Kubrick asked him how to best depict extraterrestrial intelligence. While acknowledging Kubrick's desire to use actors to portray humanoid aliens for convenience's sake, Sagan argued that alien life forms were unlikely to bear any resemblance to terrestrial life, and that to do so would introduce "at least an element of falseness" to the film. Sagan proposed that the film should simply suggest extraterrestrial superintelligence, rather than depict it. He attended the premiere and was "pleased to see that I had been of some help."[36] Kubrick hinted at the nature of the mysterious unseen alien race in 2001 by suggesting that given millions of years of evolution, they progressed from biological beings to "immortal machine entities" and then into "beings of pure energy and spirit" with "limitless capabilities and ungraspable intelligence".[37]

In an 1980 interview unreleased during Kubrick's lifetime, Kubrick explains one of the film's closing scenes, where Bowman is depicted in old age after his journey through the Star Gate: "The idea was supposed to be that he is taken in by godlike entities, creatures of pure energy and intelligence with no shape or form. They put him in what I suppose you could describe as a human zoo to study him, and his whole life passes from that point on in that room. And he has no sense of time. It just seems to happen as it does in the film." In the interview Kubrick says that Bowman is then transformed into the Star Child by the godlike entities before they return him to earth as his destiny, in a traditional myth-like transformation.[38]

Stages of script and novel development[edit]

The script went through many stages. In early 1965, when backing was secured for the film, Clarke and Kubrick still had no firm idea of what would happen to Bowman after the Star Gate sequence. Initially all of Discovery's astronauts were to survive the journey; by October 3, Clarke and Kubrick had decided to make Bowman the sole survivor and have him regress to infancy. By October 17, Kubrick had come up with what Clarke called a "wild idea of slightly fag robots who create a Victorian environment to put our heroes at their ease."[34] HAL 9000 was originally named Athena after the Greek goddess of wisdom and had a feminine voice and persona.[34]

Early drafts included a prologue containing interviews with scientists about extraterrestrial life,[39] voice-over narration (a feature in all of Kubrick's previous films),[40] a stronger emphasis on the prevailing Cold War balance of terror, and a different and more explicitly explained breakdown for HAL.[41][42][43] Other changes include a different monolith for the "Dawn of Man" sequence, discarded when early prototypes did not photograph well; the use of Saturn as the final destination of the Discovery mission rather than Jupiter, discarded when the special effects team could not develop a convincing rendition of Saturn's rings; and the finale of the Star Child exploding nuclear weapons carried by Earth-orbiting satellites,[43] which Kubrick discarded for its similarity to his previous film, Dr. Strangelove.[39][43] The finale and many of the other discarded screenplay ideas survived in Clarke's novel.[43]

Kubrick made further changes to make the film more nonverbal, communicating at a visual and visceral level rather than through conventional narrative.[29] Long periods without dialogue, such as the 10 minutes of screen time from Floyd's Moonbus landing near the monolith until Poole watches a BBC newscast on Discovery, permeate the film. Vincent LoBrutto wrote that Clarke's novel has "strong narrative structure" while the film is a mainly visual experience, where much remains symbolic.[44]

HAL's breakdown[edit]
One of HAL 9000's interfaces

The reasons for HAL's malfunction and subsequent malignant behavior have elicited much discussion. He has been compared to Frankenstein's monster. In Clarke's novel, HAL malfunctions because of being ordered to lie to the crew of Discovery and withhold confidential information from them, namely the confidentially programmed mission priority over expendable human life, despite being constructed for "the accurate processing of information without distortion or concealment". This would not be addressed on film until the 1984 follow-up 2010: The Year We Make Contact. Film critic Roger Ebert wrote that HAL, as the supposedly perfect computer, is actually the most human of all of the characters.[45] In an interview with Joseph Gelmis in 1969, Kubrick said that HAL "had an acute emotional crisis because he could not accept evidence of his own fallibility".[46]

Military nature of orbiting satellites[edit]

Kubrick originally planned a voice-over to reveal that the satellites seen after the prologue are nuclear weapons,[47] and that the Star Child would detonate the weapons at the end of the film.[48] but felt this would create associations with Dr. Strangelove and decided not to make it obvious that they were "war machines".[49] A few weeks before the film's release, the U.S. and Soviet governments had agreed not to put any nuclear weapons into outer space.

In a book he wrote with Kubrick's assistance, Alexander Walker states that Kubrick eventually decided that nuclear weapons had "no place at all in the film's thematic development", being an "orbiting red herring" that would "merely have raised irrelevant questions to suggest this as a reality of the twenty-first century".[50]

Kubrick scholar Michel Ciment, discussing Kubrick's attitude toward human aggression and instinct, observes: "The bone cast into the air by the ape (now become a man) is transformed at the other extreme of civilization, by one of those abrupt ellipses characteristic of the director, into a spacecraft on its way to the moon."[51] In contrast to Ciment's reading of a cut to a serene "other extreme of civilization", science fiction novelist Robert Sawyer, in the Canadian documentary 2001 and Beyond, says he sees it as a cut from a bone to a nuclear weapons platform, explaining that "what we see is not how far we've leaped ahead, what we see is that today, '2001', and four million years ago on the African veldt, it's exactly the same—the power of mankind is the power of its weapons. It's a continuation, not a discontinuity in that jump."[52]

Dialogue[edit]

The film has no dialogue for roughly the first and last 20 minutes.[45] By the time shooting began, Kubrick had removed much of the dialogue and narration; what remains is notable for its banality (making the computer HAL seem to have more emotion than the humans) juxtaposed with epic space scenes.[53]

Pre-production[edit]

Kubrick's decision to avoid the fanciful portrayals of space in standard popular science fiction films of the time led him to seek more realistic and scientifically accurate depiction of space travel. Illustrators such as Chesley Bonestell, Roy Carnon, and Richard McKenna were hired to produce concept drawings, sketches and paintings of the space technology seen in the film.[54][55] Two educational films that came out previously, the 1960 National Film Board of Canada animated short documentary Universe and the 1964 New York World's Fair movie To the Moon and Beyond, were very influential.[54]

According to biographer Vincent Lobrutto, Universe was a visual inspiration to Kubrick. The 29-minute film, which had also proved popular at NASA for its realistic portrayal of outer space, achieved "the standard of dynamic visionary realism that he was looking for." Wally Gentleman, one of the special effects artists on Universe, worked briefly on 2001. Kubrick also asked Universe co-director Colin Low about animation camerawork, with Low recommending British mathematician Brian Salt, with whom Low and Roman Kroitor had previously worked on the 1957 still animation documentary City of Gold.[56][57] Universe's narrator, actor Douglas Rain, was cast as the voice of HAL.[58]

After pre-production had begun Kubrick saw To the Moon and Beyond, a film shown in the Transportation and Travel building at the 1964 World's Fair. It was filmed in Cinerama 360 and shown in the "Moon Dome". Kubrick hired the company that produced it, Graphic Films Corporation, which had been making films for NASA, US Air Force, and various aerospace clients, as a design consultant.[54] Graphic Films' Con Pederson, Lester Novros, and background artist Douglas Trumbull airmailed research-based concept sketches and notes covering the mechanics and physics of space travel and created storyboards for the space flight sequences in 2001.[54] Trumbull became a special effects supervisor on 2001.

Principal photography[edit]

Filming began December 29, 1965, in Stage H at Shepperton Studios, Shepperton, England. The studio was chosen because it could house the 60-by-120-by-60-foot (18 m × 37 m × 18 m) pit for the Tycho crater excavation scene, the first to be shot.[59][60][61] The production moved in January 1966 to the smaller MGM-British Studios in Borehamwood, where the live action and special effects filming was done, starting with the scenes involving Floyd on the Orion spaceplane;[62] it was described as a "huge throbbing nerve center  ... with much the same frenetic atmosphere as a Cape Kennedy blockhouse during the final stages of Countdown."[63] The only scene not filmed in a studio—and the last live-action scene shot for the film—was the skull-smashing sequence, in which Moonwatcher (Richter) wields his newfound bone "weapon-tool" against a pile of nearby animal bones. A small elevated platform was built in a field near the studio so that the camera could shoot upward with the sky as background, avoiding cars and trucks passing by in the distance.[64][65] The Dawn of Man sequence that opens the film was photographed at Borehamwood by John Alcott after Geoffrey Unsworth left to work on other projects.[66][67]

Filming of actors was completed in September 1967,[68] and from June 1966 until March 1968 Kubrick spent most of his time working on the 205 special effects shots in the film.[31] He ordered the special effects technicians to use the painstaking process of creating all visual effects seen in the film "in camera", avoiding degraded picture quality from the use of blue screen and traveling matte techniques. Although this technique, known as "held takes", resulted in a much better image, it meant exposed film would be stored for long periods of time between shots, sometimes as long as a year.[69] In March 1968, Kubrick finished the 'pre-premiere' editing of the film, making his final cuts just days before the film's general release in April 1968.[31]

The film was announced in 1965 as a "Cinerama"[70] film and was photographed in Super Panavision 70 (which uses a 65 mm negative combined with spherical lenses to create an aspect ratio of 2.20:1). It would eventually be released in a limited "road-show" Cinerama version, then in 70mm and 35mm versions.[71][72] Color processing and 35 mm release prints were done using Technicolor's dye transfer process. The 70 mm prints were made by MGM Laboratories, Inc. on Metrocolor. The production was $4.5 million over the initial $6 million budget and 16 months behind schedule.[59]

For the opening sequence involving tribes of apes, professional mime Daniel Richter played the lead ape and choreographed the movements of the other man-apes, who were mostly portrayed by his standing mime troupe.[64]

Post-production[edit]

A bone-club and orbiting satellite are juxtaposed in the film's famous match cut

2001 contains a famous example of a match cut, a type of cut in which two shots are matched by action or subject matter.[73][51] After an ape uses a bone to kill another ape at the watering hole, he throws it triumphantly into the air; as the bone spins in the air, the film cuts to an orbiting satellite, marking the end of the prologue.[74] The match cut draws a connection between the two objects as exemplars of primitive and advanced tools respectively, and demonstrates humanity's technological progress since the time of the apes.[75]

An earlier version of the film, which was edited before it was publicly screened, included a painting class on the lunar base that included Kubrick's daughters, additional scenes of life on the base, and Floyd buying a bush baby for his daughter from a department store via videophone.[76][a] A ten-minute black-and-white opening sequence featuring interviews with scientists, including Freeman Dyson discussing off-Earth life,[77] was removed after an early screening for MGM executives.[78][79]

Kubrick's rationale for editing the film was to tighten the narrative. Reviews suggested the film suffered from its departure from traditional cinematic storytelling.[80] Of the cuts, Kubrick said, "I didn't believe that the trims made a critical difference.  ... The people who like it like it no matter what its length, and the same holds true for the people who hate it."[78]

According to his brother-in-law Jan Harlan, Kubrick was adamant the trims were never to be seen and burned the negatives, which he had kept in his garage, shortly before his death. This was confirmed by former Kubrick assistant Leon Vitali: "I'll tell you right now, okay, on Clockwork Orange, The Shining, Barry Lyndon, some little parts of 2001, we had thousands of cans of negative outtakes and print, which we had stored in an area at his house where we worked out of, which he personally supervised the loading of it to a truck and then I went down to a big industrial waste lot and burned it. That's what he wanted."[81] In December 2010, Douglas Trumbull announced that Warner Bros. had found 17 minutes of lost footage from the post-premiere cuts, "perfectly preserved", in a Kansas salt mine vault.[82][2] No plans have been announced for the rediscovered footage.[83]

Music[edit]

From very early in production, Kubrick decided that he wanted the film to be a primarily nonverbal experience[84] that did not rely on the traditional techniques of narrative cinema, and in which music would play a vital role in evoking particular moods. About half the music in the film appears either before the first line of dialogue or after the final line. Almost no music is heard during scenes with dialogue.

The film is notable for its innovative use of classical music taken from existing commercial recordings. Most feature films then and now are typically accompanied by elaborate film scores or songs written specially for them by professional composers. In the early stages of production, Kubrick had commissioned a score for 2001 from Hollywood composer Alex North, who had written the score for Spartacus and also worked on Dr. Strangelove.[85] But during post-production, Kubrick chose to abandon North's music in favor of the now-familiar classical pieces he had earlier chosen as temporary music for the film. North did not learn that his score had been abandoned until he saw the film's premiere.[86]

The initial MGM soundtrack album release contained none of the material from the altered and uncredited rendition of Ligeti's Aventures, used a different recording of Also sprach Zarathustra (performed by the Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Karl Böhm) from that heard in the film, and a longer excerpt of Lux aeterna than that in the film.

In 1996, Turner Entertainment/Rhino Records released a new soundtrack on CD that included the material from "Aventures" and restored the version of "Zarathustra" used in the film, and used the shorter version of "Lux aeterna" from the film. As additional "bonus tracks" at the end, the CD includes the versions of "Zarathustra" and "Lux aeterna" on the old MGM soundtrack, an unaltered performance of "Aventures", and a nine-minute compilation of all of Hal's dialogue.

North's unused music was first released in Telarc's issue of the main theme on Hollywood's Greatest Hits, Vol. 2, a compilation album by Erich Kunzel and the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra. All the music North originally wrote was recorded commercially by his friend and colleague Jerry Goldsmith with the National Philharmonic Orchestra and released on Varèse Sarabande CDs shortly after Telarc's first theme release and before North's death. Eventually, a mono mix-down of North's original recordings, which had survived in the interim, was released as a limited-edition CD by Intrada Records.[87]

Design[edit]

Costumes and set design[edit]

Kubrick involved himself in every aspect of production, even choosing the fabric for his actors' costumes,[88] and selecting notable pieces of contemporary furniture for use in the film. When Floyd exits the Space Station 5 elevator, he is greeted by an attendant seated behind a slightly modified George Nelson Action Office desk from Herman Miller's 1964 "Action Office" series.[89] First introduced in 1968, the Action Office-style "cubicle" would eventually occupy 70 percent of office space by the mid-2000s.[90][91] Danish designer Arne Jacobsen designed the cutlery used by the Discovery astronauts in the film.[92][93][94]

Other examples of modern furniture in the film are the bright red Djinn chairs seen prominently throughout the space station[95][96] and Eero Saarinen's 1956 pedestal tables. Olivier Mourgue, designer of the Djinn chair, has used the connection to 2001 in his advertising; a frame from the film's space station sequence and three production stills appear on the homepage of Mourgue's website.[97] Shortly before Kubrick's death, film critic Alexander Walker informed Kubrick of Mourgue's use of the film, joking to him "You're keeping the price up".[98] Commenting on their use in the film, Walker writes:

Everyone recalls one early sequence in the film, the space hotel,[99] primarily because the custom-made Olivier Mourgue furnishings, those foam-filled sofas, undulant and serpentine, are covered in scarlet fabric and are the first stabs of color one sees. They resemble Rorschach "blots" against the pristine purity of the rest of the lobby.[100]

Detailed instructions in relatively small print for various technological devices appear at several points in the film, the most visible of which are the lengthy instructions for the zero-gravity toilet on the Aries Moon shuttle. Similar detailed instructions for replacing the explosive bolts also appear on the hatches of the E.V.A. pods, most visibly in closeup just before Bowman's pod leaves the ship to rescue Frank Poole.[101]

The film features an extensive use of Eurostile Bold Extended, Futura and other sans serif typefaces as design elements of the 2001 world.[102] Computer displays show high resolution fonts, color and graphics—far in advance of computers in the 1960s when the film was made.

Vehicles[edit]

Modern replica of the Discovery One spaceship model

To heighten the reality of the film very intricate models of the various spacecraft and locations were built. Their sizes ranged from about two-foot long models of satellites and the Aries translunar shuttle up to a 55-foot long Discovery One spacecraft. "In-camera" techniques were again used as much as possible to combine models and background shots together to prevent degradation of the image through continual duplicating.[103][104]

In shots where there was no perspective change, still shots of the models were photographed and positive paper prints were made. The image of the model was cut out of the photographic print and mounted on glass and filmed on an animation stand. The undeveloped film was re-wound to film the star background with the silhouette of the model photograph acting as a matte to block out where the spaceship image was.[103]

Shots where the spacecraft had parts in motion or the perspective changed were shot by directly filming the model. For most shots the model was stationary and camera was driven along a track on a special mount, the motor of which was mechanically linked to the camera motor—making it possible to repeat camera moves and match speeds exactly. Elements of the scene were recorded on same piece of film in separate passes to combine the lit model, stars, planets, or other spacecraft in the same shot. In moving shots of the long Discovery One spacecraft, in order to keep the entire model in focus, multiple passes had to be made with the lighting on it blocked out section by section. In each pass the camera would be focused on the one lit section.[105] Many matting techniques were tried to block out the stars behind the models, with film makers sometimes resorting to hand tracing frame by frame around the image of the spacecraft (rotoscoping) to create the matte.[103][106]

Some shots required exposing the film again to record previously filmed live action shots of the people appearing in the windows of the spacecraft or structures, achieved by mounting projection devices inside the model or, when two dimensional photographs were used, projecting from the backside through a hole cut in the photograph.[103]

All of the shots required multiple takes so that some film could be developed and printed to check exposure, density, alignment of elements, and to supply footage used in further elements such as matting.[103][106]

Rotating sets[edit]

The "centrifuge" set used for filming scenes depicting interior of the spaceship Discovery

For spacecraft interior shots, ostensibly containing a giant centrifuge that produces artificial gravity, Kubrick had a 30-short-ton (27 t) rotating "ferris wheel" built by Vickers-Armstrong Engineering Group at a cost of $750,000. The set was 38 feet (12 m) in diameter and 10 feet (3.0 m) wide.[107] Various scenes in the Discovery centrifuge were shot by securing set pieces within the wheel, then rotating it while the actor walked or ran in sync with its motion, keeping him at the bottom of the wheel as it turned. The camera could be fixed to the inside of the rotating wheel to show the actor walking completely "around" the set, or mounted in such a way that the wheel rotated independently of the stationary camera, as in the jogging scene where the camera appears to alternately precede and follow the running actor. The shots where the actors appear on opposite sides of the wheel required one of the actors to be strapped securely into place at the "top" of the wheel as it moved to allow the other actor to walk to the "bottom" of the wheel to join him. The most notable case is when Bowman enters the centrifuge from the central hub on a ladder, and joins Poole, who is eating on the other side of the centrifuge. This required Gary Lockwood to be strapped into a seat while Keir Dullea walked toward him from the opposite side of the wheel as it turned with him.[108] Another rotating set appeared in an earlier sequence on board the Aries translunar shuttle. A stewardess is shown preparing in-flight meals, then carrying them into a circular walkway. Attached to the set as it rotates 180 degrees, the camera's point of view remains constant, and she appears to walk up the "side" of the circular walkway, and steps, now in an "upside-down" orientation, into a connecting hallway.[109]

Zero-gravity effects[edit]

The realistic-looking effects of the astronauts floating weightless in space and inside the spacecraft were accomplished by suspending the actors from wires attached to the top of the set and placing the camera beneath them. The actors' bodies blocked the camera's view of the wires, creating the appearance of floating. For the shot of Poole floating into the pod's arms during Bowman's rescue attempt, a stuntman replaced a dummy on the wire to portray the movements of an unconscious man and was shot in slow motion to enhance the illusion of drifting through space.[110] The scene showing Bowman entering the emergency airlock from the E.V.A. pod was done similarly: an off-camera stagehand, standing on a platform, held the wire suspending Dullea above the camera positioned at the bottom of the vertically configured airlock. At the proper moment, the stagehand first loosened his grip on the wire, causing Dullea to fall toward the camera, then, while holding the wire firmly, jumped off the platform, causing Dullea to ascend back toward the hatch.[111]

The methods used were alleged to have placed stuntman Bill Weston's life in danger. Weston recalled that he filmed one sequence without airholes in his suit, risking asphyxiation. "Even when the tank was feeding air into the suit, there was no place for the carbon dioxide Weston exhaled to go. So it simply built up inside, incrementally causing a heightened heart rate, rapid breathing, fatigue, clumsiness, and eventually, unconsciousness."[112] Weston said Kubrick was warned "we've got to get him back" but reportedly replied, "Damn it, we just started. Leave him up there! Leave him up there!"[113] When Weston lost consciousness, filming ceased, and he was brought down. "They brought the tower in, and I went looking for Stanley, [ ... ] I was going to shove MGM right up his ... And the thing is, Stanley had left the studio and sent Victor [Lyndon, the associate producer] to talk to me." Weston claimed Kubrick fled studio for "two or three days. [ ... ] I know he didn't come in the next day, and I'm sure it wasn't the day after. Because I was going to do him."[114]

"Star Gate" sequence[edit]

The colored lights in the Star Gate sequence were accomplished by slit-scan photography of thousands of high-contrast images on film, including Op art paintings, architectural drawings, Moiré patterns, printed circuits, and electron-microscope photographs of molecular and crystal structures. Known to staff as "Manhattan Project", the shots of various nebula-like phenomena, including the expanding star field, were colored paints and chemicals swirling in a pool-like device known as a cloud tank, shot in slow motion in a dark room.[115] The live-action landscape shots in the 'Star Gate' sequence were filmed in the Hebridean islands, the mountains of northern Scotland, and Monument Valley. The coloring and negative-image effects were achieved with different color filters in the process of making duplicate negatives.[116]

Visual effects[edit]

2001 pioneered the use of front projection with retroreflective matting. Kubrick used the technique to produce the backdrops in the Africa scenes and the scene when astronauts walk on the moon.[117][67]

The technique consisted of a separate scenery projector set at a right angle to the camera and a half-silvered mirror placed at an angle in front that reflected the projected image forward in line with the camera lens onto a backdrop of retroreflective material. The reflective directional screen behind the actors could reflect light from the projected image 100 times more efficiently than the foreground subject did. The lighting of the foreground subject had to be balanced with the image from the screen, making the image from the scenery projector on the subject too faint to record. The exception was the eyes of the leopard in the "Dawn of Man" sequence, which glowed orange from the projector illumination. Kubrick described this as "a happy accident".[118]

Front projection had been used in smaller settings before 2001, mostly for still photography or television production, using small still images and projectors. The expansive backdrops for the African scenes required a screen 40 feet (12 m) tall and 110 feet (34 m) wide, far larger than had been used before. When the reflective material was applied to the backdrop in 100-foot (30 m) strips, variations at the seams of the strips led to visual artifacts; to solve this, the crew tore the material into smaller chunks and applied them in a random "camouflage" pattern on the backdrop. The existing projectors using 4-×-5-inch (10 × 13 cm) transparencies resulted in grainy images when projected that large, so the crew worked with MGM's special effects supervisor Tom Howard to build a custom projector using 8-×-10-inch (20 × 25 cm) transparencies, which required the largest water-cooled arc lamp available.[118] The technique was used widely in the film industry thereafter until it was replaced by blue/green screen systems in the 1990s.

Release[edit]

Theatrical run[edit]

Original trailer for 2001: A Space Odyssey.

The film's world premiere was on April 2, 1968, at the Uptown Theater in Washington, D.C. It opened two days later at the Warner Cinerama Theatre in Hollywood and the Loew's Capitol in New York. Kubrick then deleted 19 minutes of footage from the film before its subsequent roadshow release in five other U.S. cities on April 10, 1968, and internationally in five cities the following day,[2][119] where it was shown in 70mm format, used a six-track stereo magnetic soundtrack, and was projected in the 2.21:1 aspect ratio. The general release of the film in its 35mm anamorphic format took place in autumn 1968 and used either a four-track magnetic stereo soundtrack or an optical monaural soundtrack.[120]

The original 70-millimetre release, like many Super Panavision 70 films of the era such as Grand Prix, was advertised as being in "Cinerama" in cinemas equipped with special projection optics and a deeply curved screen. In standard cinemas, the film was identified as a 70-millimetre production. The original release of 2001: A Space Odyssey in 70-millimetre Cinerama with six-track sound played continually for more than a year in several venues, and for 103 weeks in Los Angeles.[121]

The 19 minutes of footage Kubrick removed following the world premiere included scenes revealing details about life on Discovery: additional space walks, Bowman retrieving a spare part from an octagonal corridor, elements from the Poole murder sequence including space-walk preparation and HAL turning off radio contact with Poole, and a close-up of Bowman picking up a slipper during his walk in the alien room.[122] Agel describes the cut scenes as comprising "Dawn of Man, Orion, Poole exercising in the centrifuge, and Poole's pod exiting from Discovery."[2] As was typical of most films of the era released both as a "roadshow" (in Cinerama format in the case of 2001) and general release (in 70-millimetre in the case of 2001), the entrance music, intermission music (and intermission altogether), and postcredit exit music were cut from most prints of the latter version, although these have been restored to most DVD releases.[123][124]

The following year, a United States Department of State committee chose 2001 as the American entry at the 6th Moscow International Film Festival.[125] The film was rereleased in 1974, 1977, and again in 1980.[126] In 2001, a restoration of the 70mm version was screened at the Ebert's Overlooked Film Festival, and the production was also reissued to selected film houses in North America, Europe and Asia.[127][128]

For the film's 50th anniversary, Warner Bros. struck new 70mm prints from printing elements made directly from the original film negative.[129] This was done under the supervision of film director Christopher Nolan, who has spoken of 2001's influence on his career. Following a showing at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival introduced by Nolan, the film had a limited worldwide release at select 70mm-equipped theatres in the summer of 2018,[130][131] followed by a one-week run in North American IMAX theaters (including five locations equipped with 70mm IMAX projectors).[132]

Home video[edit]

The film has been released in several forms:

  • 1980, MGM/CBS Home Video released the film on VHS and Betamax home video, ASIN B0090US3A0.[133]
  • 1983, released on LaserDisc by MGM in full screen, ASIN: B000R7VR94.
  • 1986, released on VHS by MGM/UA Home Video.[134]
  • 1989, The Criterion Collection released a 2-disc special LaserDisc edition with a transfer monitored by Kubrick himself.[135]
  • 1991, a VHS version of the film was released by Fox Home Entertainment.[136]
  • 1997, MGM released the film on DVD, alongside a letterboxed VHS and a Laserdisc with a Dolby Digital track.[137]
  • 1999, re-released on VHS, and as part of the Stanley Kubrick Collection in both VHS format (1999) and DVD (2000) with remastered sound and picture. In some video releases, three title cards were added to the three "blank screen" moments; "OVERTURE" at the beginning, "ENTR'ACTE" during the intermission, and "EXIT MUSIC" after the closing credits.[138]
  • 2007, released in 1080p high definition on Blu-ray and HD DVD in October 2007.[139][140]
  • 2018, a 4K Ultra HD Blu-ray and standard Blu-ray, based on a new photochemical restoration of the original 70mm negative for home release are announced for release on October 30, 2018.[141]

Reception[edit]

Box office[edit]

The film earned $8.5 million in theatrical gross rental from roadshow engagements throughout 1968,[126][142] contributing to North American rentals of $16.4 million and worldwide rentals of $21.9 million during its original release.[143] Reissues have brought its cumulative exhibition gross to $56.9 million in North America,[5] and over $190 million worldwide.[7]

Critical reaction[edit]

Upon release, 2001 polarized critical opinion, receiving both ecstatic praise and vehement derision, with many New York-based critics especially harsh. Kubrick called them "dogmatically atheistic and materialistic and earthbound."[144] Some critics viewed the original 161-minute cut shown at premieres in Washington D.C., New York, and Los Angeles.[1] Keir Dullea says that during the New York premiere, 250 people walked out; in L.A., Rock Hudson not only left early but "was heard to mutter, 'What is this bullshit?'"[144] "But a few months into the release, they realised a lot of people were watching it while smoking funny cigarettes. Someone in San Francisco even ran right through the screen screaming: 'It's God!' So they came up with a new poster that said: 2001 – the ultimate trip!."[145]

In The New Yorker, Penelope Gilliatt said it was "some kind of great film, and an unforgettable endeavor  ... The film is hypnotically entertaining, and it is funny without once being gaggy, but it is also rather harrowing."[146] Charles Champlin of the Los Angeles Times opined that it was "the picture that science fiction fans of every age and in every corner of the world have prayed (sometimes forlornly) that the industry might some day give them. It is an ultimate statement of the science fiction film, an awesome realization of the spatial future  ... it is a milestone, a landmark for a spacemark, in the art of film."[147] Louise Sweeney of The Christian Science Monitor felt that 2001 was "a brilliant intergalactic satire on modern technology. It's also a dazzling 160-minute tour on the Kubrick filmship through the universe out there beyond our earth."[148] Philip French wrote that the film was "perhaps the first multi-million-dollar supercolossal movie since D.W. Griffith's Intolerance fifty years ago which can be regarded as the work of one man  ... Space Odyssey is important as the high-water mark of science-fiction movie making, or at least of the genre's futuristic branch."[149]

The Boston Globe's review called it "the world's most extraordinary film. Nothing like it has ever been shown in Boston before or, for that matter, anywhere  ... The film is as exciting as the discovery of a new dimension in life."[150] Roger Ebert gave the film four stars in his original review, saying the film "succeeds magnificently on a cosmic scale."[151] He later put it on his Top 10 list for Sight & Sound.[152] Time provided at least seven different mini-reviews of the film in various issues in 1968, each one slightly more positive than the preceding one; in the final review dated December 27, 1968, the magazine called 2001 "an epic film about the history and future of mankind, brilliantly directed by Stanley Kubrick. The special effects are mindblowing."[153]

Pauline Kael called it "a monumentally unimaginative movie",[154] and Stanley Kauffmann of The New Republic called it "a film that is so dull, it even dulls our interest in the technical ingenuity for the sake of which Kubrick has allowed it to become dull."[155] Renata Adler of The New York Times wrote that it was "somewhere between hypnotic and immensely boring."[156] Variety's 'Robe' believed the film was a "[b]ig, beautiful, but plodding sci-fi epic  ... A major achievement in cinematography and special effects, 2001 lacks dramatic appeal to a large degree and only conveys suspense after the halfway mark."[80] Andrew Sarris called it "one of the grimmest films I have ever seen in my life  ... 2001 is a disaster because it is much too abstract to make its abstract points."[157] (Sarris reversed his opinion upon a second viewing, and declared, "2001 is indeed a major work by a major artist."[158]) John Simon felt it was "a regrettable failure, although not a total one. This film is fascinating when it concentrates on apes or machines  ... and dreadful when it deals with the in-betweens: humans  ... 2001, for all its lively visual and mechanical spectacle, is a kind of space-Spartacus and, more pretentious still, a shaggy God story."[159] Eminent historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. deemed the film "morally pretentious, intellectually obscure and inordinately long  ... a film out of control".[160] In a 2001 review the BBC said that its slow pacing often alienates modern audiences more than it did upon its initial release.[161]

2001: A Space Odyssey is now considered one of the major artistic works of the 20th century, with many critics and filmmakers considering it Kubrick's masterpiece. Director Martin Scorsese has listed it as one of his favourite films of all time.[162] In the 1980s,[163] critic David Denby compared Kubrick to the monolith from 2001: A Space Odyssey, calling him "a force of supernatural intelligence, appearing at great intervals amid high-pitched shrieks, who gives the world a violent kick up the next rung of the evolutionary ladder".[164] Poet and critic Dan Schneider wrote that 2001: A Space Odyssey "has one of the greatest screenplays ever penned", countering accusations of the film's coldness by saying, "I recall the HAL 'death scene' as one of the few filmic moments to ever cause me to tear up in sadness. [ ... ] And, in the intervening years, I have, in film talks, found that the same scene caused the same emotional reaction in many other viewers. I was not alone. Any film that can both enhance one's consciousness and touch one's emotions, simultaneously, evinces greatness."[165] By the start of the 21st century 2001 had become recognized as among the best films ever made by such sources as the British Film Institute (BFI). 2001 is the only science fiction film to make the BFI Sight & Sound poll for ten best films in both 2002[12] and 2012, and is also the newest film to rank among the top ten in the 2012 critics' poll edition.

Science fiction writers[edit]

The film won the Hugo Award for best dramatic presentation, as voted by science fiction fans and published science-fiction writers.[166] Ray Bradbury praised the film's photography, but disliked the banality of most of the dialogue, and believed that the audience does not care when Poole dies.[167] Both he and Lester del Rey disliked the film's feeling of sterility and blandness in all the human encounters amidst all the technological wonders, while both praised the pictorial element of the film. Reporting that "half the audience had left by intermission", Del Rey described the film ("the first of the New Wave-Thing movies, with the usual empty symbols") as dull, confusing, and boring, predicting "[i]t will probably be a box-office disaster, too, and thus set major science-fiction movie making back another ten years".[168] Samuel R. Delany was impressed by how the film undercuts the audience's normal sense of space and orientation in several ways. Like Bradbury, Delany noticed the banality of the dialogue (he stated that characters say nothing meaningful), but regarded this as a dramatic strength, a prelude to the rebirth at the conclusion of the film.[169] Without analyzing the film in detail, Isaac Asimov spoke well of it in his autobiography and other essays. James P. Hogan liked the film but complained that the ending did not make any sense to him, leading to a bet about whether he could write something better: "I stole Arthur's plot idea shamelessly and produced Inherit the Stars."[170]

Accolades and honors[edit]

2001 earned Kubrick an Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, as well as nominations for Best Director and Original Screenplay (shared with Arthur C. Clarke). Anthony Masters was also nominated for Best Art Direction. An honorary award was made to John Chambers in that year for his make-up work on Planet of the Apes, and Clarke reports that he "wondered, as loudly as possible, whether the judges had passed over 2001 because they thought we had used real ape-men".[171] The film won four Baftas, for Art Direction, Cinematography, Sound Track and as Best Road Show, and was a nominee in the Best Film category.[172]

The National Board of Review listed 2001 among the Top Ten Films of 1968,[173] and Kansas City Film Critics gave it both the Best Film and Best Director awards.[174] Kubrick earned the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation,[166] and was nominated for both the Directors Guild of America Award,[175] and the Laurel Award (on which 2001 was named the Best Road Show of 1968).[176] Both the Cinema Writers Circle of Spain and the David di Donatello Awards in Italy named 2001 the best foreign production of 1968.[177][178]

Interpretation[edit]

Since its premiere, 2001: A Space Odyssey has been analyzed and interpreted by professional critics and theorists, amateur writers and science fiction fans. Peter Kramer in his monograph for BFI analyzing the film summarized the diverse interpretations as ranging from those who saw it as darkly apocalyptic in tone to those who saw it as an optimistic reappraisal of the hopes of mankind and humanity.[179] Questions about 2001 range from uncertainty about its implications for humanity's origins and destiny in the universe[180] to interpreting elements of the film's more enigmatic scenes, such as the meaning of the monolith, or the fate of astronaut David Bowman. There are also simpler and more mundane questions about the plot, in particular the causes of Hal's breakdown (explained in earlier drafts but kept mysterious in the film).[181][38][182][183]

The dark apocalypse[edit]

The spectrum of diverse opinions appeared to divide the received interpretation of the film between theater audiences and critics. Kramer writes: "Many people sent letters to Kubrick to tell him about their responses to 2001, most of them regarding the film—in particular the ending—as an optimistic statement about humanity, which is seen to be born and reborn. The film's reviewers and academic critics, by contrast, have tended to understand the film as a pessimistic account of human nature and humanity's future. The most extreme of these interpretations state that the fetus floating above the Earth will destroy it."[184]

Many of the cataclysmic interpretations of the film appeared inspired by Kubrick's direction of the Cold War film Dr. Strangelove just before 2001, which resulted in dark speculation about the use of nuclear weapons orbiting the Earth in 2001. These interpretations were challenged by Clarke, who said: "Many readers have interpreted the last paragraph of the book to mean that he (the fetus) destroyed Earth, perhaps for the purpose of creating a new Heaven. This idea never occurred to me; it seems clear that he triggered the orbiting nuclear bombs harmlessly ... ".[179] In response to Jeremy Bernstein's dark interpretation of the film's ending, Kubrick said: "The book does not end with the destruction of the Earth."[179]

Closing scene of Dr. Strangelove and Kubrick's sardonic fulfillment of a nuclear nightmare

Regarding the film as a whole, Kubrick encouraged people to explore their own interpretations and refused to offer an explanation of "what really happened". In a 1968 interview with Playboy magazine, he said:

You're free to speculate as you wish about the philosophical and allegorical meaning of the film—and such speculation is one indication that it has succeeded in gripping the audience at a deep level—but I don't want to spell out a verbal road map for 2001 that every viewer will feel obligated to pursue or else fear he's missed the point.[37]

In a subsequent discussion of the film with Joseph Gelmis, Kubrick said his main aim was to avoid "intellectual verbalization" and reach "the viewer's subconscious." But he said he did not strive for ambiguity—it was simply an inevitable outcome of making the film nonverbal. Still, he acknowledged this ambiguity was an invaluable asset to the film. He was willing then to give a fairly straightforward explanation of the plot on what he called the "simplest level," but unwilling to discuss the film's metaphysical interpretation, which he felt should be left up to viewers.[185]

Meaning of the monolith[edit]

For some readers, Clarke's more straightforward novel based on the script is key to interpreting the film. The novel explicitly identifies the monolith as a tool created by an alien race that has been through many stages of evolution, moving from organic form to biomechanical, and finally achieving a state of pure energy. These aliens travel the cosmos assisting lesser species to take evolutionary steps. Conversely, film critic Penelope Houston wrote in 1971 that because the novel differs in many key respects from the film, it perhaps should not be regarded as the skeleton key to unlock it.[186]

Multiple interpretations of the meaning of the Monolith have been examined in the critical reception of the film

Multiple allegorical interpretations of 2001 have been proposed, including seeing it as a commentary on Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophical tract Thus Spoke Zarathustra, or as an allegory of human conception, birth and death.[187] The latter can be seen through the final moments of the film, which are defined by the image of the "star child," an in utero fetus that draws on the work of Lennart Nilsson.[188] The star child signifies a "great new beginning,"[188] and is depicted naked and ungirded but with its eyes wide open.[189] Leonard F. Wheat sees 2001 as a multi-layered allegory, commenting simultaneously on Nietzsche, Homer, and the relationship of man to machine.

Rolling Stone reviewer Bob McClay sees the film as like a four-movement symphony, its story told with "deliberate realism.[190] Carolyn Geduld writes that what "structurally unites all four episodes of the film" is the monolith, the film's largest and most unresolvable enigma.[191] Vincent LoBrutto's biography of Kubrick says that for many, Clarke's novel is the key to understanding the monolith.[192] Similarly, Geduld observes that "the monolith  ... has a very simple explanation in Clarke's novel," though she later asserts that even the novel does not fully explain the ending.

McClay's Rolling Stone review describes a parallelism between the monolith's first appearance in which tool usage is imparted to the apes (thus 'beginning' mankind) and the completion of "another evolution" in the fourth and final encounter[193] with the monolith. In a similar vein, Tim Dirks ends his synopsis saying "[t]he cyclical evolution from ape to man to spaceman to angel-starchild-superman is complete."[194]

Humanity's first and second encounters with the monolith have visual elements in common; both apes, and later astronauts, touch it gingerly with their hands, and both sequences conclude with near-identical images of the Sun appearing directly over it (the first with a crescent moon adjacent to it in the sky, the second with a near-identical crescent Earth in the same position), echoing the Sun–Earth–Moon alignment seen at the very beginning of the film.[195] The second encounter also suggests the triggering of the monolith's radio signal to Jupiter by the presence of humans,[196] echoing the premise of Clarke's source story "The Sentinel".

The monolith is the subject of the film's final line of dialogue (spoken at the end of the "Jupiter Mission" segment): "Its origin and purpose still a total mystery." Reviewers McClay and Roger Ebert wrote that the monolith is the main element of mystery in the film; Ebert described "the shock of the monolith's straight edges and square corners among the weathered rocks," and the apes warily circling it as prefiguring man reaching "for the stars."[151] Patrick Webster suggests the final line relates to how the film should be approached as a whole: "The line appends not merely to the discovery of the monolith on the Moon, but to our understanding of the film in the light of the ultimate questions it raises about the mystery of the universe."[197]

"A new heaven"[edit]

Clarke indicated his preferred reading of the ending of 2001 as oriented toward the creation of "a new heaven" provided by the star child.[179] His view was corroborated in a posthumously released interview with Kubrick.[38] Kubrick says that Bowman is elevated to a higher level of being that represents the next stage of human evolution. The film also conveys what some viewers have described as a sense of the sublime and numinous. Ebert writes in his essay on 2001 in The Great Movies:

The Star Child looking upon the Earth

North's [rejected] score, which is available on a recording, is a good job of film composition, but would have been wrong for 2001 because, like all scores, it attempts to underline the action—to give us emotional cues. The classical music chosen by Kubrick exists outside the action. It uplifts. It wants to be sublime; it brings a seriousness and transcendence to the visuals.[45]

In a book on architecture, Gregory Caicco writes that Space Odyssey illustrates how our quest for space is motivated by two contradictory desires, a "desire for the sublime" characterized by a need to encounter something totally other than ourselves—"something numinous"—and the conflicting desire for a beauty that makes us feel no longer "lost in space," but at home.[198] Similarly, an article in The Greenwood Encyclopedia of Science Fiction and Fantasy, titled "Sense of Wonder," describes how 2001 creates a "numinous sense of wonder" by portraying a universe that inspires a sense of awe but that at the same time we feel we can understand.[199] Christopher Palmer wrote that "the sublime and the banal"coexist in the film, as it implies that to get into space, people had to suspend the "sense of wonder" that motivated them to explore it.[200]

Legacy[edit]

Stanley Kubrick made the ultimate science fiction movie, and it is going to be very hard for someone to come along and make a better movie, as far as I'm concerned. On a technical level, it can be compared, but personally I think that 2001 is far superior.

—George Lucas, 1977[121]

The influence of 2001 on subsequent filmmakers is considerable. Steven Spielberg, George Lucas and others, including many special effects technicians, discuss the impact the film has had on them in a featurette titled Standing on the Shoulders of Kubrick: The Legacy of 2001, included in the 2007 DVD release of the film. Spielberg calls it his film generation's "big bang", while Lucas says it was "hugely inspirational", calling Kubrick "the filmmaker's filmmaker". Sydney Pollack calls it "groundbreaking", and William Friedkin says 2001 is "the grandfather of all such films". At the 2007 Venice film festival, director Ridley Scott said he believed 2001 was the unbeatable film that in a sense killed the science fiction genre.[201] Similarly, film critic Michel Ciment in his essay "Odyssey of Stanley Kubrick" wrote, "Kubrick has conceived a film which in one stroke has made the whole science fiction cinema obsolete."[202] Others credit 2001 with opening up a market for films such as Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Alien, Blade Runner, Contact, and Interstellar, proving that big-budget "serious" science-fiction films can be commercially successful, and establishing the "sci-fi blockbuster" as a Hollywood staple.[203] Science magazine Discover's blogger Stephen Cass, discussing the film's considerable impact on subsequent science fiction, writes that "the balletic spacecraft scenes set to sweeping classical music, the tarantula-soft tones of HAL 9000, and the ultimate alien artifact, the Monolith, have all become enduring cultural icons in their own right."[204]

2001 was No. 15 on AFI's 2007 100 Years  ... 100 Movies[205] (22 in 1998),[206] was named No. 40 on its 100 Years, 100 Thrills,[207] was included on its 100 Years, 100 Quotes (No. 78 "Open the pod bay doors, HAL."),[208] and HAL 9000 was the No. 13 villain in 100 Years ... 100 Heroes and Villains.[209] The film was also No. 47 on AFI's 100 Years ... 100 Cheers[210] and the No. 1 science fiction film on AFI's 10 Top 10.[211] 2001 is the only science fiction film to make the Sight & Sound in 2012 poll for ten best films, and tops the Online Film Critics Society list of "greatest science fiction films of all time."[212] In 1991, the film was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.[213] In 2012, the Motion Picture Editors Guild listed the film as the 19th best-edited film of all time based on a survey of its membership.[214] Other lists that include the film are 50 Films to See Before You Die (#6), The Village Voice 100 Best Films of the 20th century (#11), the Sight & Sound 2002[12] and 2012 Top Ten poll (#6), and Roger Ebert's Top Ten (1968) (#2). In 1995, the Vatican named it one of the 45 best films ever made (and included it in a sub-list of the "Top Ten Art Movies" of all time.)[215] In 2011, the film was the third most screened film in secondary schools in the United Kingdom.[216]

Kubrick did not envision a sequel to 2001. Fearing the later exploitation and recycling of his material in other productions (as was done with the props from MGM's Forbidden Planet), he ordered all sets, props, miniatures, production blueprints, and prints of unused scenes destroyed. Most of these materials were lost, with some exceptions: a 2001 spacesuit backpack appeared in the "Close Up" episode of the Gerry Anderson series UFO,[1][49][217][218][219] and one of HAL's eyepieces is in the possession of the author of Hal's Legacy, David G. Stork. In 2012 Lockheed engineer Adam Johnson, working with Frederick I. Ordway III, science adviser to Kubrick, wrote the book 2001: The Lost Science, which for the first time featured many of the blueprints of the spacecraft and film sets that previously had been thought destroyed. Clarke wrote three sequel novels: 2010: Odyssey Two (1982), 2061: Odyssey Three (1987), and 3001: The Final Odyssey (1997). The only filmed sequel, 2010: The Year We Make Contact, was based on Clarke's 1982 novel and released in 1984. Kubrick was not involved; it was directed by Peter Hyams in a more conventional style. The other two novels have not been adapted for the screen, although actor Tom Hanks in June 1999 expressed a passing interest in possible adaptations.[220]

To commemorate the 50th anniversary of the film's release, an exhibit called "The Barmecide Feast" opened on April 8, 2018, in the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum. The exhibit features a fully realized, full-scale reflection of the neo-classical hotel room from the film's penultimate scene.[221][222] Director Christopher Nolan presented a mastered 70mm print of 2001 for the film's 50th anniversary at the 2018 Cannes Film Festival on May 12.[130][223] The new 70mm print is a photochemical recreation made from the original camera negative, for the first time since the film's original theatrical run.[129][224]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Kubrick and editor Ray Lovejoy edited the film between April 5 and 9, 1968. Detailed instructions were sent to theatre owners already showing the film so that they could execute the specified trims themselves. This meant that some of the cuts may have been poorly done in a particular theatre, possibly causing the version seen by viewers early in the film's run to vary from theatre to theatre.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Agel 1970, p. 169.
  2. ^ a b c d Agel 1970, p. 170.
  3. ^ a b "2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)". British Film Institute. Retrieved June 21, 2014. 
  4. ^ Miller, Frank. "Behind the Camera on 2001: A SPACE ODYSSEY". tcm.com. Turner Classic Movies. Retrieved December 24, 2014. 
  5. ^ a b "2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)". Box Office Mojo. Amazon. Retrieved March 20, 2012. 
  6. ^ Kolker 2006, p. 16.
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  47. ^ See Alexander Walker's book Stanley Kubrick, Director p. 181–182. This is the 2000 edition. The 1971 edition is titled "Stanley Kubrick Directs"
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  89. ^ Examples of the Action Office desk and "Propst Perch" chair appearing in the film can be seen in "Herman Miller Office" (2002) by Leslie Pina on p. 66–71
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  101. ^ Between the two lines large red letters reading at top "CAUTION" and at bottom "EXPLOSIVE BOLTS" are smaller black lines reading "MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT INSTRUCTIONS" followed by even smaller lines of four instructions beginning "(1) SELF TEST EXPLOSIVE BOLTS PER INST 14 PARA 3 SEC 5D AFTER EACH EVA", et cetera. The instructions are generally legible on Blu-ray editions but not DVD editions of the film.
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External links[edit]