2001 Einstein

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2001 Einstein
Discovery [1]
Discovered by P. Wild
Discovery site Zimmerwald Obs.
Discovery date 5 March 1973
Designations
MPC designation 2001 Einstein
Named after
Albert Einstein (physicist)[2]    
1973 EB
main-belt · Hungaria[3][4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 16 February 2017 (JD 2457800.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 43.43 yr (15,864 days)
Aphelion 2.1240 AU
Perihelion 1.7427 AU
1.9334 AU
Eccentricity 0.0986
2.69 yr (982 days)
77.345°
0° 21m 59.76s / day
Inclination 22.684°
357.08°
217.67°
Earth MOID 0.7670 AU
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 3.975±0.154 km[5][6]
5.66 km (calculated)[7]
5.4846±0.0001 h[8]
5.485±0.002 h[9]
5.48503±0.00005 h (S)[10]
5.487±0.001 h[11]
0.40 (assumed)[7]
0.810±0.169[5][6]
B–V = 0.720[1]
U–B = 0.261[1]
X (Tholen), Xe (SMASS)[1]
X[7] · E[5]
12.85[1][7][5]

2001 Einstein, provisional designation 1973 EB, is a bright Hungaria asteroid from the innermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 5 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by Swiss astronomer Paul Wild at Zimmerwald Observatory near Bern, Switzerland, on 5 March 1973.[3] It is named after physicist Albert Einstein.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

The X-type asteroid, classified as a Xe-subtype on the SMASS taxonomic scheme, is a member of the Hungaria family, which form the innermost dense concentration of asteroids in the Solar System. It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.7–2.1 AU once every 2 years and 8 months (982 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.10 and an inclination of 23° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] As no precoveries were taken, the asteroid's observation arc begins with its discovery in 1973.[3]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the survey carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's space-based Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), the asteroid measures 4.0 km in diameter and its surface has an exceptionally high albedo of 0.81, for which WISE assigns an E-type.[5] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a lower, yet still high albedo of 0.40 and hence calculates a larger diameter of 5.7 kilometers, as the lower the albedo, the larger the body's diameter for a constant absolute magnitude.[7]

Rotation period[edit]

Several rotational lightcurves for this asteroid were obtained from photometric observations. In December 2004, the first light-curve by American astronomer Brian D. Warner at his Palmer Divide Observatory (PDS) in Colorado, gave a rotation period of 5.487±0.001 hours with a brightness variation of 0.66±0.03 in magnitude (U=3).[11] Between 2008 and 2012, three additional light-curves at the PDS gave an almost identical period of 5.485 hours with an amplitude of 0.67, 0.74 and 1.02, respectively (U=3/3/3).[9][12][13] Other light-curves were obtained by Hanuš at the French CNES and other institutions, which gave a period of 5.48503±0.00005 hours (U=n.a.),[10] and by Italian astronomer Federico Manzini at SAS observatory in Novara, Jean Strajnic and Raoul Behrend from December 2012, which rendered a period of 5.4846±0.0001 hours with an amplitude of 0.66 in magnitude (U=2+).[8]

Naming[edit]

This minor planet was named in honour of the German-born, Swiss–American physicist and Nobelist Albert Einstein (1879–1955). It is considered suitable, that the body discovered at Bern is named after the 1921 Nobel prize for physics laureate, since it was the place where he had his golden years while working as a clerk at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. He is also honored by the lunar crater Einstein.[2] Naming citation was published before November 1977 (M.P.C. 4237).[14] Arthur C. Clarke joked in the postscript of his novel 3001: The Final Odyssey that he was hoping asteroid 2001 would be named after him, but it was named for Einstein first. Asteroid 3001 was named 3001 Michelangelo. Clarke was later honoured with asteroid 4923 Clarke, named together with 5020 Asimov.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 2001 Einstein (1973 EB)" (2016-08-10 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (2001) Einstein. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 162. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "2001 Einstein (1973 EB)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  4. ^ Spratt, Christopher E. (April 1990). "The Hungaria group of minor planets". Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada. 84 (2): 123–131. Bibcode:1990JRASC..84..123S. ISSN 0035-872X. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  6. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; et al. (November 2011). "Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 20. arXiv:1109.4096Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...68M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/68. Retrieved 8 December 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (2001) Einstein". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  8. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (2001) Einstein". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  9. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (April 2010). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2009 September-December". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 37 (2): 57–64. Bibcode:2010MPBu...37...57W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  10. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D. A.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; et al. (February 2016). "New and updated convex shape models of asteroids based on optical data from a large collaboration network". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 586: 24. arXiv:1510.07422Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016A&A...586A.108H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527441. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 
  11. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (September 2005). "Asteroid lightcurve analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory - winter 2004-2005". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 32 (3): 54–58. Bibcode:2005MPBu...32...54W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  12. ^ Warner, Brian D. (October 2008). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: February-May 2008". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (4): 163–166. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35..163W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  13. ^ Warner, Brian D. (April 2013). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2012 September - 2013 January". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 40 (2): 71–80. Bibcode:2013MPBu...40...71W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  14. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 20 May 2016. 

External links[edit]