Jump to content

2001 Gujarat earthquake

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2001 Gujarat earthquake
2001 Gujarat earthquake is located in Gujarat
2001 Gujarat earthquake
2001 Gujarat earthquake is located in India
2001 Gujarat earthquake
UTC time2001-01-26 03:16:40
ISC event1763683
Local date26 January 2001 (2001-01-26)
Local time08:46 am IST
Duration90 seconds
Magnitude7.6 Mw
Depth17.4 kilometres (10.8 mi)
Epicenter23°23′17″N 70°19′34″E / 23.388°N 70.326°E / 23.388; 70.326[1]
Areas affectedIndia, Pakistan
Max. intensityMMI X (Extreme)
Casualties13,805–20,023 dead[2][3]
~ 166,800 injured[3]

The 2001 Gujarat earthquake, also known as the Bhuj earthquake, occurred on 26 January at 08:46 am IST. The epicentre was about 9 km south-southwest of the village of Chobari in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch (Kachchh) District of Gujarat, India.[4][5]

The intraplate earthquake measured 7.6 on the moment magnitude scale and occurred at 17.4 km (10.8 mi) depth.[1] It had a maximum felt intensity of X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake killed 13,805 to 20,023 people (including 18 in southeastern Pakistan), injured another 167,000 and destroyed nearly 340,000 buildings.[6][7]

Tectonic setting[edit]

Gujarat lies 300–400 km from the plate boundary between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate, but the current tectonics are still governed by the effects of the continuing continental collision along this boundary. During the break-up of Gondwana in the Jurassic, this area was affected by rifting with a roughly west–east trend. During the collision with Eurasia the area has undergone shortening, involving both reactivation of the original rift faults and development of new low-angle thrust faults. The related folding has formed a series of ranges, particularly in central Kutch.[8]

The focal mechanism of most earthquakes is consistent with reverse faulting on reactivated rift faults. The pattern of uplift and subsidence associated with the 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake is consistent with reactivation of such a fault.

The 2001 Gujarat earthquake was caused by movement on a previously unknown south-dipping fault, trending parallel to the inferred rift structures.[9][10] No major surface ruptures were associated with the shock, classifying it as a blind thrust earthquake. Lateral spreading was widely reported and strike-slip faulting was observed at Bharodia and Manfara.[11]


Area Deaths[12] Injuries[12]
Bhuj 13,572 21,456
Ahmedabad 729 827
Rajkot 385 1,447
Jamnagar 117 2,148
Surendranagar 103 2,673
Surat 46 157
Banaskantha 36 119
Patan 33 946

Although the death toll varies mainly between 13,805 and 20,023, earlier reports had put the death toll at 125,000, a significant overestimate.[13] Bhuj, which was situated only 20 km away from the epicentre, was devastated. Considerable damage also occurred in Bhachau and Anjar with hundreds of villages flattened in Taluka of Anjar, Bhuj and Bhachau. Over one million structures were damaged or destroyed, including many historic buildings and tourist attractions.[14] The quake destroyed around 40% of homes, eight schools, two hospitals and 4 km of road in Bhuj, and partly destroyed the city's historic Swaminarayan temple and historic forts, Prag Mahal and Aina Mahal. The Indian National Trust for Arts and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) inspected more than 250 heritage buildings in Kutch and Saurashtra and found that about 40% of them are either collapsed or seriously damaged. Only 10% were undamaged.[15] A public hospital collapsed in Bhuj, killing about 150 patients inside.[16]

In Ahmedabad, Gujarat's commercial capital with a population of approximately 8.2 million (according to data in 2011), as many as 80 multi-storey buildings collapsed and 729 people were killed.[12] Total property damage was estimated at $7.5 billion. In Kutch, the earthquake destroyed about 60% of food and water supplies and around 258,000 houses, 90% of the district's housing stock. The biggest setback was the total demolition of the Bhuj Civil hospital. The Indian military provided emergency support which was later augmented by the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Society. A temporary Red Cross hospital remained in Bhuj to provide care while a replacement hospital was built.[17]


Four months after the earthquake the Gujarat government announced the Gujarat Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Policy. The policy proposed a different approach to urban and rural construction with the estimated cost of rebuilding to be US$1.77 billion.[18]

The main objectives of the policy included repairing, building, and strengthening houses and public buildings. Other objectives included the revival of the economy, health support, and reconstruction of the community and social infrastructure.[18]


The housing policies focused on the removal of rubble, setting up temporary shelters, full reconstruction of damaged houses, and the retrofitting of undamaged units. The policy established a community-driven housing recovery process. The communities affected by the earthquake were given the option for complete or partial relocation to in-situ reconstruction.[19] The total number of eligible houses to be repaired was 929,682 and the total number of eligible houses to be reconstructed was 213,685. By 2003, 882,896 (94%) houses were repaired and 113,271 (53%) were reconstructed.[20]

City planning[edit]

The Environmental Planning Collaborative (EPC) was commissioned to provide a new city plan for the city of Bhuj.[21] The plan focused on creating a wider roadway network to provide emergency access to the city. The EPC used land readjustment (LR) in the form of eight town planning schemes.[21] This was implemented by deducting land from private lot sizes to create adequate public land for the widening of roadways.[22] The remaining land was readjusted and given back to the original owners as final plots.[21]


Hinduja Hospital's relief camp at Bhuj
U.S. Air Force personnel preparing relief supplies on 3 February 2001.

The Government of Gujarat created four assistance packages worth up to US$1 billion to support the reconstruction and rehabilitation of the city. These packages assisted about 300,000 families. The government also announced a US$2.5 million package to revive small, medium, and cottage industries. The World Bank and Asian Development Bank also provided loans worth $300 million and $500 million, respectively.[20]

Assistance was offered from many countries and organisations.

International assistance[20]
Country Relief Offered
 Australia US$550,000
 Bangladesh 20,000 tons of rice and a 12-member medical team
 Belgium US$920,000
 Canada US$2 million
 China US$602,000
 Greece US$270,000 in financial aid relief supplies
 Israel 150 member emergency aid mission
 Italy US$2.3 million for emergency equipment
 Japan US$3 million in financial aid and US$1,14 million worth of relief supplies and equipments[23]
 Kuwait US$250,000
 Netherlands US$2.5 million through UNICEF
 New Zealand US$200,000 grant
 Pakistan 13 tons of relief material such as blankets and food
 Syria Medical and other relief supplies
 Taiwan US$100,000
 United Kingdom £10 million
 United States Relief supplies up to US$5 million
 United Arab Emirates


 Saudi Arabia

Relief material and supplies
   Nepal Relief materials and financial aid
Assistance from organisations[20]
Organisations Relief Given
American Red Cross of Central New Jersey Grant program of US$10,000 with all proceeds going to the American Red Cross Indian Earthquake Relief Fund
CARE International Relief Materials
HelpAge India Relief materials to rural areas and Mobile Medicare Units (MMUs)
Oxfam Food distribution. shelters, temporary bathing facilities, and relief materials
The Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement £10 million, 350-bed hospital, water and sanitation units, telecommunications team, and a British Red Cross logistics team
World Health Organization US$1.2 million
Technisches Hilfswerk (THW) Rehabilitation of Water Supply & Storage for Villages nearby Bhachau.
Department of International Development (DFID-UK) Financing of Relief funds for local and international NGO working on Relief works in rural Kutch.



Smritivan, a memorial park and museum dedicated to victims of the earthquake was built on top of Bhujia Hill in Bhuj, Kutch and opened in 2022. Spread over an area of 470 acre, it has more than 13,805 trees, each dedicated to a victim, planted in the garden and 108 small water reservoirs created on the hill.[2][24][25]

Veer Balak Smarak in Anjar is memorial dedicated to 185 school children and 20 teachers who died during the earthquake.[26][27][28]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b ISC-GEM Global Instrumental Earthquake Catalogue (1900–2009), Version 9.1, International Seismological Centre, 27 June 2022
  2. ^ a b Ray, Joydeep (16 April 2004). "Gujarat to set up quake memorial in Bhuj". Business Standard.
  3. ^ a b USGS (4 September 2009), PAGER-CAT Earthquake Catalog, Version 2008_06.1, United States Geological Survey
  4. ^ Gupta, Harsh K., et al. "Bhuj earthquake of 26 January 2001." Journal-Geological Society of India 57.3 (2001): 275–278.
  5. ^ "15 years of Gujarat earthquake: A trauma etched in Gujarat's memory". The Times of India. Retrieved 19 May 2017.
  6. ^ "Preliminary Earthquake Report". USGS Earthquake Hazards Program. Archived from the original on 20 November 2007. Retrieved 21 November 2007.
  7. ^ Sen, Kavita (January 2001). "Economic consequences of the Gujarat earthquake". Academia.
  8. ^ Maurya, D. M.; Chowksey, Vikas; Patidar, A. K.; Chamyal, L. S. (2017). "A review and new data on neotectonic evolution of active faults in the Kachchh Basin, Western India: legacy of post-Deccan Trap tectonic inversion". Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 445 (1): 237–268. Bibcode:2017GSLSP.445..237M. doi:10.1144/sp445.7. S2CID 132318339.
  9. ^ Bodin, P.; Horton S. (2004). "Source Parameters and Tectonic Implications of Aftershocks of the Mw 7.6 Bhuj Earthquake of 26 January 2001" (PDF). Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 94 (3). Seismological Society of America: 818–827. Bibcode:2004BuSSA..94..818B. doi:10.1785/0120030176. Retrieved 2 April 2012.
  10. ^ Li, Qingsong; Liu, Mian; Yang, Youqing (17 March 2013). "The 01/26/2001 Bhuj, India, Earthquake: Intraplate or Interplate?". Plate Boundary Zones. American Geophysical Union. pp. 255–264. doi:10.1029/gd030p0255. ISBN 978-1-118-67044-6. ISSN 2329-1540. {{cite book}}: |journal= ignored (help)
  11. ^ "M7.7 Bhuj " Republic Day " Earthquake, 2001". Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 November 2006.
  12. ^ a b c "Casualties of 2001 Gujarat, India earthquake". Government of India. Archived from the original on 2 February 2001.
  13. ^ Walls, Kelvin L.; Mujoo, I. (2002). Gujarat Earthquake, January 2001 – Lessons to be Learnt. New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering 2002 Conference.
  14. ^ "Interdisciplinary Observations on The January 2001 Bhuj, Gujarat Earthquake" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 10 February 2009.
  15. ^ Rabindra, Vasavada; Edmund, Booth (2001). "Effect of the Bhuj, India earthquake of 26 January 2001 on heritage buildings". Beiträge zur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archäologie. 21. ISSN 0170-9518.
  16. ^ United States National Library of Medicine (24 February 2001). "India plans massive hospital rebuilding after earthquake". BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.). 322 (7284): 451. doi:10.1136/bmj.322.7284.451. PMC 1119681. PMID 11222415.
  17. ^ Eidinger, John M. (2001). Gujarat (Kutch), India, M7.7 Earthquake of January 26, 2001, and Napa M5.2 Earthquake of September 3, 2000. ASCE Publications. ISBN 9780784475065.
  18. ^ a b Jha, Abhas K. (2010). Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing after Natural Disasters. World Bank Publications. ISBN 9780821382684.
  19. ^ Jha, Abhas K. (2010). Safer Homes, Stronger Communities: A Handbook for Reconstructing after Natural Disasters. World Bank Publications. ISBN 9780821382684.
  20. ^ a b c d Sinha, Anil (2003). "The Gujarat Earthquake 2001" (PDF). Asian Disaster Reduction Center. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
  21. ^ a b c Byahut, Sweta (Fall 2014). "Post-Earthquake Reconstruction Planning Using Land Readjustment in Bhuj (India)". Journal of the American Planning Association. 80 (4): 440. doi:10.1080/01944363.2014.989132. S2CID 154043360 – via Academic Search Complete.
  22. ^ Byahut, Sweta; Mittal, Jay (2016). "Using Land Readjustment in Rebuilding the Earthquake-Damaged City of Bhuj, India". Journal of Urban Planning and Development. 143: 05016012. doi:10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000354.
  23. ^ II-4 インド地震における緊急援助, ODA Bluebook 2002, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan.
  24. ^ "Modi to inaugurate first phase of 'Smriti Van' Kutch earthquake memorial in Jan 2019". 20 November 2018.
  25. ^ "PM Modi inaugurates Smriti Van Memorial in Kutch - See pics of museum". Zee News. Retrieved 30 August 2022.
  26. ^ "PM Modi to inaugurate 'Veer Balak Memorial' in Gujarat. Details here". Hindustan Times. 28 August 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  27. ^ "અંજારના વીર બાળક સ્મારકની વિશેષતાઓ, પીએમ મોદી કચ્છ પ્રવાસમાં કરશે લોકાર્પિત". ETV Bharat News (in Gujarati). Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  28. ^ Webdunia. "આજે કચ્છના અંજારમાં 'વીર બાળક સ્મારક'નું વડાપ્રધાન નરેન્દ્ર મોદી લોકાર્પણ કરશે". gujarati.webdunia.com (in Gujarati). Retrieved 5 September 2022.

External links[edit]