2002 Asian Games
|Host city||Busan, South Korea|
|Motto||New Vision, New Asia|
(Korean: 새로운 비전, 새로운 아시아)
(saeloun bijeon, saeloun asia)
|Events||419 in 38 sports|
|Opening ceremony||29 September|
|Closing ceremony||14 October|
|Officially opened by||Kim Dae-jung|
President of South Korea
|Officially closed by||Samih Moudallal|
Vice President of the Olympic Council of Asia
|Athlete's Oath||Moon Dae-sung, Ryu Ji-hye|
|Torch lighter||Ha Hyung-joo, Kye Sun-hui|
|Main venue||Busan Asiad Main Stadium|
|Website||2002 Asian Games|
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The 2002 Asian Games (Korean: 2002년 아시아 경기대회/2002년 아시안 게임, romanized: Icheoni-nyeon Asia gyeonggi daehoe/Icheoni-nyeon Asian Geim), also known as the XIV Asian Games (Korean: 제14회 아시아 경기대회/제14회 아시안 게임, romanized: Jesipsahoe Asia gyeonggi daehoe/Jesipsahoe Asian Geim), were an international multi-sport event held in Busan, South Korea from September 29 to October 14, 2002 with the football event commenced 2 days before the opening ceremony.
Busan is the second city in South Korea, after Seoul in 1986 to host the Games. This was the second time South Korea hosted the event. A total of 419 events in 38 sports were contested by 7,711 athletes from 44 countries. The Games were also co-hosted by its four neighbouring cities: Ulsan, Changwon, Masan and Yangsan. It was opened by President of South Korea, Kim Dae-jung, at the Busan Asiad Main Stadium.
The final medal tally was led by China, followed by host South Korea and Japan. South Korea set a new record with 95 gold medals. 22 world records, 43 Asian records were broken during the Games. In addition, Japanese Swimming Kosuke Kitajima was announced as the most valuable player (MVP) of the Games.
Busan was selected over Kaohsiung at the 14th Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) General Assembly in Seoul, South Korea on 23 May 1995. The voting involved 41 members of the sports governing body, with 37 of them supported Busan. After the major upset, Taiwan expressed its disappointment and staged a protest, claimed that the selection of Busan was due to pressure from China, which the OCA officials denied.
Development and preparations
A total of US$2.9 billion was spent for the games.
The emblem of the Games is a motif of East sea blue waves in the shape of Taegeuk, symbolising Busan and Korea. It expresses the image of development and unity of the Asian people and the two dynamic powers that are closely intertwined. The wave's shape in the emblem indicates the character B, the first character of Busan.
The mascot of the 2002 Asian Games is a Sea gull, the city bird of Busan named "Duria", whose name is a combination of the two words 'Durative' and 'Asia', which means "You and Me Together" or Everlasting Asia in the Korean language, which expresses the ideal of the Games: to promote harmony, friendship and prosperity among Asian countries. Its thick black ink and free line expression, symbolize Korean traditional culture, while its white colour shade representing the image of a powerful spirit and the great hopes for Asia in the 21st century.
The medal of the games featured the Korean traditional octagonal building, Palgagjeong top view design with the old Olympic Council of Asia logo on the obverse and Busan Asia Games Flame, logo, and Oryukdo scenery on the reverse. The design represents solidarity of membership and eternity of OCA, Busan as host of the games and youth, unity, and friendship of the athletes.
In conjunction with the Games, eight songs were released as the official music for the Games:
- "The Dream of Asia" – Lee Moon-se
- "Frontier!-Voices from the East" – Yang Bang-ean & Furee
- "We are..." – Baby box
- "Theme from Duria" – Hong Jong-myung, Shin Hyo-bum
- "The Fanfare" – Busan city Orchestra
- "Welcome to Busan Korea" – Kim Hyo-soo
- "Let's Go!!" – Gang Hyun-soo
- "Love to All of Us" – CAN
The relay itself started at 11 a.m on 5 September 2002 when two flames were simultaneously lit at Hallasan in South Korea and Paektu Mountain, the Korean peninsula’s highest mountain, in North Korea. 42 flames in other participating nations were also lit at the same time. The two Korean flames were unified into one at Imjingak Pavilion near the truce village of Panmunjeom on 7 September 2002 and was dubbed the Unification flame. After that, a nationwide torch relay totaled a distance of 4,294 kilometres in 23 days was held. The relay passed through 904 districts in 16 cities within the country. The Unification flame joined with the flames of 42 other participating nations during the opening ceremony on 29 September 2002 and became the Asian Games flame. The torch design was based on a Korean traditional music instrument called Taepyeongso.
42 competition venues were used in the Games with twelve of them are newly built, including the Asiad Sports Complex which was completed on 31 July 2000. Other venues included an athletes' village and a main press centre.
- Asiad Sports Complex
|Busan Asiad Stadium||Athletics, Football (Final), Opening and closing ceremonies|
|Sajik Swimming Pool||Aquatics (Swimming, Synchronized Swimming, Diving)|
|Sajik Gymnasium||Basketball, Gymnastics|
|Sajik Baseball Stadium||Baseball|
- Gangseo Sports Park
|Gangseo Archery Field||Archery|
|Gangseo Gymnasium||Badminton, Fencing|
|Gangseo Hockey Stadium||Hockey|
- Geumjeong Sports Park
|Geumjeong Velodrome||Cycling (Track)|
|Geumjeong Tennis Stadium||Tennis|
- Gudeok Sports Complex
|Busan Gudeok Stadium||Football|
|Gudeok Baseball Stadium||Soft tennis|
|Gudeok Gymnasium||Judo, Taekwondo|
|Nakdong River Rowing and Canoeing Courses||Canoeing, Rowing|
|Gijang Gymnasium||Volleyball (Indoor)|
|Haeundae Beach||Volleyball (Beach)|
|Dongju College Gymnasium||Cue sports|
|Gijang Streets||Cycling (Road)|
|Gijang Mountain Bike Race Stadium||Cycling (Mountain, Down hill)|
|Busan Citizens' Hall||Bodybuilding|
|Homeplus Asiad Bowling Alley||Bowling|
|Busan Equestrian Grounds||Equestrian, Modern pentathlon (Riding)|
|Asiad Country Club||Golf|
|Tongmyong University of Information Technology Stadium||Kabaddi|
|Samnak Riverside Athletic Park||Modern pentathlon (Running)|
|Busan Yachting Center||Sailing|
|Pukyong National University Gymnasium||Weightlifting|
|Dongseo University Minseok Sports Center||Wushu, Sepak takraw|
|Changwon Swimming Pool||Aquatics (Water polo), Modern pentathlon (Swimming)|
|Changwon Main Stadium||Football|
- Masan Sports Complex
|Changwon Evergreen Hall||Modern pentathlon (Fencing)|
|Changwon International Shooting Range||Shooting, Modern pentathlon (Shooting)|
|Yangsan College Gymnasium||Karate, Wrestling, Squash|
|Ulsan Munsu Football Stadium||Football|
|Dongchun Gymnasium||Table tennis|
The host city Busan had existing subway and bus services prior to the games.
The opening ceremony with the theme “A Beautiful meeting,” was held on 29 September 2002 at the Busan Asiad Main Stadium. Participating nations marched into the stadium in Korean alphabetical order began with Nepal. North Korea and South Korea jointly entered the stadium under one flag for the first time in Asian Games history and the second time after the 2000 Summer Olympics. South Korean president Kim Dae-Jung declared the Games open, Two Korean athletes - Mun Dae-Sung (taekwondo) and Ryu Ji -Hye (table tennis) took the oath on behalf of all the participating athletes while South Korea's retired judoist Ha Hyung-joo and North Korean female judoist Kye Sun-hui lit the games' cauldron. A 40-minute 6-part show about the union between King Kim Suro and Hur Hwangok Busan of Gaya was also presented, featuring soprano Sumi Jo.
Participating National Olympic Committees
All 44 members of Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) with 7,711 athletes took part in the Games. East Timor participated for the first time since its independence and Afghanistan returned to the action since Taliban had come to power. Below is a list of all the participating NOCs; the number of competitors per delegation is indicated in brackets.
|Participating National Olympic Committees|
A total of 419 events in 38 sports was contested in the Games for 16 days of competition. Football and basketball was kickoff two and one day respectively prior to the opening ceremony. Bodybuilding was the debutant sport in Games.
|OC||Opening ceremony||●||Event competitions||1||Gold medal events||CC||Closing ceremony|
|September / October||27th
|Daily medal events||2||14||19||31||41||35||27||23||32||33||35||27||19||32||42||7||419|
|September / October||27th
The closing ceremony with the theme “Returning Home.” was held on 14 October 2002 at the Busan Asiad Main Stadium. Japanese Swimming Kosuke Kitajima was announced as the most valuable player (MVP) of the Games. Samih Moudallal, vice president of the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), on behalf of OCA President Sheikh Ahmad Al-Fahad Al Sabah declared the games’ closing. The Asian Games hosting right was handed over to Qatar, host of the next edition. A cultural performance of Qatar was also presented.
The top ten ranked NOCs at these Games are listed below. The host nation, South Korea, is highlighted.
|2||South Korea (KOR)*||96||80||84||260|
|8||Chinese Taipei (TPE)||10||17||25||52|
|9||North Korea (PRK)||9||11||13||33|
|Totals (39 nations)||427||421||502||1350|
Busan Asian Games Radio and Television Organization (BARTO), a joint venture between Korean Broadcasting System (KBS), Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation (MBC) and Seoul Broadcasting System (SBS), served as the host broadcaster of these Games, covered 28 of the 38 sports during the event. The International Broadcast Centre was constructed in Busan Exhibition and Convention Center (BEXCO) in Haeundae District.
Concerns and controversies
On October 7, 2002, the Olympic Council of Asia announced that the bodybuilding bronze medalist in the +90 kg weight category Youssef El-Zein of Lebanon was relieved of his medal for not submitting to a drugs test. After El-Zein was disqualified, the bronze medal in the +90 kg category went to Choi Jae-Duck of South Korea (who had finished fourth).
Six days later, Japanese news agency Kyodo News reported that Indian middle-distance runner Sunita Rani had tested positive for a banned substance, which was later confirmed by Lee Choon-Sup, Deputy Secretary General of the Busan Asian Games Organizing Committee; an unofficial report stated that the substance was the anabolic steroid nandrolone. Sunita had won two medals in athletics: a gold in the 1,500 m (setting an Asian Games record) and a bronze in the 5,000 m, (in which Sunita jointly bettered the Games record set by Indonesian Suprianti Sutono in Bangkok during the 1998 Asian Games with six other athletes). The Indian Chef de Mission at the Games backed Sunita—who denied using any banned drug—and asked for a "B" sample test from Bangkok, but tests were run only at the Asian Games’ Doping Control Center (AGDCC) in Seoul (the laboratory accredited by the IOC). On October 16, the AGDCC confirmed the steroid nandrolone in Sunita's urine sample; as a consequence, the OCA stripped her of both medals and dismissed her Asian Games record for the 1,500 m.
The Indian Olympic Association (IOA) requested the intervention of the International Association of Athletics Federations and the IOC; the samples were jointly reexamined by the World Anti-Doping Agency and the IOC Sub-Commission on Doping and Biochemistry of Sport. In January 2003, the OCA announced that the IOC Medical Director had cleared Sunita of the doping charge and that appropriate action would be taken against the AGDCC. Both of Sunita's medals were reinstated on February 4, 2003, in a ceremony attended by the Secretary General of OCA Randhir Singh and the president of the IOA Suresh Kalmadi.
Three Malaysian sepak takraw players were sent home for failing drug tests after testing positive for morphine.
A total of 16 athletes including 12 Nepalese, three Sri Lankans and one Mongolian were reported to be missing, which police and sports officials suspected to have find illegal jobs in South Korea.
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| Asian Games
XIV Asian Games (2002)