2002 World Monuments Watch

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The World Monuments Watch is a flagship advocacy program of the New York-based private non-profit organization, World Monuments Fund (WMF) that is dedicated to preserving and safeguarding the historic, artistic, and architectural heritage of humankind.[1][2]

Selection process[edit]

Every two years, it publishes a select list known as the Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites that is in urgent need of preservation funding and protection. It is a call to action on behalf of threatened cultural heritage monuments worldwide. The sites are nominated by governments, conservation professionals, site caretakers, non-government organizations (NGOs), concerned individuals, and others working in the field.[1] An independent panel of international experts then select 100 candidates from these entries to be part of the Watch List, based on the significance of the sites, the urgency of the threat, and the viability of both advocacy and conservation solutions.[1] A site’s inclusion on the Watch List brings them to international attention, helping to raise funds needed for its rescue[1] and spurring local governments and communities to take an active role in protecting the cultural landmark.

2002 Watch List[edit]

The 2002 World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites was launched on October 11, 2001 by WMF President Bonnie Burnham at a press conference at the Museum of Modern Art in New York.[1][3] The Watch List was expanded to 101 in the wake of the devastating destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001. Its vicinity—the Lower Manhattan area, was added as an imperiled urban site.[1][4]

List by country/territory[edit]

The city of Mostar in Bosnia and Herzegovina contains numerous archetypal examples of historic architectural styles that were largely destroyed by bombardment during the Yugoslav conflict.[1]
St. Pierre de Beauvais Cathedral is one of the two sites from the Oise locality in France that were included on the 2002 Watch List.
The Jordanian site of Petra, renowned for its rock-cut architecture, was famously described as "a rose-red city half as old as time" in a Newdigate prize-winning poem by John William Burgon.
Japan's Tomo port, which dates back to the Edo period, is threatened by the construction of a landfill and bridge that will radically alter its waterfront and increase traffic within the city.
During the Late Classic Period, the ancient Maya city of Yaxchilan, in what is now Mexico, rivaled Piedras Negras as one of the most powerful states along the course of the Usumacinta. Both were archaeological sites were included on the 2002 Watch List.
As per the Constitution of Peru, Cusco has been declared as the nation's Historical Capital.[5]
The Russian Resurrection New Jerusalem Monastery was severely bombed by German forces during World War II and has since been sporadically restored.
Tanzania's Bagamoyo, with its coral buildings specific to Swahili construction, was founded at the end of the 18th centuryas the capital of German East Africa. It served as a trading port for ivory and the slave trade.
Preservation of the Ukrainian archaeological site of Chersonesos has been met with challenges, including a lack of funding, claims on property of by the Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate, urban sprawl and coastal erosion.[3]
The Sugar Warehouse dominating Scotland's James Watt Dock is a rare, early example of structural cast iron externally expressed. It has lain empty since the last of the local's sugar refinery closed down in 1997.
New York City's Lower Manhattan was placed on the 2002 Watch List as its 101st site following the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.[4]
Number[A] Country/Territory Site[B] Location[C] Period[C]
1 Albania Voskopoje churches Korce 1780
2 Bahamas Whylly Plantation at Clifton Point Clifton Point, New Providence 1750
3 Belarus Pervomaisk Church Pervomaisk, Uzdensky, Minksaya 1626
4 Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostar Historic Center Mostar 1557
5 Brazil Vila de Paranapiacaba Santo Andre 1868
6 Cambodia Banteay/Chhmar Temple of Jayavarman VII Thmar Puok, Oddar Meanchey Province 1199
7 Chile Ruedas de Agua Pichidegua, Larmahue 1799
8 China Shaxi Market Area Shaxi Zhen, Shaxi Valley, Jianchuan 1800
9 China Ohel Rachel Synagogue Shanghai 1920
10 China Da Qin Christian Pagoda and Monastery Zhouzhi, Lou Guan Tai, Shaanxi 781
11 China Great Wall of China Cultural Landscape (Beijing) Beijing 14th-16th centuries
12 Croatia Vukovar city center Vukovar 1799
13 Croatia Lazareti Dubrovnik 1648
14 Cuba National Art Schools Cubanacan, Havana 1965
15 Czech Republic Terezin Fortress Terezin 1790
16 Egypt Khasekhemwy at Hierakonpolis Edfu, El Muissat, Kom el Ahmar 2700 BC
17 Egypt Valley of the Kings Thebes, West Bank at Luxor 1080 BC
18 Egypt White and Red Monasteries Sohag, Middle Egypt 500
19 Egypt Sultan Al Muayyad Hospital Cairo 1420
20 France Chateau de Chantilly Chantilly, Oise 1885
21 France St. Pierre de Beauvais Cathedral Beauvais, Oise 1700–1799
22 Georgia Tbilisi Historic District Tbilisi 500 BC–0 AD
23 Georgia Bodbe Cathedral Qedeli Village, Signakhi Region 850
24 Georgia Art Nouveau Buildings Tbilisi, Batumi, Kutaisi, Poti, Dusheti 1900
25 Germany Carl-Theodor Bridge Heidelberg 1788
26 Ghana Larabanga Mosque Larabanga, Western Gonja 1650
27 Greece Palaikastro Archaeological site Palaikastro, Crete 100
28 Guatemala Piedras Negras Piedras Negras 400 AD–800 AD
29 India Basgo Gompa (Maitreya Temples) Ladakh, Leh, Basgo 1699
30 India Osmania Women College Hyderabad, Telangana 1857
31 India Dwarka Dheesh Mandir Temple Ahmedabad before 1600
32 India Anagundi Historic Settlement Gangawati, Koppal, Karnataka 1400–1600
33 India Nako Temples Himachal, Kinnaur, Nako 1025
34 India Lutyens Bungalow Zone New Delhi 1931
35 Indonesia Omo Hada Nias, Teluk Dalam, Hilinawalo Mazingo 1715
36 Iraq Nineveh and Nimrud Palaces near Mosul 883 BC – 681 BC
37 Iraq Citadel of Arbil Arbil, Kurdish Autonomous Region 6th millennium BC-Present
38 Israel Bet She'arim Archaeological Site Kiryat Tiv'on 100 – 300 AD
39 Italy Chains Bridge Bagni of Lucca 1860
40 Italy Cinque Terre Monterosso, Riomaggiore, Vernazza 13th century AD
41 Italy Port of Trajan Archaeological Park Fiumicino (Rome-Lazio Region) 100
42 Jamaica Falmouth historic town Falmouth, Parish of Trelawny 1784
43 Japan Tomo Port Town Fukuyama 1800
44 Jordan Petra Archaeological Site Wadi Mousa, Petra 100–299 AD
45 Kenya Thimlich Ohinga Cultural Landscape Migori 1399
46 Lebanon Enfeh near Tripoli 1299
47 Malaysia Kampung Cina River Frontage Kuala Terengganu 1939
48 Malaysia George Town Historic Enclave George Town, Penang State 1940
49 Mali Medine Fort Medine 1855
50 Malta Mnajdra Prehistoric Temples Mnajdra 3600 BC–2500 BC
51 Mexico San Juan de Ulua Fort Veracruz 1825
52 Mexico Yaxchilan Archaeological Zone Cuenca del Usumacinta, Chiapas 900
53 Mexico Inmaculada Concepcion Chapel Nurio, Michoacan 1700
54 Moldova Barbary-Bosia Monastery Complex Butuceni, Judet Orhei, Moldovan Auto. Reg. 1675
55 Myanmar Sri-Ksetra Temples Hmawa 400
56 Nepal Teku Thapatali Monument Zone Bagmati River, Kathmandu 19th Century
57 Nepal Itum Monastery Kathmandu 1200
58 Nigeria Benin City Earthworks Benin City, Edo State 1460
59 Pakistan Uch Monument Complex Uch, Bahawalpur District, Punjab Province 1449
60 Panama San Lorenzo Castle & San Geronimo Fort Chagres, Colon and Portobelo 1779
61 Peru Historic Center of Cusco Cusco 1699
62 Peru Santuario de Nuestra Señora de Cocharcas Cocharcas, Chincheros, Apurimac Dept.
63 Peru Caral sacred city Supe Pueblo, Barranca Province, Caral 3000 BC–2000 BC
64 Peru Los Pinchudos Rio Abiseo National Park 1200
65 Peru Oyon Valley Missionary Chapels Oyon, Departamento de Lima 1699
66 Peru San Pedro de Morrope Chapel Morrope 1599
67 Poland Wislica Archaeological Site Wislica 1175
68 Russia Alvar Aalto Library Vyborg, Leningrad Region 1935
69 Russia Arkhangelskoye State Museum Moscow 1831
70 Russia "Oranienbaum" State Museum Reserve Lomonosov 1774
71 Russia Narcomfin Building Moscow 1930
72 Russia Resurrection New Jerusalem Monastery Istra 1698
73 Russia Assumption Church Kondopoga, Karelia 1774
74 Russia Karelian Petroglyph Sites Belomorsky and Pudozhsky Districts 3500 BC
75 Russia Church of our Savior & Rostov Veliky Historic Center Rostov Veliky 862–1690
76 Syria The Citadel of Aleppo Aleppo 2000 BC
77 Syria Damascus Old City & Saddle Souk Damascus 1400–1800
78 Tanzania Bagamoyo Historic Town Bagamoyo 1800
79 Turkey Ani Archaeological Site Ocarli Koyu, Kars 1399
80 Turkey Temple of Augustus Ankara 25 BC–20 BC
81 Turkey Little Hagia Sophia Mosque (Kucuk Ayasofya Camii) Istanbul 527–536
82 Turkey Tepebasi District Gaziantep 1914
83 Turkmenistan Merv Archaeological Site Bairam Ali 1400
84 Ukraine Church of The Savior Of Berestove Kiev 1600–1800
85 Ukraine Ancient Chersonesos Sevastopol 500–15th century
86 United Kingdom Stowe House Stowe, Buckingham, Buckinghamshire 1890
87 United Kingdom St. George's Church London 1730
88 United Kingdom Brading Roman Villa Brading, Isle of Wight 300 AD
89 United Kingdom Sinclair and Girnigoe Castles Nr. Wick, Caithness, Scotland 1606
90 United Kingdom Sugar warehouses Greenock, Renfrewshire 1886
91 United Kingdom Selby Abbey Selby, North Yorkshire 1069
92 United States of America San Juan Capistrano Mission Church San Juan Capistrano 1806
93 United States of America A. Conger Goodyear House Old Westbury, Long Island, New York 1939
94 United States of America St. Ann And The Holy Trinity Church Brooklyn Heights, New York 1848
95 United States of America San Esteban del Rey Mission at Acoma Pueblo Acoma Pueblo, New Mexico 1643
96 United States of America Schindler Kings Road House and Studio West Hollywood, California 1922
97 Yemen Tarim Tarim, Wadi Hadramaut 1870–1920
98 Yugoslavia Subotica Synagogue Subotica 1902
99 Yugoslavia Prizren Historic Center Kosovo, Prizren
100 Yugoslavia Peć and Decani Monasteries Kosovo & Metohiha, Decani and Pec 1850
101[D] United States of America Historic Lower Manhattan New York, New York Since 1625

Statistics by country/territory[edit]

The following countries/territories have multiple sites entered on the 2002 Watch List, listed by the number of sites:

Number of sites Country/Territory
8 Russia
6 India, Peru, United Kingdom and United States of America[E]
4 China, Egypt and Turkey
3 Georgia, Italy, Mexico and Yugoslavia
2 Croatia, France, Iraq, Malaysia, Nepal, Syria and Ukraine


^ A. Numbers list meant only as a guide on this article. No official reference numbers have been designated for the sites on the Watch List.
^ B. Names and spellings used for the sites were based on the official 2002 Watch List as published.
^ C. The references to the sites' locations and periods of construction were based on the official 2002 Watch List as published.
^ D. The WMF has added the Historic Lower Manhattan area to the 2002 Watch List as its 101st site, in the aftermath of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
^ E. Tally includes the Historic Lower Manhattan site.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Preserving the Past". allbusiness.com. 1 February 2002. Retrieved 5 September 2009. 
  2. ^ "2002 List of 100 Most Endangered Sites Announced". World Monuments Fund. 11 October 2001. Retrieved 5 September 2009. 
  3. ^ a b Taissa Bushnell (4 November 2001). "Chersonesos site on list of world's endangered treasures". The Ukrainian Weekly. Retrieved 5 September 2009. 
  4. ^ a b "THIS YEAR'S ENDANGERED LIST". World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 5 September 2009. 
  5. ^ "Constitución del Perъ de 1993". Pdba.georgetown.edu. Retrieved 22 July 2009. 

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