2004 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology
In science
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2004.

Protozoa[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Valid
  • Poinar & Poinar
Albian Burmese amber, Myanmar  Myanmar Oldest record of the protozoan family Trypanosomatidae

Fungi[edit]

newly named[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Appianoporites[3]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Smith, Currah, & Stockey

Eocene

Appian Way Flora.

 Canada

Extinct bracket fungus

Quatsinoporites[3]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Smith, Currah, & Stockey

Barremian (Cretaceous)

Longarm Formation.

 Canada

Extinct bracket fungus.

Plants[edit]

Newly named plants[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Liquidambar changii[4]

Sp nov.

Valid

Pigg, Ickert-Bond, & Wen

Middle Miocene

"Yakima Canyon Flora"

 USA

A species of sweetgum

Neviusia dunthornei[5]

Sp nov

Valid

DeVore, Moore, Pigg, & Wehr

Ypresian

Allenby Formation.

 Canada

oldest and only extinct species of Neviusia

Arthropoda[edit]

newly named arachnids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

?Anyphops cortex[6]

sp nov

jr synonym[7]

Wunderlich

Unknown

Madagascar copal

 Madagascar

jr Synonym of Garcorops jadis

Garcorops jadis[8]

sp nov

Valid

Bosselaers

Unknown

Madagascar copal

 Madagascar

Possibly extant, but copal age is not determined

Newly named insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Afromyrma[9]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Dlussky, Brothers & Rasnitsyn

Turonian

 Botswana

A Myrmicin ant, type species A. petrosa

Afropone[9]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Dlussky, Brothers & Rasnitsyn

Turonian

 Botswana

A ponerin ant, two species

Albicoccus[10]

Fam, gen et sp nov

valid

Koteja

Albian - Cenomanian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

A scale insect, monotypic with Albicoccidae & A. dimai

Burmacoccus[10]

Fam, gen et sp nov

valid

Koteja

Albian - Cenomanian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

A scale insect, monotypic with Burmacoccidae & B. danyi

Electrostephanus janzeni[11]

Sp nov

jr synonym

Engel

Lutetian

Baltic Amber

 Russia

A stephanid wasp

Gerontoformica[12]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Nel & Perrault

Albian - Cenomanian

Charentese amber

 France

A stem group ant,
type species G. cretacica

Marmyan[10]

gen et sp nov

valid

Koteja

Cenomanian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

A scale insect, monotypic M. barbarae

Microberotha[13]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Hat Creek Amber

 Canada

A Berothid lacewing

Newly named fishes[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gomphonchus? minutus[14]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valiukevičius

Late Silurian

Minija Formation

 Latvia

An acanthodian belonging to the group Ischnacanthiformes and the family Ischnacanthidae.

Lophosteus canadensis[15]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schultze & Märss

Late Silurian

Barlow Inlet Formation

 Canada

A bony fish belonging to the group Lophosteiformes.

Lophosteus ohesaarensis[15]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schultze & Märss

Late Silurian

 Estonia
 Latvia

A bony fish belonging to the group Lophosteiformes.

Lophosteus uralensis[15]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schultze & Märss

Early Devonian

 Russia

A bony fish belonging to the group Lophosteiformes.

Nostolepis alifera[14]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valiukevičius

Late Silurian

Targale Formation

 Latvia

An acanthodian belonging to the group Climatiiformes and the family Climatiidae.

Nostolepis latvica[14]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valiukevičius

Late Silurian

Minija Formation
Targale Formation

 Latvia

An acanthodian belonging to the group Climatiiformes and the family Climatiidae.

Perscheia[16]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Elliott, Mark-Kurik & Daeschler

Devonian (Frasnian)

Nordstrand Point Formation

 Canada

A member of Pteraspidiformes belonging to the group Psammosteida and the family Obrucheviidae. The type species is P. pulla

Poracanthodes marssae[14]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valiukevičius

Late Silurian

Targale Formation

 Estonia
 Latvia

An acanthodian belonging to the group Ischnacanthiformes and the family Poracanthidae.

Poracanthodes sulcatus[14]

Sp. nov

Valid

Valiukevičius

Late Silurian

Targale Formation

 Estonia
 Latvia

An acanthodian belonging to the group Ischnacanthiformes and the family Poracanthidae.

Talimaalepis[17]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Žigaitė

Silurian

Dashtygoi Formation
Kyzyl-Tchiraa Formation
Tchergak Formation

 Mongolia
 Russia

A thelodont, possibly a member of the group Phlebolepidiformes. The type species is T. rimae

Trimpleylepis[18]

Gen. et 2 sp. nov

Valid

Miller, Märss & Blom

Late Silurian

 Estonia
 United Kingdom

A member of Anaspida belonging to the group Birkeniida, possibly a member of the family Septentrioniidae. The type species is T. juncta; genus also includes T. concatenata.

Newly named amphibians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Jakubsonia[19]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Lebedev

Devonian (Famennian)

 Russia

A basal member of Tetrapoda. The type species is J. livnensis

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[20]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Atrociraptor[21]

Valid

Currie & Varricchio

Edmontonian

Horseshoe Canyon Formation

 Canada

Bissektipelta[22]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Parish & Barrett

Cenomanian-Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

Bonatitan[23]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Martinelli & Forasiepi

Late Cretaceous

Bajo de Santa Rosa

 Argentina

Bonitasaura[24]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Apesteguía

late Cretaceous

Bajo de la Carpa Formation

 Argentina

Borealosaurus[25]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

You, Ji, Lamanna,
Li, & Li

late Cretaceous

Sunjiawan Formation

 China

Dilong[26]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Xu, Norell, Kuang, Wang, Zhao, & Jia

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

Ekrixinatosaurus[27]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Calvo, Rubilar-Rogers, & Moreno

Late Cretaceous

Candeleros Formation

 Argentina

Graciliraptor[28]

Valid

Xing & Wang

Barremian

Yixian Formation

 China

Huaxiagnathus[29]

Valid

Hwang, Norell, Ji, & Gao

Barremian

Yixian Formation

 China

Kerberosaurus[30]

Valid

Bolotsky & Godefroit

Late Cretaceous

 Russia

Limaysaurus[31]

Valid

Salgado, Garrido, Cocca, & Cocca

 Argentina

Mei[32]

Valid

Xu & Norell

Barremian

Yixian Formation

 China

Mirischia[33]

Valid

Naish, Martill, & Frey

Albian

Santana Formation

 Brazil

"Nemegtia"[34]

Preoccupied name

Lü, Tomida, Azuma,
Dong, Lee, & Szczechura

Renamed Nemegtomaia

Otogosaurus

Nomen nudum

Zhao & Tan

Prenoceratops[35]

Valid

Chinnery

 USA

( Montana)

Rugops[36]

Valid

Sereno, Wilson, & Conrad  Niger

Sinusonasus[37]

Valid

Xu, & Wang

Barremian

Yixian Formation

 China

Spinostropheus[36]

Valid

Sereno, Wilson & Conrad

Middle Jurassic

Irhazer Group

 Niger

A ceratosaur; new genus for
"Elaphrosaurus" gautieri Lapparent 1960.

Suuwassea[38]

Valid

Harris & Dodson

Kimmeridgian

Morrison Formation

 United States

Talenkauen[39]

Valid

Novas, Cambiaso, & Ambrosio

Pari Aike Formation  Argentina

Tazoudasaurus[40]

Valid

Allain et al

 Morocco

Unaysaurus[41]

Valid

Leal, Azevedo,
Kellner, & Da Rosa

Caturrita Formation  Brazil

Other archosauromorphs[edit]

Name Status Authors Location Notes Images
Crosbysaurus[42] Valid non-dinosaurian taxon.  USA
Protecovasaurus[43] Valid non-dinosaurian taxon.
  • Heckert
 USA

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Aberratiodontus wui [44]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gong Enpu

Hou Lianhai

Wang Lixia

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

An Enantiornithes Walker, 1981, the type species of Aberratiodontus Gong, Hou & Wang, 2004.

Anserpica kiliani [45]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Didier Berthet

Marguerite Hugueney

Late Oligocene, Early Miocene

MP 29

 France

An Anseranatidae, the type species of Anserpica Mourer-Chauviré, Berthet & Hugueney, 2004.

Bavaripsitta ballmanni [46]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Ursula B. Göhlich

Middle Miocene

Mn 6

 Germany:

 Bavaria

A Psittacidae, the type species of Bavaripsitta Mayr & Göhlich, 2004.

Borvocarbo guilloti [45]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Didier Berthet

Marguerite Hugueney

Late Oligocene, Early Miocene

MP 30, MN 1

 France;

 Germany

A Phalacrocoracidae, the type species of Borvocarbo Mourer-Chauviré, Berthet & Hugueney, 2004.

?Colymboides metzleri [47]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Oligocene

Rupelian

 Germany:

 Baden-Württemberg;

 Belgium:

 Antwerp

A Gaviidae, not certain a species of Colymboides Milne-Edwards, 1868.

Eurotrochilus inexpectatus [48]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Oligocene

Rupelian

 Germany:

 Baden-Württemberg

A Trochilidae, the type species of Eurotrochilus Mayr, 2004.

Iaceornis marshi [49]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Julia A. Clarke

Late Cretaceous

Niobrara Formation

 USA:

 Kansas

An Ornithurae, the type species of Iaceornis Clarke, 2004.

Longirostravis hani [50]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Luis M. Chiappe

Zhang Fucheng

Chuong Cheng-Ming

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

An Enantiornithes, Euenantiornithes, the type species of Longirostravis Hou, Chiappe, Zhang et Chuong, 2004.

Meridiocichla salotti [51]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Antoine Louchart

Late Quaternary

Corsica, Crete

 France:

 Corsica;

 Greece

A Turdidae, the type species of Meridiocichla Louchart, 2004.

Miopica paradoxa [52]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Evgeny N. Kurochkin

Denis V. Sobolev

Miocene

Middle Meothis

MN 10

 Ukraine

A Corvidae, the type species of Miopica Kurochkin & Sobolev, 2004.

Mirolia brevirostrata [53]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Peter Ballmann

Middle Miocene

MN 6

 Germany:

 Bavaria

A Scolopacidae, the type species of Mirolia Ballmann, 2004.

Mirolia dubia [53]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Peter Ballmann

Middle Miocene

MN 6

 Germany:

 Bavaria

A Scolopacidae.

?Mirolia mascalidris [53]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Peter Ballmann

Middle Miocene

MN 6

 Germany:

 Bavaria

A Scolopacidae, not certain to belong in Mirolia Ballmann, 2004.

Mirolia parvula [53]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Peter Ballmann

Middle Miocene

MN 6

 Germany:

 Bavaria

A Scolopacidae.

Primobucco frugilegus [54]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Ilka Weidig

Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Primobucconidae Feduccia et Martin, 1976.

Primobucco perneri [54]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Cécile Mourer-Chauviré

Ilka Weidig

Middle Eocene

Messel pit

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Primobucconidae Feduccia et Martin, 1976.

Ramphastosula ramirezi [55]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Marcelo Stucchi

Mario Urbina

Early Pliocene

Pisco Formation

 Peru

A Sulidae, the type species of Ramphastosula Stucchi & Urbina, 2004.

Tyto mourerchauvireae [56]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Marco Pavia

Early-Middle Pleistocene

Sicily

 Italy:

 Sicily

A Tytonidae.

Vescornis hebeiensis [57]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Zhang Fucheng

Per G.P. Ericson

Zhou Zhonghe

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

An Enentiornithes Walker, 1981, this is the type species of the new genus, most probably a junior synonym of Hebeiornis fengningensis Yan, 1999.

Vitirallus watlingi [58]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Trevor H. Worthy

Holocene

Viti Levu

 Fiji

A Rallidae, the type species of Vitirallus Worthy, 2004.

Wingegyps cartellei [59]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Herculano M. F. de Alvarenga

Storrs L. Olson

Late Pleistocene or Early Holocene

Gruta dos Brejões

 Brazil

A Cathartidae, the type species of Wingegyps Alvarenga & Olson, 2004.

Plesiosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Location Notes

Plesiopterys

Valid

O'Keefe

 Germany

Pterosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes

Avgodectes

Valid

Peters

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A pterosaur hatchling.

Cacibupteryx

Valid

Gasparini Fernández de la Fuente

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Jagua Formation

 Cuba

A rhamphorhynchid.

"Daitingopterus"

Nomen Nudum

Maisch Matzke Ge Sun

Late Jurassic (Tithonian)

Solnhofen Limestone

 Germany

A germanodactylid.

Lonchognathosaurus

Valid

Maisch, M.W., Matzke, A.T., and Ge Sun

Early Cretaceous (Aptian)

Lianmuqin Formation

 China

A dsungaripterid.

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ianthodon[60]

Valid

  • Kissel
  • Reisz

 USA

Lobalopex[61]

Valid

  • Sidor
  • Hopson
  • Keyser

 South Africa

Progalesaurus[62]

Valid

  • Sidor
  • Smith

 South Africa

Pyozia [63]

Valid

  • Anderson
  • Reisz

 Russia

Rewaconodon[64]

Valid

  • Datta
  • Das
  • Luo

 India

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Poinar, G. (2008). "Lutzomyia adiketis sp. n. (Diptera: Phlebotomidae), a vector of Paleoleishmania neotropicum sp. n. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) in Dominican amber". Parasites & Vectors. 1 (1): 22. doi:10.1186/1756-3305-1-22. PMC 2491605Freely accessible. PMID 18627624. 
  3. ^ a b Smith, S.Y.; Currah, R.S.; Stockey, R.A. (2004). "Cretaceous and Eocene poroid hymenophores from Vancouver Island, British Columbia". Mycologia. 96 (1): 180–186. doi:10.2307/3762001. JSTOR 3762001. PMID 21148842. 
  4. ^ Pigg, K. B.; Ickert-Bond, S. M.; Wen,, J. (2004). "Anatomically preserved Liquidambar (Altingiaceae) from the middle Miocene of Yakima Canyon, Washington state, USA, and its biogeographic implications". American Journal of Botany. 91 (3): 499–509. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.3.499. PMID 21653405. 
  5. ^ DeVore, M.L.; Moore, S.M.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2004). "Fossil Neviusia leaves (Rosaceae: Kerrieae) from the Lower Middle Eocene of Southern British Columbia". Rhodora. 12 (927): 197–209. JSTOR 23314752. 
  6. ^ Wunderlich, J. (2004). "Fossil spiders in amber and copal. Conclusions, revisions, new taxa and family diagnoses of fossil and extant taxa". Beiträge zur Araneologie. 3AB: 1–1908. 
  7. ^ Penney, D.; Ono, H.; Selden, P.A. (2005). "A new synonymy for the Madagascan copal spider fauna (Araneae, Selenopidae)" (PDF). Journal of Afrotropical Zoology. 2: 41–44. 
  8. ^ Bosselaers, J. (2004). "A new Garcorops species from Madagascar copal (Araneae: Selenopidae)" (PDF). Zootaxa. 445: 1–7. 
  9. ^ a b Dlussky, G. M.; Brothers, D. J.; Rasnitsyn, A. P. (2004). "The first Late Cretaceous ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from southern Africa, with comments on the origin of the Myrmicinae". Insect Systematics and Evolution. 35: 1–13. doi:10.1163/187631204788964727. 
  10. ^ a b c Koteja, J (2004). "Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccinea) from cretaceous Myanmar (Burmese) amber". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 2 (2): 109–114. doi:10.1017/S1477201904001166.  – via Taylor & Francis (subscription required)
  11. ^ Engel, M.S.; Ortega-Blanco, J. (2008). "The fossil crown wasp Electrostephanus petiolatus Brues in Baltic Amber (Hymenoptera, Stephanidae): designation of a neotype, revised classification, and a key to amber Stephanidae". ZooKeys. 4: 55–64. doi:10.3897/zookeys.4.49. 
  12. ^ Nel, A.; Perrault, G.; Perrichot, V.; Néradeau, D. (2004). "The oldest ant in the lower cretaceous amber of Charente-maritime (SW France) (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Geologica Acta. 2 (1): 23–29. 
  13. ^ Archibald, S.B.; Makarkin, V.N. (2004). "New genus of minute Berothidae (Neuroptera) from Early Eocene amber of British Columbia" (PDF). The Canadian Entomologist. 136: 61–76. doi:10.4039/n03-043. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Valiukevičius, Juozas (2004). "Silurian acanthodian succession of the Lužni-4 borehole (Latvia)" (PDF). Acta Universitatis Latviensis. Earth and Environment Sciences. 679: 120–147. 
  15. ^ a b c Schultze, Hans-Peter; Märss, Tiiu (2004). "Revisiting Lophosteus, a primitive osteichthyan" (PDF). Acta Universitatis Latviensis. Earth and Environment Sciences. 679: 57–78. 
  16. ^ Elliott, David K.; Mark-Kurik, Elga; Daeschler, Edward B. (2004). "A revision of Obruchevia (Psammosteida: Heterostraci) and a description of a new obrucheviid from the Late Devonian of the Canadian Arctic" (PDF). Acta Universitatis Latviensis. Earth and Environment Sciences. 679: 22–45. 
  17. ^ Žigaitė, Živilė (2004). "A new thelodont from Lower Silurian of Tuva and north-west Mongolia" (PDF). Acta Universitatis Latviensis. Earth and Environment Sciences. 679: 158–165. 
  18. ^ Miller, C. Giles; Märss, Tiiu; Blom, Henning (2004). "New anaspid material from the Late Silurian of Britain and Estonia" (PDF). Acta Universitatis Latviensis. Earth and Environment Sciences. 679: 46–56. 
  19. ^ Lebedev, Oleg A. (2004). "A new tetrapod Jakubsonia livnensis from the Early Famennian (Devonian) of Russia and palaeoecological remarks on the Late Devonian tetrapod habitats" (PDF). Acta Universitatis Latviensis. Earth and Environment Sciences. 679: 79–98. 
  20. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  21. ^ Currie, P.J. and D.J. Varricchio. 2004. A new dromaeosaurid from the Horseshoe Canyon Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Alberta, Canada. In: Feathered Dragons: Studies on the Transition from Dinosaurs to Birds (P.J. Currie, E.B. Koppelhus, M.A. Shugar, and J.L. Wright, eds.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IA: pp. 112-132.
  22. ^ Parish, J.; Barrett, P.M. (2004). "A reappraisal of the ornithischian dinosaur Amtosaurus magnus Kurzanov and Tumanova 1978, with comments of the status of A. archibaldi Averianov 2002". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 41 (3): 299–306. doi:10.1139/e03-101. 
  23. ^ Martinelli, A.G. (2004). "Late Cretaceous vertebrates from Bajo de Santa Rosa (Allen Formation), Rio Negro province, Argentina, with the description of a new sauropod dinosaur (Titanosauridae)". Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Nueva Serie. 6 (2): 257–305. 
  24. ^ Apestegua, S. (2004). ""Bonitasaura salgadoi" gen. et sp. nov.: a beaked sauropod from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia". Naturwissenschaften. 91 (10): 493–497. doi:10.1007/s00114-004-0560-6. PMID 15729763. 
  25. ^ You, H.; Ji, Q.; Lamanna, M.C.; Li, J. (2004). "A titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur with opisthocoelous caudal vertebrae from the Early Late Cretaceous of Liaoning Province, China". Acta Geologica Sinica. 78 (4): 907–911. doi:10.1111/j.1755-6724.2004.tb00212.x. 
  26. ^ Xu, X.; Norell, M.A.; Kuang, X.; Wang, X.; Zhao, Q.; Jia, C. (2004). "Basal tyrannosauroids from China and evidence for protofeathers in tyrannosauroids". Nature. 431 (7009): 680–684. doi:10.1038/nature02855. PMID 15470426. 
  27. ^ Calvo, J.O.; Rubilar-Roger, D.; Moreno, K. (2004). "A new Abelisauridae (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from northwest Patagonia". Ameghiniana (Rev. Asoc.Paleontol. Argent.). 41 (4): 555–563. 
  28. ^ Xu, X.; Wang, X.-L. (2004). "A New Dromaeosaur (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Western Liaoning". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 42 (2): 11–119. 
  29. ^ Hwang, S.H.; Norell, M.A.; Ji, Q.; Gao, K. (2004). "Large compognathid from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of China". Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 2 (1): 13–30. doi:10.1017/S1477201903001081. 
  30. ^ Bolotsky, Yu.L.; Godefroit, P. (2004). "A new hadrosaurine dinosaur from the Late Cretaceous of far Eastern Russia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24 (2): 351–365. doi:10.1671/1110. 
  31. ^ Salgado, L.; Garrido, A.; Cocca, S.E.; Cocca, J.R. (2004). "Lower Cretaceous rebbachisaurid sauropods from Cerro Aguada del Leon (Lohan Cura Formation), Neuquen Province, northwestern Patagonia, Argentina". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 24 (4): 903–912. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2004)024[0903:LCRSFC]2.0.CO;2. 
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