2005 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology
In science
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2005.

Plants[edit]

Newly named plants[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Archaeamphora[2]

Gen et sp nov

dubious

Li

Early Cretaceous

Jianshangou Formation

 China

The type species is Archaeamphora longicervia

Fothergilla malloryi[3]

sp nov

Valid

Radtke, Pigg, & Wehr

Ypresian

Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington

 USA

Oldest confirmed member of the genus Fothergilla

Corylopsis reedae[3]

sp nov

Valid

Radtke, Pigg, & Wehr

Ypresian

Klondike Mountain Formation, Washington

 USA

One of the oldest occurrences of Corylopsis

Shirleya[4]

Gen et Sp nov

Valid

Pigg & DeVore

Middle Miocene

"Yakima Canyon Flora"

 USA

A crape myrtle relative, type species S. grahamae

Ulmus okanaganensis[5]

sp nov

valid

Denk & Dillhoff

Ypresian

McAbee Fossil Beds

 Canada

An elm, also found in other British Columbian sites and Washington State

Protozoa[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Oldest record of the vector association
between Triatoma and Trypanosoma

Arthropoda[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acropyga glaesaria[7]

Sp nov

Valid

Lapolla

Burdigalian

Dominican amber, Hispaniola

 Dominican Republic

Oldest record of trophophoresy in ants

Araripenymphes[8]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Menon, Martins-Neto, Martill

Aptian

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A nymphid lacewing

Cananeuretus[9]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Engel & Grimaldi

Campanian

Canadian amber

 Canada

A possible Aneuretinae ant. Type sp. C. occidentalis

Dinokanaga[10]

Ge et sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

"Tranquille Shale", British Columbia

 Canada

Six species named D. andersoni, D. dowsonae,
D. hillsi, D. sternbergi, D. webbi, D. wilsoni

Myanmyrma[9]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Engel & Grimaldi

Earliest Cenomanian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

A unplaced crown group ant. Type sp. M. gracilis

Sphecomyrma[9]

Gen et sp nov

jr synonym

Engel & Grimaldi

Cenomanian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

A stem group ant,
jr syn of Gerontoformica orientalis

Triatoma dominicana[6]

Sp nov

Valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican amber, Hispaniola

 Dominican Republic

Oldest record of the vector association between Triatoma and Trypanosoma

Xiphosurans[edit]

  • Fossils of Lunataspis, the earliest known xiphosuran, are discovered in Canada. It was not given a formal description until 2008, however.

Plesiosaurs[edit]

New taxa[edit]

Name Status Authors Location Notes

Eromangasaurus

Valid

Kear

 Australia

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named Non-Avian dinosaurs[edit]

Data courtesy of George Olshevsky's dinosaur genera list.[11]

Name Status Authors Age Location Notes Images
Appalachiosaurus[12] Valid taxon
  • Carr
  • Williamson
  • Schwimmer
Late Cretaceous  USA A Tyrannosaurid from Appalachia
Archaeodontosaurus Valid taxon Middle Jurassic  Madagascar A early Sauropod
Auroraceratops Valid taxon Early Cretaceous  China
"Bakesaurus" Nomen nudum
  • Zhou S.
Baurutitan Valid taxon
  • Kellner
  • Campos
  • Trotta
Late Cretaceous  Brazil
Brachytrachelopan[13] Valid taxon Middle Jurassic  Argentina A short necked Sauropod
Buitreraptor[14] Valid taxon
  • Makovicky
  • Apesteguía
  • Agnolín
Late Cretaceous  Argentina A small fish eating raptor
Cathartesaura Valid taxon
  • Gallina
  • Apesteguía
Late Cretaceous  Argentina
Changchunsaurus[15] Valid taxon Early Cretaceous  China a primitive Ornithopod
Chebsaurus[16] Valid taxon from Middle Jurassic to Late Jurassic  Algeria
Condorraptor[17] Valid taxon
  • Rauhut
Middle Jurassic  Argentina
Daanosaurus[18] Valid taxon
  • Ye
  • Gao Y.
  • Jiang
Late Jurassic  China
Dashanpusaurus Valid taxon from middle Jurassic to Late Jurassic  China
Dubreuillosaurus Valid taxon
  • Allain
 France
Falcarius[19] Valid taxon Early Cretaceous  USA A early Therizinosaur
Ferganocephale[20] Valid taxon
  • Averianov
  • T. Martin
  • Bakirov
Middle Jurassic  Kyrgyzstan A early Pachycephalosaur
"Galveosaurus"[21] Junior synonym
  • Sánchez-Hernández

Junior synonym of Galvesaurus.

Galvesaurus

Valid taxon

Early Cretaceous  Spain
Hagryphus Valid taxon
  • Zanno
  • Sampson
Late Cretaceous  Canada
Hexinlusaurus Valid taxon
  • Barrett
  • Butler
  • Knoll
Middle Jurassic  China
Hungarosaurus[22] Valid taxon
  • Ösi
Late Cretaceous  Hungary
Jinfengopteryx[23] Valid taxon Early Cretaceous  China
Karongasaurus[24] Valid taxon
  • Gomani
Early Cretaceous  Malawi
Lanzhousaurus Valid taxon
  • You
  • Ji Q.
  • Li D.
Early Cretaceous  China
Nemegtomaia Valid taxon Late Cretaceous  Mongolia
Neuquenraptor[25] Valid taxon
  • Novas Pol
Late Cretaceous  Argentina

May be a subjective junior synonym of Unenlagia.

Pedopenna[26] Valid taxon
  • Xu X.
  • Zhang F.
Middle Jurassic  China
Penelopognathus Valid taxon
  • Godefroit
  • Li H.
  • Shang
Early Cretaceous  China
Puertasaurus Valid taxon Late Cretaceous  Argentina
Shixinggia[27] Valid taxon
  • Zhang B.
Late Cretaceous  China
Stormbergia Valid taxon
  • Butler
Early Jurassic  Lesotho

 South Africa

A primitive Ornithischian
Tanycolagreus[28] Valid taxon
  • Carpenter
  • Miles
  • Cloward
Late Jurassic  USA A primitive Tyrannosaur
Trigonosaurus Valid taxon Late Cretaceous  Brazil
Tyrannotitan[29] Valid taxon Late Cretaceous  Argentina
Xinjiangovenator[30] Valid taxon
  • Rauhut
  • Xu X.
Early Cretaceous  China

Newly named birds[edit]

Name Status Novelty Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Afrocygnus chauvireae [31]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Antoine Louchart

Patrick Vignaud

Andossa Likius

Hassane Taisso Mackaye

Michel Brunet

Late Miocene

Anthracotheriid Unit

 Chad

An Anatidae, the oldest from Africa.

Aquila nipaloides [32]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Antoine Louchart

Claudia Bedetti

Marco Pavia

Pleistocene

Corsica and Sardinia

 France:

 Corsica;

 Italy:

 Sardinia

An Island Accipitridae.

Chascacocolius cacicirostris [33]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Coliiformes, Chascacocoliidae Zelenkov et Dyke, 2008.

Ciconia louisebolesae [34]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Walter E. Boles

Late Oligocene-Early Miocene

Riversleigh

 Australia:

 Queensland

A Ciconiidae.

Crossvallia unienwillia [35]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Claudia P. Tambussi

Marcelo A. Reguero

Sergio A. Marenssi

Sergio N. Santillana

Late Paleocene

Cross Valley Formation

 Antarctica

A Spheniscidae.

Dalianraptor cuhe [36]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gao Chunling

Liu Jinyuan

Early Cretaceous,

Early Albian

Jiufotang Formation

 China

An Ornithurae Haeckel, 1866. This is the type species of the genus.

Eurofluvioviridavis robustipes [37]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Eocene

MP 8;

Messel pit,

MP 11

 UK:

 England;

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Podargiformes, Fluvioviridavidae Mayr, 2005.

Gallinula disneyi [38]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Walter E. Boles

Oligocene-Miocene

Riversleigh

 Australia:

 Queensland

A Rallidae, in 2011 this species becomes the type species of the new genus Australlus Worthy et Boles, 2011.

Gallirallus vekamatolu [39]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Jeremy J. Kirchman

David W. Steadman

Holocene

‘Eua

 Tonga

A Rallidae.

Hongshanornis longicresta [40]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Zhou Zhonghe

Zhang Fucheng

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

An Ornithuromorphae Chiappe, Ji, Ji et Norell, 1999, Hongshanornithidae O’Connor, Gao et Chiappe, 2010. This is the type species of the genus.

Limnofregata hasegawai [41]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Storrs L. Olson

Hiroshige Matsuoka

Late Early Eocene

Green River Formation

 USA ( Wyoming)

An Fregatidae, Limnofregatinae Olson, 1977.

Lithoptila abdounensis [42]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Estelle Bourdon

Baâdi Bouya

Mohamed Iarochène

Late Paleocene-Early Eocene

Thanetian

 Morocco

A Prophaethontidae Harrison et Walker, 1976.

Oxyura vantetsi [43]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Trevor H. Worthy

Holocene

Lake Poukawa

 New Zealand

An Anatidae, extinct since the 16th century.

Parvigrus pohli [44]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Oligocene

Pichovet, Vachères, Southern France

 France

A Parvigruidae Mayr, 2005.

Perugyps diazi [45]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Marcelo Stucchi

Steven D. Emslie

Late Miocene-Early Pliocene

Pisco Formation

 Peru

A Cathartidae.

Protocypselomorphus manfredkelleri [46]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Cypselomorphae (Sensu Mayr, 2002).

?Primotrogon pumilio [47]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Middle Eocene

Messel pit,

MP 11

 Germany:

 Hessen

A Trogonidae, In 2009 Mayr creates the new genus Masillatrogon for this species and makes ?Primotrogon pumilio its type species.

Pseudoseisuropsis cuelloi [48]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Santiago Claramunt

Andrès Rinderknecht

Late Pleistocene

Coastal cliffs near Rio de la Plata estuary

 Uruguay

A Furnariidae.

Rallus eivissensis [49]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Miquel McMinn

M. Palmer

Josep A. Alcover

Pleistocene, Holocene

Ibiza

 Spain:

 Ibiza

A Rallidae.

Rhodacanthis forfex [50]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Kauai

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, Drepanidini.

Rhodacanthis litotes [50]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Helen F. James

Storrs L. Olson

Holocene

Oahu

 USA:

 Hawaii

A Fringillidae, Carduelinae, Drepanidini.

Rupelramphastoides knopfi [51]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Gerald Mayr

Early Oligocene

Rupelian

 Germany:

 Baden-Württemberg

A Pici (sensu Simpson and Cracraft, 1981), family incertae sedis (confer Ramphastidae Vigors, 1825)

Struthio kakesiensis [52]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Terry Harrison

Charles P. Msuya

Pliocene

Lower Laetoli Beds

 Tanzania

Known from eggshells

Struthio linxiaensis [53]

Valid

Sp. nov.

Hou Lianhai

Zhou Zhonghe

Zhang Fu-Cheng

Wang Zhao

Late Miocene

Liushu Formation

 China

Transferred to, and made the type species of a new genus Orientornis Wang, 2008.[54]

Vegavis iaai [55]

Valid

Gen. nov. et Sp. nov.

Julia A. Clarke

Claudia P. Tambussi

Jorge L. Noriega

Gregory M. Erickson

Richard A. Ketcham

Late Cretaceous

Middle to Late Maastrichtian

 Antarctica

An ?Anseriformes. This is the type species of the genus.

Newly named pterosaurs[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Bakonydraco[56]

Valid

  • Weishampel
  • Jianu

Upper Cretaceous

Csehbánya Formation

 Hungary

The type species is Bakonydraco galaczi.

Boreopterus[57]

Valid

  • Ji

Lower Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

The type species is Boreopterus cuiae.

Caulkicephalus[58]

Valid

  • Steel
  • Martill
  • Unwin
  • Winch

Early Cretaceous

Wessex Formation

 England

The type species is Caulkicephalus trimicrodon.

Eoazhdarcho[59]

Valid

  • Ji

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

The type species is Eoazhdarcho liaoxiensis.

Eopteranodon[60]

Valid

  • Zhang

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

The type species is Eopteranodon lii.

Feilongus[61]

Valid

  • Wang
  • Kellner
  • Zhou
  • Campos

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

The type species is Feilongus youngi.

Huaxiapterus[62]

Synonym

  • Yuan

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

The type species is Huaxiapterus jii. Huaxiapterus is a junior synonym of Sinopterus[63]

Liaoxipterus[64]

Valid

  • Dong

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

The type species is Liaoxipterus brachyognathus.

Nurhachius[61]

Valid

  • Wang
  • Kellner
  • Zhou
  • Campos

Early Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

The type species is Nurhachius ignaciobritoi.

Paranurognathus

Synonym

  • Peters

The type species is Paranurognathus tischlingeri. Paranurognathus is a junior synonym of Anurognathus.

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Irajatherium[65]

Valid

  • Martinelli
  • Bonaparte
  • Schultz
  • Rubert

Upper Triassic

Caturrita Formation

 Brazil

The type species is Irajatherium hernadezi.

Madysaurus[66]

Valid

  • Tatarinov

Triassic

Magygen Formation

 Kyrgyzstan

The type species is Madysaurus sharovi.

Putillosaurus[67]

Valid

  • Surkov

Lower Triassic

 Russia

The type species is Putillosaurus sennikovi.

Footnotes[edit]

Complete author list[edit]

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ You, Li D., Ji Q., Lamanna, Peter Dodson.
  2. ^ Rauhut, Remes, Fechner, Cladera, Puerta.
  3. ^ Zan, Chen J., Jin L., Li T.
  4. ^ Mahammed, Läng, Mami, Mekahli, Benhamou, Bouterfa, Kacemi, Chérief, Chaouti, Philippe Taquet.
  5. ^ Peng G., Ye, Gao Y., Shu, Jiang.
  6. ^ *James Kirkland, Zanno, Sampson, Clark, DeBlieux.
  7. ^ Barco, Canudo, Cuenca-Bescós, Ruíz-Omeñaca.
  8. ^ Ji Q., Ji S., Lü, You, Chen W., Liu Y. Q., Liu Y. X.
  9. ^ Lü, Tomida, Azuma, Dong Zhiming, Lee.
  10. ^ Novas, Salgado, Calvo, Agnolin.
  11. ^ Campos, Kellner, Reinaldo Jose Bertini, Santucci.
  12. ^ Novas, de Valais, Patricia Vickers-Rich, Timothy H. Rich.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Li, H. (2005). "Early Cretaceous sarraceniacean-like pitcher plants from China". Acta Bot. Gallica. 152 (2): 227–234. doi:10.1080/12538078.2005.10515473. 
  3. ^ a b Radtke, M.G.; Pigg, K.B.; Wehr, W.C. (2005). "Fossil Corylopsis and Fothergilla Leaves (Hamamelidaceae) from the Lower Eocene Flora of Republic, Washington, U.S.A., and Their Evolutionary and Biogeographic Significance". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 166 (2): 347–356. doi:10.1086/427483. 
  4. ^ Pigg, K. B.; DeVore, M. L. (2005). "Shirleya grahamae gen. et sp. nov.(Lythraceae), Lagerstroemia-like fruits from the middle Miocene Yakima Canyon flora, central Washington State, USA" (PDF). American journal of botany. 92 (2): 242–251. 
  5. ^ Denk, T.; Dillhoff, R.M. (2005). "Ulmus leaves and fruits from the Early-Middle Eocene of northwestern North America: systematics and implications for character evolution within Ulmaceae" (PDF). Canadian Journal of Botany. 83 (12): 1663–1681. doi:10.1139/b05-122. 
  6. ^ a b Poinar, G. (2005). "Triatoma dominicana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), and Trypanosoma antiquus sp. n. (Stercoraria: Trypanosomatidae), the First Fossil Evidence of a Triatomine-Trypanosomatid Vector Association". Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 5 (1): 72–81. doi:10.1089/vbz.2005.5.72. PMID 15815152. 
  7. ^ LaPolla, J. S. (2005). "Ancient Trophophoresy: A Fossil Acropyga (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Dominican Amber". Transactions of the American Entomological Society. 131 (1/2): 21–28. JSTOR 25078875. 
  8. ^ Menon, F.; Martins-Neto, R.G.; Martill, D. (2005). "A new Lower Cretaceous nymphid (Insecta, Neuroptera, Nymphidae) from the Crato Formation of Brazil". Gaea, Journal of Geoscience. 1 (1): 11–15. 
  9. ^ a b c Engel, M.S.; Grimaldi, D.A. (2005). "Primitive New Ants in Cretaceous Amber from Myanmar, New Jersey, and Canada (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". American Museum Novitates. 3485: 1–24. doi:10.1206/0003-0082(2005)485[0001:PNAICA]2.0.CO;2. 
  10. ^ Archibald, S.B. (2005). "New Dinopanorpidae (Insecta: Mecoptera) from the Eocene Okanogan Highlands (British Columbia, Canada and Washington State, USA)". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 42 (2): 119–136. doi:10.1139/e04-073. 
  11. ^ Olshevsky, George. "Dinogeorge's Dinosaur Genera List". Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  12. ^ Carr T.D.; Williamson T.E.; Schwimmer D.R. (2005). "A new genus and species of tyrannosauroid from the Late Cretaceous (Middle Campanian) Demopolis Formation of Alabama". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (1): 119–143. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0119:ANGASO]2.0.CO;2. 
  13. ^ Rauhut O.W.M.; Remes K.; Fechner R.; Cladera G.; Puerta P. (2005). "Discovery of a short-necked sauropod dinosaur from the Late Jurassic period of Patagonia". Nature. 435 (2): 670–672. doi:10.1038/nature03623. PMID 15931221. 
  14. ^ Makovicky P.J.; Apesteguia S.; Agnolin F.L. (2005). "The earliest dromaeosaurid theropod from South America". Nature. 437 (7061): 1007–1011. doi:10.1038/nature03996. PMID 16222297. 
  15. ^ Zan S.-Q.; Chen J.; Jin L.-Y.; Li T. (2005). "A primitive ornithopod from the Early Cretaceous Quantou Formation of central Jilin, China". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 43: 182–193. 
  16. ^ Mahammed, F., E. Läng, L. Mami, L. Mekahl, M. Benhamou, B. Bouterfa, A. Kacemi, S.-A. Chérief, H. Chaouati, and P. Taquet. 2005. The ‘Giant of sour’, a Middle Jurassic sauropod dinosaur from Algeria. Systematic Palaeontology (Vertebrate Palaeontology) Paleovol/Elsevier.
  17. ^ Rauhut O.W.M. (2005). "Osteology and relationships of a new theropod dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia". Palaeontology. 48 (1): 87–110. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2004.00436.x. 
  18. ^ Ye Y.; Jiang S. (2005). "A new genus of sauropod from Zigong, Sichuan". Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 43: 175–181. 
  19. ^ Kirkland J I.; Zanno L.E.; Sampson S.D.; Clark J.M.; DeBileux D.D. (2005). "A primitive therizinosauroid dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Utah". Nature. 435 (7038): 84–87. doi:10.1038/nature03468. PMID 15875020. 
  20. ^ Averianov A.O. T. Martin; Bakirov A.A. (2005). "Pterosaur and dinosaur remains from the Middle Jurassic Balabansai Svita in the northern Fergana depression, Kyrgyzstan (Central Asia)". Palaeontology. 48 (1): 135–155. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2004.00437.x. 
  21. ^ Sánchez-Hernández, B (2005). "Galveosaurus herreroi, a new sauropod dinosaur from Villar del Arzobispo Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) of Spain". Zootaxa. 1034: 1–20. 
  22. ^ Osi, A (2005). "Hungarosaurus tormai, a new ankylosaur (Dinosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of Hungary". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (2): 370–383. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0370:htanad]2.0.co;2. 
  23. ^ Ji, Q., S. Ji, J. Lu, H. You, W. Chen, and Y. Liu. 2005. First avialian bird from China. Geological Bulletin of China 24 (3): pp. 197-209.
  24. ^ Gomani, E.M. 2005. Sauropod dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous of Malawi, Africa: Palaeontologia Electronica 8 (issue 1 - n. 27a): 37 pages.
  25. ^ Novas F.E.; Pott D. (2005). "New evidence on deinonychosaurian dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia". Nature. 433 (7028): 858–861. doi:10.1038/nature03285. PMID 15729340. 
  26. ^ Xu, X., and F. Zhang. 2005. A new maniraptoran dinosaur from China with long feathers on the metatarsus" Naturwissenschaften 92: pp. 173-177Xu, X.
  27. ^ Lu, J. and B.-K. Zhang. 2005. A new oviraptorid (Theropod: Oviraptosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous of the Nanxiong Basin, Guangdong Province of southern China. Online document (Chinese Extinct Organism Net: https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=zh- CN&u=http://www.dinosaur.net.cn/_Dino_News_2 005/dino20050110.htm&prev=/search%3Fq%3DS hixinggia%26hl%3Den%26lr%3D%26ie%3DUTF- 8
  28. ^ Carpenter, K., C. Miles and K. Cloward. 2005. New small theropod from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming. In: the carnivorous dinosaurs (K. Carpenter, ed.). Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IA: pp. 23-48.
  29. ^ Novas FE, de Valais S, Vickers-Rich P, Rich T (May 2005). "A large Cretaceous theropod from Patagonia, Argentina, and the evolution of carcharodontosaurids". Naturwissenschaften. 92 (5): 226–30. doi:10.1007/s00114-005-0623-3. PMID 15834691. 
  30. ^ Rauhut O.W.M.; Xu X. (2005). "The small theropod dinosaurs Tugulusaurus and Phaedrolosaurus from the Early Cretaceous of Xinjiang, China". J. Vert. Paleontol. 25 (1): 107–118. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0107:TSTDTA]2.0.CO;2. 
  31. ^ Antoine Louchart; Patrick Vignaud; Andossa Likius; Hassane Taisso Mackaye; Michel Brunet (2005). "A New Swan (Aves: Anatidae) in Africa, from the Latest Miocene of Chad and Libya". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 25 (2): 384–392. doi:10.1671/0272-4634(2005)025[0384:ansaai]2.0.co;2. 
  32. ^ Antoine Louchart; Claudia Bedetti; Marco Pavia (2005). "A New Species of Eagle (Aves: Accipitridae) Close to the Steppe Eagle, from Pleistocene of Corsica and Sardinia, France and Italy". Palaeontolgraphica Abteilung A. 272 (5-6): 121–148. 
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