2006 Ontario terrorism plot
|2006 Ontario terrorism case|
|Location||Ottawa and Toronto|
|Date||June 2, 2006 – Planned but never executed|
|Target||Various places in Canada and Southern Ontario, including Parliament Hill, the Prime Minister of Canada, CSIS Headquarters, and the Toronto Stock Exchange.|
No. of participants
|18 (11 guilty/convicted)|
The 2006 Ontario terrorism case refers to the plotting of a series of attacks against targets in Southern Ontario, Canada, and the June 2, 2006, counter-terrorism raids in and around the Greater Toronto Area that resulted in the arrest of 14 adults and 4 youths (the "Toronto 18"). These individuals have been characterized as having been inspired by al-Qaeda.
They were accused of planning to detonate truck bombs, to open fire in a crowded area, and to storm the Canadian Broadcasting Centre, the Parliament of Canada building, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) headquarters, and the parliamentary Peace Tower to take hostages and to behead the Prime Minister and other leaders.
Following the jury trial in June 2010, a comprehensive presentation of the case and the evidence obtained from court exhibits previously restricted was given by Isabel Teotonio of the Toronto Star. It contained the details on guilty pleas, convictions, and stayed/dismissed charges. The Ontario Court of Appeal released their decision on December 17, 2010.
Seven adults pleaded guilty including the two ringleaders, Fahim Ahmad who was sentenced to 16 years and Zakaria Amara who received a life sentence and initially had his Canadian citizenship revoked but later restored following the passage of Bill C-6. The remaining 5 received sentences ranging from 7 to 20 years. A further 3 adults and 1 youth were convicted at trial; the youth was sentenced to 2.5 years while the adults received sentences of 6.5 years, 10 years, and life imprisonment. 4 adults and 2 youth were released after the charges against them were stayed and 1 youth had his charges dismissed.
On November 27, 2005, Mubin Shaikh (a police agent) met with members of the terrorist group at an information meeting at a banquet hall regarding the use of security certificates in Canada, and began his infiltration of the group. He was told that they had planned a training camp near Orillia. They asked Shaikh if he would join them and teach them how to use a gun, since he had mentioned his military and martial arts training, and shown them his Possession and Acquisition Licence.
Orillia training camp
Authorities say that "the internet played a large role in the suspects' planning". Six months prior to the planned attack, the group watched a video over the internet of Anwar al Awlaki (the imam who was connected to three of the 9/11 hijackers) preaching about the need for jihad.
The ringleader gave sermons comparing the Canadian countryside to Chechnya, and calling for victory over "Rome", which prosecutors alleged was a reference to Canada. "Whether we get arrested, killed, or tortured, our mission is greater than just individuals," he said. He also said: "We're not officially al-Qaida but we share their principles and methods" around a campfire.
In 2008, a video made at the camp documenting their actions was made public, after the media obtained them through the British trial of Aabid Khan (who was convicted of being a terrorist propagandist), thus working around the publication ban that forbade them from showing evidence from the Canadian trials. The home video showed masked men in winter camouflage marching through the snow in an Ontario forest, shouting "Allahu Akbar"—or "God is Great"—while waving a black flag. The video was obtained by the NEFA Foundation (Nine-Eleven Finding Answers Foundation).
The video also showed the men daring each other to jump over campfires, and driving in a Canadian Tire parking lot late at night, alternatively described as "evasive driving maneuvers" or simply having fun driving doughnuts on the slippery ice. The film had been dubbed with Nasheed music, and the informant admitted that he had "choreographed" some of the scenes, arranging the campers to perform for the camera in a militant fashion upon the instruction of Zakaria Amara who did the filming. The youths frequented the local coffee shop, still dressed in their fatigues.
Shaikh, the police agent, was accused by the defence of having played a "key role" in setting up and running the trip, purchasing many of the supplies used, and being the "military trainer" at the camp. Shaikh gave firearms lessons to the accused, but at their request purchased a rifle and ammunition for the group. Shaikh showed the "campers" how to fire an illegal 9 mm handgun and ammunition which belonged to Faheem Ahmad. He also gave "exhortational sermons on Jihad", but described the camp itself as hapless.
Rockwood training camp
Held over two days in May 2006 at the Rockwood Conservation Area, the second camping trip, consisting of 10 people, came after members complained about fearing that police would arrest them for having known two Americans who had just been arrested.
A youth, who cannot be named, appeared in videos with the rest of the group, meant to mimic Jihadist beheading videos coming out of the Invasion of Iraq, sitting in front of a flag, and flanked by two hunting knives. During the filming, the leader kept trying to effect giggles from the adolescents, who were trying "to look tough" for the "mock" video.
The group was preparing a large-scale terrorist attack in southern Ontario. They planned to detonate truck bombs in at least three locations, and open fire in a crowded area. They also made plans to storm various buildings such as the Canadian Broadcasting Centre and the Canadian Parliament building, and take hostages. Law enforcement authorities identified other targets, including the CSIS, the Parliamentary Buildings' Peace Tower, and power grids.
Arrests, reaction, and court proceedings
The raids were carried out by a Canadian inter-agency task force, the Integrated National Security Enforcement Team (INSET), which coordinated the activities of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the CSIS, the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP), and other police forces, as the operation was spread across several different jurisdictions in southern Ontario, in the area north of Toronto.
The police stated that one of the arrested men ordered three metric tonnes (6,600 pounds) of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, a potentially powerful ingredient often used as quarry and mining explosives. This weight has widely been compared to the amount of ammonium nitrate used in the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing in the United States. The official account estimates the ammonium nitrate in the Oklahoma City bomb at 2,000 pounds, or about 0.9 metric tonnes. There was not any imminent danger to the public, as a harmless substance was substituted for the ordered ammonium nitrate and delivered to the men by INSET officers in a sting operation.
The RCMP said that the CSIS had been monitoring the individuals since 2004, later joined by the RCMP. The suspects, all adherents to a radical form of Islam, were alleged by CSIS to have been inspired by al-Qaeda. A direct connection seems unlikely.
The investigation started with intelligence officials monitoring Internet chat sites. The suspects were charged under the anti-terrorism legislation passed by Canadian parliament in December 2001 in response to the September 11 attacks in the US.
Two men, Yasim Abdi Mohamed and Ali Dirie, were already serving a two-year prison sentence for trying to smuggle a pair of handguns across the Peace Bridge a year earlier, for "personal protection" for themselves since they had worked as designer clothing re-sellers in seedy neighborhoods. They had their charges upgraded to "importing weapons for terrorist purposes" after it was revealed that their third handgun had been meant to repay Ahmad who had used his credit card to pay for their rental car.
Suspects of the Toronto 18
- Fahim Ahmad, 21, Toronto, born in Afghanistan and came to Canada at age 10; pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 16 years. Denied parole on June 10, 2014. Denied statutory release on August 26, 2015. Sentence ended on January 24, 2018.
- Zakaria Amara, 20, Mississauga, born in Jordan and came to Canada at age 12; pleaded guilty and received a life sentence without the possibility of parole for 10 years. Denied parole on June 2, 2016.
- Shareef Abdelhaleem, 30, Mississauga, born in Egypt and came to Canada at age 10; convicted at trial and received a life sentence without the possibility of parole for 10 years.
- Saad Khalid, 19, Mississauga, born in Saudi Arabia of Pakistani descent and came to Canada at age 9; pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 20 years. Denied parole on March 4, 2016. Statutory release was May 4, 2018.
- Saad Gaya, 18, Mississauga, born in Canada of Pakistani descent; pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 18 years. Granted day parole on December 30, 2015. Statutory release was in January 2017.
- Amin Durrani, 19, Toronto, born in Pakistan and came to Canada at age 12; pleaded guilty on January 20, 2010 and was sentenced to 7.5 years and released after being credited with time served for nearly 3 years and 8 months of pre-trial custody.
- Jahmaal James, 23, Toronto, born in Canada, family immigrated from the West Indies; pleaded guilty on February 26, 2010 and was sentenced to 7 years and 7 months and released after 1 day after being credited with 3 years and 9 months of pre-trial custody.
- Steven Chand, 25, Toronto, born in Canada, family immigrated from Fiji, a recent convert to Islam and a former Canadian soldier; convicted at trial and was sentenced to 10 years. Released in 2011.
- Ali Dirie, 22, Toronto, born in Somalia and came to Canada at age 7; pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 7 years. Released in October 2011 and left Canada in 2012 and reportedly died in 2013 fighting in the Syrian Civil War.
- Asad Ansari, 21, Mississauga, born in Pakistan and moved to Saudi Arabia at 7 months old and came to Canada at age 12; convicted at trial and was sentenced on October 3, 2010 to 6 years and 5 months and released after being credited with time served for 3 years and 3 months of pre-trial custody.
- Qayyum Abdul Jamal, 43, Mississauga, born in Pakistan and came to Canada as an adult, an active member of the mosque who frequently led prayers; released after charges against him were stayed.
- Yasim Abdi Mohamed, 24, Toronto, born in Somalia and came to Canada at age 5; released after the charges against him were stayed.
- Ahmad Mustafa Ghany, 21, Mississauga, born in Canada, family immigrated from Trinidad and Tobago; released after the charges against him were stayed.
- Ibrahim Aboud, 19, Mississauga, born in Iraq and came to Canada in his mid-teens; released after the charges against him were stayed.
The identities of the 4 minors were legally protected by Canada's Youth Criminal Justice Act. 1 was convicted at trial and sentenced to 2.5 years; the publication ban on his name was lifted in September 2009, and he was identified as Nishanthan Yogakrishnan. The other 3 minors were released after the charges against them were dismissed or stayed.
Six of the 18 men arrested have ties to the Al Rahman Islamic Center near Toronto, a Sunni mosque. Another two of those arrested were already serving time in a Kingston, Ontario, prison on weapons possession charges. According to the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) two other men, Syed Ahmed and Ehsanul Sadequee, who were arrested in Georgia in the United States on terrorism charges, are connected to the case as well.
John Thompson, president of the Mackenzie Institute, a Toronto think tank, summarized the young suspects stating "These are kids at a transition, between Islamic society and Western society. A lot of people will get militarized if they're unsure of their own identity. They're just young and stupid. If you're 17, bored, restless, you want to meet girls – hey, be a radical." "The cops have a nickname for it – the jihad generation," says Thompson.
On the night following the arrests, the Rexdale, Toronto mosque was vandalized, as windows were smashed across the building as well as the cars in the parking lot. Similar vandalism was reported at a mosque in Etobicoke.
The arrests sparked several comments by politicians in the US regarding the security of Canada, as well that of the US. Congressman Peter King was reported on June 6 to have said that "there's a large al-Qaeda presence in Canada … because of their very liberal immigration laws, because of how political asylum is granted so easily".
John Hostettler, American chairman of the House Judiciary subcommittee on Border Security said the arrest illustrated that "South Toronto" served as a "enclave for radical discussion", where people held "a militant understanding of Islam". His comments were widely ridiculed by Canadians who pointed out that there is no area of Toronto known as "South Toronto" (the downtown core of the city sits on the north shore of Lake Ontario, placing "South Toronto" in the water), and that none of the suspects were even from the downtown core. Both Canada's Conservative government and the Liberal opposition condemned the "completely uninformed and ignorant remarks".
The initial reports of this incident caused some controversy when a Royal Canadian Mounted Police officer, Mike McDonell, described the arrested people as representing a "broad strata" of Canadian society, and the Toronto Star claimed that it was "difficult to find a common denominator" among them, even though all were radical Muslims and many attended the same mosque. Some in the media, such as Andrew C. McCarthy in National Review, have described this as a tendency of the police and media to whitewash a role of militant Islam in contemporary terrorism.
The media coverage of the arrests was accused of bringing to light underlying racism in Canadian media, after a number of incidents including The Globe and Mail newspaper's use of the term "brown-skinned young men" in describing the men who had rented a storage unit.
Imam Aly Hindy, who knew nine of the accused youths personally, said he had doubted any of them "did anything wrong", adding that "If some of them are guilty, I don't think it's terrorism. It may be criminal, but it's not terrorism.".
A preliminary hearing started June 4, 2007, for the remaining 14 terrorism suspects was halted by the Crown Attorney on September 24, 2007, so the case could proceed directly to trial. The move (called a "preferred indictment", or a "direct indictment") meant defense counsel could not hear the balance of the testimony of the Crown's key witness, police informant Mubin Shaikh, who was in the middle of testifying.
At the opening trial, against the sole remaining youth, prosecutors alleged that comments that referred to "shotgun on Blondie" were actually a pretext to sexually assault non-Muslims.
Syed Haris Ahmed was convicted in June 2009 of conspiring to support terrorism, and Ehsanul Islam Sadequee was convicted of plotting to support "violent jihad" in August 2009. The two men were alleged to have met with members of the Toronto 18 in Canada in 2005.
In September 2008 Nishanthan Yogakrishnan, who was a minor when charged, was convicted of knowingly participating in the plot. In May 2009, he was sentenced to two and a half years, and received credit for time served. Ontario Superior Court Judge John Sproat ruled there was "overwhelming" evidence that a terrorist conspiracy existed. He was the first person to be found guilty under Canada's 2001 Anti-Terrorism Act, passed following the September 11, 2001 attacks.
Saad Khalid pleaded guilty in May 2009 to aiding a plot to set off bombs at the Toronto Stock Exchange, the CSIS Toronto headquarters, and a military base between Toronto and Ottawa. He was sentenced to 14 years in prison.
In September 2009 Ali Mohamed Dirie admitted to being a member of a terrorist group. On a police wiretap, he called white people the "number 1 filthiest people on the face of the planet. They don't have Islam. They're the most filthiest people." He added: "In Islam there is no racism, we only hate kufar (non-Muslims)." The Crown and defence agreed on a seven-year sentence. In September 2013, it was reported Dirie had been killed fighting with rebels in the Syrian war. He had left Canada using someone else's passport.
Also in September 2009, al-Qaeda supporter Aabid Hussein Khan was sentenced to 14 years for his role in the bomb plot.
In October 2009, Zakaria Amara, described by prosecutors as the leader of the group, pleaded guilty to charges of participating in the activities of a terrorist group, bomb charges, and planning explosions likely to cause serious bodily harm or death.
In May 2010, Fahim Ahmad, described as a leader of the group, reversed his plea mid-trial and pleaded guilty.
Asad Ansari was 21 years old when arrested in June 2006, in Toronto. He spent 3 years and 3 months in pre-trial detention, of which 15 months straight were spent in solitary confinement. After bail was initially denied on 3 August 2009, Ansari was granted bail on 28 August. He was tried simultaneously with Steven Vikash Chand and Fahim Ahmad in Brampton until Ahmad pleaded guilty. The court heard that Ansari had attended a winter training camp in Washago, Ontario, in December 2005. Ansari and Chand were the only members of the 18 tried by jury rather than by a lone judge. On 23 June 2010, Ansari and Chand were both found guilty of knowingly participating in a terrorist group. On 3 October 2010, Asad was sentenced to 6 years and 5 months, but was released and placed on probation largely due to time served.
Defence counsel argued that police mole Shaikh was in effect entrapping one of the men through his actions as an instructor at a training camp he had infiltrated on behalf of the RCMP. Superior Court Justice John Sproat ruled in March 2009 that there was no entrapment, noting that the camp would have proceeded as planned without Shaikh's participation, and the training and indoctrination provided would have been similar. The judge held further: "The evidence is overwhelming that (the youth) would have committed the offence if he had never come into contact with Shaikh."
The roles of two Agents were made public amid defence allegations they "perhaps provoked" the youths to make militant statements. Shaikh had been paid $292,000 to "knowingly facilitate a terrorist activity" and asked to act as "moles" in the group, leading to accusations[who?] that they had "urged them to act, then sat back and counted [their] cash while the others went to jail". The Toronto Star reported that a well-known member of Toronto's Islamic community had infiltrated the alleged terrorist cell while on the police payroll as an informant, and that another mole had been involved in setting up the purchase of phony ammonium nitrate. Elsohemy, the second mole in the case, was placed in witness protection after he agreed to help the Royal Canadian Mounted Police arrange the phony ammonium nitrate purchase on behalf of the youths, which led to the allegations of a bomb plot.
A third man, Qari Kafayatullah, was an Afghan immigrant who frequently told the youths that he had knowledge of explosives, and convinced their parents to let them attend the upcoming December camp – promising that it was just a bit of fun for the young men, and that he would be the responsible adult present – even though there was never any indication he later attended.
In October 2009, a man described by prosecutors as the leader of the group, pleaded guilty to bomb charges, the fifth member of the so-called "Toronto 18" group to have admitted guilt or to have been found guilty. Zakaria Amara, 23, from Mississauga, pleaded guilty in a Brampton, Ontario, court to charges of participating in the activities of a terrorist group and planning explosions likely to cause serious bodily harm or death. In January 2010, Amara was sentenced to life imprisonment. The sentence was the stiffest given so far under the Anti-Terrorism Act.
Saad Gaya from Oakville, Ontario was convicted and sentenced to 12 years in prison for the Toronto 18 terrorism case in 2006. He is being held at the Maplehurst Correctional Centre in Milton, Ontario.
The Canadian Coalition for Peace and Justice (CCPJ) filed submission on behalf of some of the arrested with the United Nations Human Rights Council, Fourth Universal Periodic Review Canada (2008). Lawyer for the CCPJ, Faisal Kutty, alleged on behalf of the CCPJ that Canada was in breach of its international commitments pursuant to various provisions of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the Standard Minimum Rules for Treatment of Prisoners adopted by the First United Nations Congress in 1955; and the Basic Principles for the Treatment of Prisoners adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1990. He called on the Human Rights Council to investigate these allegations.
"'Toronto 18' member Ali Mohamed Dirie reportedly died in Syria: Ali Mohamed Dirie died in Syria after 2011 prison release, informant tells CBC". CBC News. September 25, 2013. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013.
A convicted member of the "Toronto 18" who plotted with al-Qaeda-inspired militants to attack Canadian institutions in 2006 has died while fighting in Syria, according to multiple sources in close contact with family and friends.
- "17 held in terror plot in Canada -DAWN – Top Stories; June 4, 2006". Dawn.com. June 4, 2006. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "Canada arrests 17 allegedly 'inspired by al-Qaida'". Austin News. June 3, 2006. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
- Tyler, Tracey (December 17, 2010). "Appeal court hikes sentences for terror convictions". Toronto Star. Retrieved December 17, 2010.
- "Canada revokes citizenship of Toronto 18 terror mastermind - The Star". thestar.com. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "Immigration minister defends legislation that prevents convicted dual nationals from losing citizenship". National Post. March 1, 2017. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
- "TORONTO 18 - thestar.com". www3.thestar.com. Archived from the original on October 6, 2018. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Singh, Gurmukh. The Indian News, Bomb-laden trucks planned in Toronto terror plot, June 11, 2008
- PBS, Frontline, Canada: The Cell Next Door, January 30, 2007
- Teotonio, Isabel (March 26, 2008). "Alleged Toronto terror plot detailed in court". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Teotino, Isabel (February 6, 2009). "Terror camp police mole on his own, court told". Toronto Star.
- Teotonio, Isabel (September 27, 2008). "Convicted youth excelled at training camp". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Dube, Rebecca Cook (June 6, 2006). "Canada faces jihad generation". The Christian Science Monitor. Boston.
- Shephard, Michelle (October 18, 2009). "The powerful online voice of jihad". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on April 24, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Brean, Joseph (June 10, 2008). "We weren't out there picking daisies". National Post. Toronto. Archived from the original on June 11, 2008.
- "Terrorist threat to Canada is real". The Record. Kitchener, Ont. September 27, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "Ontario man guilty of taking part in terror plot". National Post. Toronto. September 25, 2008. Archived from the original on October 26, 2013.
- "Video of alleged Toronto terror group released". CTV News. September 18, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "Video evidence in trial of alleged Toronto terrorist plot surfaces on U.S. website". The Chronicle Journal. Thunder Bay, Ont. September 18, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010.[dead link]
- "Video of alleged Ont. terror group released". National Post. Toronto. September 18, 2008.[permanent dead link]
- "Lawyer of terror suspect expresses concern over video". CBC News. Toronto. September 19, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Austen, Ian (September 25, 2008). "At Canada Terror trial, the accused take on a less sinister cast". The New York Times.
- "Informant says militant training camp was 'potty training' exercise". CBC. June 11, 2008.
- Freeze, Colin (January 31, 2009). "RCMP agent concedes key role in set-up, running of terrorist training camp". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on July 25, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Wark, Wesley (August 9, 2008). "The beginning of terrorism". Ottawa Citizen. Archived from the original on November 5, 2012.
- "Suspect told 'terrorist camp' was camping trip". Toronto Star. March 26, 2008.
- Leong, Melissa (June 2, 2007). "Ontario terror case far from over". National Post. Toronto. Archived from the original on November 8, 2012.
- "Terrorism suspect feared he was 'sitting duck,' trial hears". National Post. Canada. June 7, 2008. Archived from the original on June 17, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Walkom, Thomas. Toronto Star, Crown's linchpin shakes case, June 25, 2008
- "National". globeandmail.com. Archived from the original on October 7, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Teotonio, Isabel (June 10, 2008). ""Toronto targets picked, terror trial told", Toronto Star, June 10, 2008, accessed November 20, 2009". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "– Lawyer: Government says terror plans included beheading – Jun 7, 2006". CNN. June 7, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "Terror suspects plotted two separate attacks". Canada.com. June 6, 2006. Archived from the original on October 13, 2012. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "RCMP arrests 17, foiling alleged Ont. bomb plot". CTV.ca. June 3, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Austen, Ian; Johnston, David (June 4, 2006). "17 Held in Plot to Bomb Sites in Ontario". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- "Anti-terrorism Act". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. February 27, 2007. Retrieved October 21, 2009.
Friscolanti, Michael (May 5, 2008). "The Terrorist who Wasn't". Macleans magazine. Archived from the original on September 26, 2013.
But that was before April 14, when Crown attorneys decided that four more of Canada's homegrown terror suspects weren't worth the effort. Along with Mohamed, all charges were stayed against Ibrahim Aboud, Ahmad Ghany and Abdul Qayyum Jamal. Add the three teenagers whose files were already abandoned, and the "Toronto 18" has suddenly shrunk to the "Toronto 11."
- Stewart Bell (June 5, 2006). "After escaping war in Somalia, terror suspects grew up in Toronto". National Post. Retrieved 2013-09-26.[dead link]
"Sketches of the Ontario-based terror suspects". CTV News. June 5, 2006. Archived from the original on June 12, 2006. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
Details are starting to emerge about the lives of the suspected Islamic terrorists who were taken into custody in a series of southern Ontario raids.
- "Leader of Toronto 18 terror group denied release - The Star". thestar.com. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "PressReader.com - Connecting People Through News". www.pressreader.com. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "Convicted 'Toronto 18' member Saad Gaya gets day parole extension - CBC News". cbc.ca. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "Metro". Metronews.ca. Archived from the original on May 22, 2011. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "Toronto 18: Ali Mohamed Dirie, convicted in plot, dies in Syria - The Star". thestar.com. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- "globeandmail.com". globeandmail.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Depalma, Anthony (June 5, 2006). "Six of 17 Arrested in Canada's Antiterror Sweep Have Ties to Mosque Near Toronto". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- "Toronto 18: Key events in the case". cbc.ca. Retrieved July 31, 2017.
- Depalma, Anthony (June 5, 2006). "Six of 17 Arrested in Canada's Antiterror Sweep Have Ties to Mosque Near Toronto". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2010.
- Thomas, Vanessa and Make Becker. Buffalo News, A portrait of terrorist suspects, June 5, 2006
- DePalma, Antony.The New York Times, Six of 17 arrested in Canada's anti-terror sweep have ties to mosque near Toronto, June 5, 2006
- "World". globeandmail.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Ljunggren, David. Reuters, "Canada slams "ignorant" US comments on security", June 9, 2006
- "National". globeandmail.com. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Bhattacharya, Surya; Gulmhusein, Nasreen; Aly, Heba (June 4, 2006). "The ties that bind 17 suspects?". Toronto Star.
- McCarthy, Andrew C. (June 5, 2006). "The Elephant in the Room". National Review Online. New York. Archived from the original on June 16, 2006.
- Fisk, Robert (June 10, 2006). "How racism has invaded Canada". The Independent. London.
- Teotonio, Isabel (September 24, 2007). "Homegrown terror case goes to trial". Toronto Star. Retrieved September 24, 2007.
- Walkom, Thomas (May 27, 2009). "Canada's terrorist shoplifter". Toronto Star.
- Bluestein, Greg (August 13, 2009). "Man tied to 'Toronto 18' guilty in U.S. terror case". Toronto Star. Associated Press. Retrieved August 26, 2015.
- Teotonio, Isabel (April 17, 2009). "Youth terror convict to be sentenced as adultCrown seeks three-year term plus probation, but court must rule on credit for time served". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Teotonio, Isabel (September 10, 2009). "Publication ban lifted in Toronto 18 case". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "20-year-old convicted in Toronto terror plot". CBC News. September 25, 2008. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- Teotonio, Isabel (May 22, 2009). "Man in terror trial sentenced to 2.5 years". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- O'Toole, Megan (May 5, 2009). "Man pleads guilty in Toronto terror plot". Calgary Herald. Retrieved March 25, 2010.[dead link]
- "Toronto 18 member to be sentenced for terror plot". Kelowna.com. Kelowna, BC. September 3, 2009. Retrieved November 17, 2009.[dead link]
- "Toronto 18 man gets 14 years for planned attacks". Reuters. September 3, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Bell, Stewart (September 24, 2009). "Man admits to plotting attack". The Windsor Star. Canwest News Service. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
- Bell, Stewart (September 23, 2009). "Toronto terror participant hated non-Muslims, court told". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved March 25, 2010.[dead link]
- Colin Freeze. "Toronto 18 terrorist reportedly killed in Syrian war". Toronto: The Globe and Mail. Retrieved September 25, 2013.
- "International links linger after 'Toronto 18' member imprisoned". National Post. Toronto. September 3, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2010.[dead link]
- "Alleged 'Toronto 18' leader pleads guilty". Reuters. October 8, 2009. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Teotonio, Isabel (May 10, 2010). "Toronto 18 ringleader pleads guilty in terror trial". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on May 13, 2010. Retrieved May 11, 2010.
- Teotonio, Isabel (August 29, 2009). "Bail for terror suspect comes with constraints". Toronto Star. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
After more than three years awaiting trial behind bars, homegrown terror suspect Asad Ansari was granted bail yesterday in a Brampton court.
- "Toronto 18: Key events in the case". CBC News. Toronto, ON. June 4, 2008. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
June 23, 2010: The last two defendants — Chand and Asad Ansari, 25 — are found guilty of participating in a terrorist group. The charge carries a maximum prison sentence of 10 years. A date for their sentencing has not yet been set.
- O'Toole, Megan (October 4, 2010). "Toronto 18's Asad Ansari sentenced to 6 years and 5 months …goes free". National Post. Toronto, ON. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
A Superior Court judge has meted out the lightest sentence to date among the adults convicted in the Toronto 18 terrorism plot. Asad Ansari, 25, became a free man yesterday after receiving six years and five months — the equivalent of time served — for his participation in the group, which plotted devastating attacks in Toronto and Ottawa. The offence carries a maximum jail term of 10 years. "While Mr. Ansari's involvement in the offence was serious, it is not at the most serious end of the scale," Justice Fletcher Dawson asserted in his 12-page ruling.
- Teotonio, Isabel (March 25, 2009). "No entrapment, judge rules in terrorism case". Toronto Star. Retrieved August 25, 2015.
- Perkel, Colin (March 24, 2009). "RCMP mole vindicated after judge finds no entrapment in terror case". Canada East. Moncton, New Brunswick. The Canadian Press. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011.
- "Informant in Canada terror trial paid thousands". Fox News. June 13, 2008. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "The Mounties' man in the Toronto terror bust admits a cocaine habit". Maclean's. Toronto. September 10, 2007. Archived from the original on September 11, 2007.
- Friscolanti, Michael (February 7, 2007). "The four-million dollar rat". Maclean's. Toronto. Archived from the original on February 22, 2012.
- "Transcript: Mubin Shaikh interview". CBC News. July 15, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- "2nd Agent played key role in bomb plot probe". CBC News. October 13, 2006.
- El Akad, Omar (June 2, 2007). "Online leaks get around publication ban". The Globe and Mail. Toronto.
- Freeze, Colin (January 16, 2007). "Was imam another informant in Toronto terror plot?". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on January 18, 2007.
- Teotonio, Isabel (January 19, 2010). "Life term for terror ringleader – Man planned to detonate three bombs at 9 a.m., when Toronto's downtown core would be bustling". Toronto Star. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- Rosella, Louie (December 17, 2010). "Appeal court raises sentence for convicted Oakville terrorist". Inside Halton. Retrieved August 6, 2011.
- "Submission of Canadian Coalition for Peace and Justice to the United Nations Human Rights Council Fourth Universal Periodic Review Canada (2008)" (PDF). ohchr.org. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
- Canadian Anti-Terror Law on Trial: The Toronto Terrorism Arrests, JURIST
- 'Inhumane' isolation for terror suspects: Lawyers, Canadian Press, April 8, 2007
- Canada charges 17 terror suspects, BBC, June 3, 2006
- Frightened rural Ontario residents describe 'terror-training camp', National Post, June 5, 2006
- After escaping war in Somalia, terror suspects grew up in Toronto, National Post, June 5, 2006
- Charges stayed against teen in Ontario bomb plot case, CBC News, February 23, 2007
- Canadian Encyclopedia entry on Terrorism