2006 United States immigration reform protests

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2006 United States immigration reform protests
NashvilleProtest2006.jpg
Thousands gather in favor of immigrants rights in Nashville, Tennessee on March 29, 2006
Date Ma

In 2006/07, millions of people participated in protests over a proposed change to U.S. immigration policy. These large scale mobilizations are widely seen as a historic turn point in Latina/o Politics, especially Latina/o immigrant civic participation and political influence, as noted in a range of scholarly publications in this field. The protests began in response to proposed legislation known as H.R. 4437, which would raise penalties for Illegal immigration and classify undocumented immigrants and anyone who helped them enter or remain in the US as felons. As part of the wider immigration debate, most of the protests not only sought a rejection of this bill, but also a comprehensive reform of the country's immigration laws that included a path to citizenship for all undocumented immigrants.

The 2006 immigration protests were a series of demonstrations that began in Chicago and continued throughout major cities nationwide for a period of eight weeks. A major demonstration in Chicago on March 10, 2006 estimated at 100,000 people was the initial impetus for protests throughout the country.[1] The largest single demonstration occurred in Los Angeles on March 25, 2006 with a march of more than 500,000 people through downtown.[2] The largest nationwide day of protest occurred on April 10, 2006, in 102 cities across the country,[3][4] with 350,000–500,000 in Dallas. Most of the protests were peaceful and attracted considerable media attention. Additional protests took place on May Day.

May Day[edit]

The marches reached a climax on May 1, 2006 and were nicknamed “A day without Immigrants” after the film “A Day Without a Mexican”. Naming the protests in such way encouraged immigrants to quit their daily labor-intensive jobs for a day to draw attention to their significant contributions to U.S. daily life. Latina/o immigrants across the country were urged to boycott work, school and other economic activities. Those outside the Latina/o community were shocked to see the growing workforce of janitors, nannies, restaurant workers and many other service workers leave their underrepresented and under appreciated jobs to join the protests.[5] The mobilization of working class undocumented immigrants challenged the belief that the United States would be able to prosper without undocumented immigrants.

The protests took place on May 1, a date meant to honor workers throughout the country. The May 1st marches reflected the immigrant protesters’ identities as workers and significant contributors to U.S. society. Most immigrants of Latin American descent come to the United States seeking economic prosperity for themselves and their families,[6] they often accept low wage jobs to survive in the United States. Therefore, missing work for a day burdened their families. Yet, thousands of immigrants risked their jobs and joined the marches to demand political recognition.

Unauthorized Immigration[edit]

To understand the 2006 immigrant protests and the discourse behind unauthorized immigration as a leading topic in U.S. political debate, it is necessary to understand the history of unauthorized immigration. Since the 19th century, mass unauthorized immigration from Latin America to the United States has greatly impacted Latina/o Politics. Unauthorized immigrants are individuals who arrive and live in the United States without legal documentation. In many cases, individuals arrive to the United States with legal documentation such as tourist or student visas and overstay the amount of time they are allowed to remain in the United States, thus becoming unauthorized immigrants.[7] Many others cross the borders between the United States and Mexico, or the United States and Canada, without legal documentation. Today, undocumented entry to the United States is a misdemeanor. Unauthorized immigration did not always exist to the extent that it does today. Before 1965 the United States did not have numerical restrictions on immigration from countries in the western hemisphere. In 1965, the United States passed the Immigration Nationality Act and repealed the 1924 National Origins Act designed to limit migration from southern and eastern European countries,[8] thus making it possible for eastern-hemisphere countries to have equal access to visas in addition and consequently restricting migration from the western hemisphere for the first time. Furthermore, the 1965 Act provided unlimited number of visas for family reunification because it allowed naturalized U.S. citizens and permanent residents to request permission to bring their family members to the United States.[8] The 1965 Act influenced Latinos/as citizens and permanent residents to request visas that allowed their family members to immigrate to the United States. This resulted in a shift of the country’s ethno racial makeup and the creation of a large Latina/o population in the United States. The 1965 Act’s restriction on the number of visas allotted to western hemisphere countries created the phenomenon of large scale unauthorized western hemisphere migration,[8] particularly from Latin American countries like Mexico.

In the 1980s the United States government began to express concern about the large scale flow of unauthorized immigration, which led to the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) of 1986. First, the Act made it illegal for employers to hire workers who could not provide proof of legal immigration to the United States. Second, it allowed for the legalization of immigrants who could prove residency in the U.S. since January 1, 1982 and agricultural workers who began working in the United States prior to May 1986.[9] Out of the 3 million migrants that applied for IRCA, 2.7 million, many of whom were Mexican, were given a path to citizenship. However, in the long term, IRCA was not successful in reducing the flow of unauthorized immigration to the United States. As a result, the U.S. government began to increase the funding of Border Patrol as a means to regulate the flow of undocumented immigrants to the United States. These actions proved to have little impact on unauthorized immigration, resulting in about eleven million unauthorized immigrants living in the United States, the majority being of Mexican origin. Therefore, discourse about the flow of unauthorized immigration has been known as a “Mexican” or “Latino” problem. The large scale flow of unauthorized migrants and the significant ethno-racial shift that occurred as a result of 1965 Act, have resulted in anti-immigrant backlash that targets Latina/o immigrants.[10]

Role of Spanish-language Media and Religious Leaders[edit]

Spanish-language media outlets, in particular Univision, Telemundo, Azteca America. La Opinion, Los Angeles' largest Spanish newspaper, advertised the protests on their front page. They called it a “Mega Marcha”, a mega march, as a way to emphasize the large scale of the marches. This strategy allowed for the spread of mobilizations throughout the country. KMEX- TV in Los Angeles, an Univision owned and operated television station, called the protests “Pisando Firme”, stepping strong, to remind protesters to march “with pride, with dignity, with order, for your children, for your people, for your community.”[6] Although television and newspapers effectively mobilized protesters, it was radio stations which truly promoted the protests.

Various Spanish-language radio stations across the country, in large part aided in mobilizing people for the protests. Eddie "Piolín" Sotelo, a Spanish-language radio personality from Los Angeles, persuaded eleven of his counterparts from Spanish-language radio stations based in Los Angeles to also rally listeners to attend planned protests.[11][12][13] Piolin Por La Mañana, is known to be one of the most popular radio shows in the country. The Piolín’s radio show, recorded near Los Angeles, is broadcast in 47 markets across the country including Chicago, Dallas, Houston, Miami, Phoenix, San Francisco and New York, many of the cities where the protests took place.[14] In addition to mobilizing thousands of immigrant protestors, Eddie “Piolin” Sotelo made multiple appearances during protests, which increased his moral authority towards his Latina/o audience.

Religious leader Cardinal Roger M. Mahony, from the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, showed his support of immigrant protesters and urged Catholics, many of whom are Latina/o, to support the protests. He urged the Catholic community to spend Lent fasting and praying for an immigration reform that would counteract HR-4437 and the criminalization of immigrants. Cardinal Mahony made an official statement against HR-4437 through which he instructed Catholic priests to defy any law that required them to ask immigrants for legal documents.[15] He stated that immigration was not about politics, rather the way in which human beings treat one another, while asserting that all Americans are of immigrant ancestry and share universal citizenship.

It was not media alone that mobilized protesters, rather the media in partnership with migrant organizations and leaders.[16] When analyzing the immigrant civic participation in the 2006 protests simply acknowledging the media’s influence is not enough. It absolutely necessary to understand the “meta-network” of activists and leaders that used media as a call to action.

Controversy and Backlash Over Flag Symbolism and Protests[edit]

The initial protests caused much controversy after some protesters waved Mexican and Central American flags instead of American flags. Various talk-radio hosts and columnists played up the contentious nature of displaying non-U.S. flags during the protests.[17] One particular incident referred to involved a protest at Montebello High School in California, where a Mexican flag was raised on a flagpole over a United States flag flying in the distressed (or upside-down) position.[18]

As part of the backlash over the protests and the controversy over the flag symbolism issue, a group calling themselves "Border Guardians" burned a Mexican flag in front of the Mexican Consulate in Tucson, Arizona, on April 9, 2006.[19] The following day the group proceeded to burn two Mexican flags during protest in Tucson which was estimated to have had 15,000 participants. After the police seized a student who had thrown a water bottle at the "Border Guardians", they followed the police officers calling for them to let the student go. As the situation escalated violence broke out and 6 were arrested with dozens being pepper-sprayed. The next day the police arrested the leader of the Border Guardians, Roy Warden, for charges including assault and starting a fire in a public park.

Because of the controversy, organizers of the protests encouraged protesters to leave their Mexican flags at home, with Cardinal Roger Mahony telling Los Angeles protesters to not fly any flag other than the United States flag because, "...they do not help us get the legislation we need."[20] As a result of this controversy later protests featured fewer Mexican flags and more protesters carrying American flags.[21]

In addition, California's Oceanside Unified School District banned flags and signs from its campuses after "Mexican flag-wavers clashed with U.S. flag-wavers."[17]

Backlash[edit]

The Washington Post reported that, in the Washington D.C. suburb of Herndon, a day labor center at which suspected undocumented immigrants gathered was closed and its mayor and two aldermen lost reelection, in part due to immigration concerns.[22][23]

Membership in the Minuteman Project increased due in part to backlash from the protests. On May 3, responding to the May 1 boycotts, the Minutemen embarked on a caravan across the United States in an effort to bring attention to a perceived need for border enforcement. The caravan was expected to reach Washington D.C. on May 12.

Regarding the Tucson-based anti-immigration movement: In 2006 the Southern Poverty Law Center wrote: "Roy Warden, 59, emerged this spring as one of the country's most controversial, volatile, and, many believe, dangerous characters of the anti-immigration movement."[24]

Consequences of the 2006 Immigration Protests[edit]

Although HR-4437 failed to pass through the Senate, it left a trail of consequences that affected the immigrant community. One of those consequences was intensive Immigration Customs Enforcement (ICE) raids during the final years of the Bush administration which continued throughout the Obama presidency. The increase in Immigration Customs Enforcement raids was meant to suppress further immigrant organizing.[25] In the next couple of years, more than 300,000 undocumented immigrant were deported to their home countries, that is 100,00 more than the number of deported immigrants in 2005, a year before the protests.[25] The increase in deportations caused fear of retaliation within the undocumented community and resulted in rapid demobilization.

Although HR-4437 did not become a law at the federal level, it did not prevent individual states from passing similar laws. In 2006, Pennsylvania passed the Illegal Immigration Relief Act, which fined landlords who rented housing to undocumented immigrants and also fined business owners who hired them. The State of Arizona passed S.B. 1070, which led to racial profiling and required police officers to request legal documentation from anyone they suspected was undocumented. Both laws, along with similar others, were deemed unconstitutional in part because the U.S. Constitution assigns control over immigration to the federal government, not individual states.[26]

Latino Political Contributions and Civic Engagement[edit]

The marches against HR-4437 and congress’ failure to provide the undocumented community with a comprehensive immigration reform legislation have had a significant impact on Latino political engagement. Latino leaders mobilized immigrants through non-voting activities such as protests instead of mobilizing them to vote because the majority of the immigrant community was undocumented and unable to vote, therefore they focused on impacting electoral outcomes to benefit them.[27] Many Latinos indicated that the marches were the beginning of a new social and political movement that sought to gain civic empowerment. A report released by the Pew Hispanic Center indicated that Latinos would most likely vote in subsequent elections and The National Immigration Forum found that Latino voters were more enthusiastic to vote in 2006 due to the immigration debate,[28] and the need to prevent legislation like HR-4437 from being approved by Congress. “Today we march, tomorrow we vote,” was one of the most popular slogans during the 2006 immigrant protests.[29] Such slogan indicated the value and need for Latino/a political contribution and recognition.

Timeline[edit]

March[edit]

  • March 10: 100,000 marched from Union Park to Federal Plaza in Chicago but organizers say that about 250,000- 500,000 actually marched.[1]
  • March 24: 20,000 marched to Senator Jon Kyl's office in Phoenix.[30] Tens of thousands of workers participate in a work stoppage in Georgia.[31]
  • March 25: more than 500,000 march in downtown Los Angeles.[32]
  • March 26: 7,000 people rallied at the Statehouse in Columbus, Ohio.[33]
  • March 27: Hundreds of high school students walk out of class in protest in Northern Virginia .[34]
  • March 29: 8,000–9,000 marched from The Coliseum to Legislative Plaza in Nashville.[citation needed]
  • March 30: Robert Pambello, the principal of Reagan High School in Houston, placed a Mexican flag below the American and Texan flags and was ordered to remove it. He later resigned from his position for apparently unrelated reasons.[35] In South West Houston, high school students from Robert E. Lee High, Bellaire High, Sam Houston High School (joining from Houston's Northside) and other middle schoolers joined together in a march that was taken to city hall.[36]
  • March 31: 3,000 high school and middle school students in Las Vegas walk out of class to protest. Some college and community college students join them on their protest.[37]

April[edit]

  • April 1: 10,000 marched across the Brooklyn Bridge to Foley Square in New York City.[citation needed]
  • April 6: Hundreds of Aurora, Illinois students left school to march downtown to protest.
  • April 8: Several hundred people rally at Chicano Park in San Diego.[38][unreliable source?]
  • April 9: Demonstrations in several cities across the United States, including:
    • 50,000 marched in San Diego from Balboa Park, through downtown to the County Administration Building.[39]
Students Of Jersey City's McNair Academic High School gather to protest the proposed H.R. 4437 at Liberty State Park after walking out of their school at 2:00 pm on April 10, 2006.
    • 6,000 protested in Des Moines, Iowa at Nollen Plaza in support of comprehensive immigration reform.,[40] April 9
  • April 10: Demonstrations were staged in many cities and towns across the United States;
    • Atlanta, Georgia, at least 50,000 people rallied both for and against amnesty.
    • Boston, Massachusetts, approximately 2,000 demonstrators march from Boston Common to Copley Square.[41]
    • Charleston, South Carolina, at least 4,000 people gathered and protested the inability of lawmakers to agree on legislation that would lead to citizenship.[42]
    • Fort Myers, Florida, an estimated 75,000 people took part in "The Great March" which affected traffic in nearby areas of the march. The stream of protesters was at least a mile long at times.
    • Las Vegas, Nevada, a well-organized march of approximately 3,000 people was held. Protesters marched two miles from Jaycee Park to the Federal Courthouse during the first day of the Clark Country Spring Break, waving Mexican and American flags alike. They protested in favor of amnesty.[citation needed]
    • New York City, between 70,000 and 125,000 people demonstrated in front of City Hall. Senators Hillary Clinton and Chuck Schumer spoke at the rally. Neither called for amnesty, though many of the crowd's signs and chants did.[43]
    • Oakland, California, an estimated 10,000 people took part in the demonstration.[44]
    • Salt Lake City, Utah, a unity rally was held at the City-County Building; there were an estimated 15,000 protesters.
    • San Jose, California, an estimated 25,000 demonstrators marched several miles from King and Story to city hall. Highway access to US 101 and I-680 was closed, causing significant traffic backups.
    • Seattle, Washington, between 15,000 and 25,000 marched to a rally at the federal building where speakers in support of the demonstrators, such as Mayor Greg Nickels and County Executive Ron Sims spoke. Just five thousand were expected.[45]
  • April 11: Several protests occurred in Nevada.
  • April 13: Students from several Woodburn, Oregon (a town with a large Hispanic community) schools marched out of class.[47]
  • April 19: Students from various Denver high schools and middle schools walked out of class and marched to the capitol.
  • April 27: Approximately 200 volunteers and supporters built a 6 foot high, quarter mile section of barbed wire fencing along the Mexico and United States border to send a clear message to Americans and leaders in Washington regarding the lack of security at our borders.[48]
  • April 28: Nuestro Himno, a Spanish language rendition of the Star Spangled Banner, is played simultaneously on about 500 Spanish language radio stations across the country. President Bush denounced the effort saying the National Anthem should be sung in English[49] The controversy died in a few days, after it was revealed that Cuban immigrant Jon Secada had sung the anthem in Spanish at Bush inauguration ceremony [1], and that a Spanish version of the anthem had been commissioned by the Bureau of Education of the United States in 1919 [2].

May[edit]

A rally on May 1 in Chicago
  • May 1: The "Great American Boycott" takes place across the United States and at a few locations abroad.
    • An estimated 400,000 marched in Chicago, according to police, though organizers pegged the total at closer to 700,000; "Latinos were joined by immigrants of Polish, Irish, Asian and African descent."[50]
    • An estimated 400,000 marched in Los Angeles, according to police[51]
    • The boycott was said to have had "little economic impact" in Arizona[citation needed]
    • Modesto, California saw close to 10,000 people marching in the streets, possibly the largest assembly of people in the city's history. Major city streets were shut down as a direct result.[52][unreliable source?]
    • Over 15,000 protesters were reported in Santa Barbara, California.
    • Some supporters have hailed this as "the most important boycott since the days of the civil rights movement".[53]
    • Approximately 20,000 marched in the Bay Area of California.[54]
    • At least 10,000 marched in Orange County[55]
    • A riot in Vista, California was disbursed by 200 police officers.[56]
    • Local news estimates that 3,000+ people marched from Jaycee Park in Las Vegas, Nevada; some local businesses suffered but the majority of businesses felt no financial impact.[57]
    • According to LA Observed, an altercation occurred between protestors and police at MacArthur Park in Los Angeles.[58]
Immigrant rights protest at the US–Mexico border in Tijuana
    • Thousands of immigrants and their supporters did not go to work or school in Iowa[59][not in citation given] United for the Dignity and Safety of Immigrants (UDSI) (organizing group estimates)[citation needed]
  • May 2: The Minuteman Project says that 400 new members joined in April in response to the protests.[60]
  • May 3: In response to the pro-immigration reform boycott, the Minutemen started a two-vehicle caravan across the United States which reached Washington, D.C. on May 12.[61]
  • May 25: The United States Senate passes S. 2611 which includes a path to citizenship for up to 8.5 million undocumented immigrants. The bill eventually failed and was never enacted.[62]

Legislation[edit]

Main article: H.R. 4437

H.R. 4437 (The Border Protection, Anti terrorism, and Illegal Immigration Control Act of 2005) was passed by the United States House of Representatives on December 16, 2005 by a vote of 239 to 182. It is also known as the "Sensenbrenner Bill", for its sponsor in the House of Representatives, Jim Sensenbrenner. H.R. 4437 was seen by many as the catalyst for the 2006 U.S. immigration reform protests.[citation needed]

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 previously gave "amnesty" to 2.7 million undocumented immigrants. Proponents of the measure, including then-President Reagan, said the measure, paired with stricter employer rules and a better path for legal entry, would reduce illegal immigration.

The companion bill passed by the United States Senate was S. 2611, which never passed conference committee. The House Republican leadership stated that it rejected S. 2611 wholly and would only pass legislation that addressed border security. The end of the 109th Congress marked the death of this bill.

Kennedy ruling[edit]

The USA Supreme Court on June 16, 2008, ruled in Dada v. Mukasey, per ponente Justice Kennedy ruled (5–4) "that someone who is here illegally may withdraw his voluntarily agreement to depart and continue to try to get approval to remain in the United States." The Court hold that complying with a deportation order did not strip an immigrant of the right to appeal that deportation order.[63] The lawsuit is about 2 seemingly contradictory provisions of immigration law. One prevents deportation by voluntary departure from the country. The other sectition allows immigrants who are here illegally but whose circumstances changed to build their case to immigration officials, and must remain in the US. In the case, Samson Dada, a Nigerian citizen, overstayed beyond the expiration of his tourist visa in 1998. Immigration authorities ordered him to leave the country as he agreed to leave voluntarily, to allow his legal re-entry than if he had been deported.[64][65]

Organizations[edit]

The following organizations mobilized from hundreds (FAIR) to millions of people (Great American Boycott) around immigration reform in the United States during 2006.

Recruiting methods[edit]

Typically anti-illegal immigration movements focus on grassroots recruiting tactics; the Minutemen Civil Defense Corps and Minuteman Project use these methods to boost membership. After the 2006 immigration reform protest, anti-immigration movement participation increased by 600%.

Cooperation between anti-illegal immigration groups[edit]

Anti-illegal immigration groups often do not pursue the same agenda in the same ways; however, they do form coalitions when their agendas match other movements. One of the major joint efforts that these groups engage in is access to mailing lists for individuals who have donated money in the past to support the movement; Federation for American Immigration Reform and Minutemen Civil Defense Corps have shared lists of mailers with one another in recent years.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Avila, Oscar; Olivo, Antonio (March 11, 2006), "A Show of Strength: Thousands March to Loop for Immigrants' Rights", Chicago Tribune 
  2. ^ Watanabe, Teresa; Becerra, Hector (March 26, 2006), "500,000 Pack Streets to Protest Immigration Bills; The rally, part of a massive mobilization of immigrants and their supporters, may be the largest L.A. has seen.", Los Angeles Times, p. A1 
  3. ^ Updated 64 minutes ago (March 25, 2006). "500,000 rally immigration rights in L.A. - Politics". MSNBC. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  4. ^ "CNN.com – Protests precede Senate immigration battle – Mar 28, 2006". CNN. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  5. ^ Dawn Garcia, “Spanish-Language and Digital Media: A New Counterpublic Sphere In California.” Tangents The Journal of the Master of Liberal Arts Program at Stanford University Volume 8 (2009): 9.
  6. ^ a b Laura Pulido, "A Day Without Immigrants: The Racial and Class Politics of Immigrant Exclusion." Antipode 39, no. 1 (2007): 7.
  7. ^ Garcia Bedolla, Lisa (2014). Latino Politics. Malden, MA, USA: Polity Press. p. 236. ISBN 9780745664996. 
  8. ^ a b c Garcia Bedolla, Lisa (2014). Latino Politics. Malden, MA. USA: Polity Press. p. 237. ISBN 9780745664996. 
  9. ^ Garcia Bedolla, Lisa (2014). Latino Politics. Malden, MA, USA: Polity Press. p. 238. ISBN 9780745664996. 
  10. ^ Garcia Bedolla, Lisa (2014). Latino Politics. Malden, MA, USA: Polity Press. p. 239. ISBN 9780745664996. 
  11. ^ Flaccus, Gillian (March 29, 2006). "Spanish-language media credited on pro-immigrant rallies". The Boston Globe. 
  12. ^ Melissa Block, NPR-All Things Considered: "Spanish D.J. Organizes Immigration-Reform Protests" March 28, 2006
  13. ^ NPR-Day to Day: "Immigration Protests, Part 1: Spanish-Language Media" April 7, 2006
  14. ^ Dawn Garcia, “Spanish-Language and Digital Media: A New Counterpublic Sphere In California.” Tangents The Journal of the Master of Liberal Arts Program at Stanford University Volume 8 (2009): 10.
  15. ^ Leo R. Chavez, "The Immigrant Marches of 2006 and The Struggle for Inclusion," In The Latino Threat Constructing Immigrants, Citizens, and The Nation. Second ed. (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2013). 159.
  16. ^ David Ayon, “Migrant Organization and Mexican Policy” (Conference Speech, A Lehman-Cuny Sponsored Invitational Conference, Manhattan, October 20, 2006). 46.
  17. ^ a b "The foreign flag rule" by Clarence Page, The Baltimore Sun, April 14, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2006.
  18. ^ Student punished for American flag incident by Tracy Garcia, Whittier Daily News, April 1, 2006, and "The American Flag Comes Second" by Michelle Malkin, posted March 29, 2006 01:15 AM. Both accessed April 14, 2006.[dead link]
  19. ^ "Mexico says U.S. group burning Mexican flag is unacceptable" KVOA TV, Tucson, AZ, April 11, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2006. Archived September 2, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ "Protesters work to change image" by Peter Prengaman, Associated Press, Long Beach Press-Telegram, April 11, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2006.[dead link]
  21. ^ Krauthammer, Charles (April 14, 2006). "Immigrants Must Choose". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 14, 2006. 
  22. ^ Turque, Bill; Stewart, Nikita (May 3, 2006). "Labor Site Backlash Felt at Polls In Herndon". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  23. ^ Reid, T.R. (May 3, 2006). "Hill Impasse Spurs States to Tackle Illegal Immigration". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Deadly Force | Southern Poverty Law Center". Splcenter.org. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  25. ^ a b Kim Voss and Irene Bloemraad, Rallying For Immigrant Rights The Fight For Inclusion In 21st Century America (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2011). 35.
  26. ^ Kim Voss and Irene Bloemraad, Rallying For Immigrant Rights The Fight For Inclusion In 21st Century America (Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2011). x.
  27. ^ Kathy H. Rim, “Latino and Asian American Mobilization in the 2006 Immigration Protests.” Social Science Quarterly 90, No. 3 (2009): 707.
  28. ^ Juan Andrade, "Immigration and Its Impact on Latino Politics," In The Almanac of Latino Politics 2008. 5th ed. (Chicago, Illinois: United States Hispanic Leadership Institute, 2008), 57.
  29. ^ Xochitl Bada, Jonathan Fox, and Andrew Selee, eds. Invisible No More: Mexican Migrant Civic Participation in the United States. Washington, D.C.: Mexico Institute, 2006. v.
  30. ^ Yvonne Wingett and Daniel González, Immigrants protested in Valley, cities across U.S., The Arizona Republic, March 28, 2006
  31. ^ Thousands in Phoenix at Immigration Rally, National Society for Hispanic Professionals (NSHP)
  32. ^ "Stirring the Other L.A.: How the media and immigrant advocates got 500,000 people to protest". Los Angeles Weekly. March 30, 2006. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. 
  33. ^ "Columbus Rally for Immigrants' Rights, 2006-03-26". Taterenner.com. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  34. ^ "Students Walk Out in 2nd Day Of Immigration Rights Protest". WashingtonPost.com. Retrieved September 22, 2010. 
  35. ^ "Reagan HS principal resigns – Houstonist: Houston News, Food, Arts & Events". Archived from the original on August 11, 2009. Retrieved August 7, 2009. 
  36. ^ abc13.com: News from KTRK, around Houston and southeast Texas March 30, 2006[dead link]
  37. ^ "Immigration Law Protests March On". CBS. March 31, 2006. 
  38. ^ sandiego.indymedia.org |Zapatista rally & march Chicano Park
  39. ^ 50,000 throng downtown in immigrant-rights march, San Diego Union-Tribune, April 10, 2006 Archived April 4, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  40. ^ "CNN.com – Lawmakers: Immigration bill not dead – Apr 9, 2006". CNN. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  41. ^ Protestors Rally Against Immigration Changes – News Archive Story – WCVB Boston
  42. ^ "Multimedia story archive | The Post and Courier". Charleston.net. Retrieved September 22, 2010. [dead link]
  43. ^ Swarns, Rachel L. (April 11, 2006). "Immigrants Rally in Scores of Cities for Legal Status". The New York Times. Retrieved April 22, 2010. 
  44. ^ Staff writer, "Oakland Adds Voice to Growing National Debate", Oakland Tribune, April 11, 2006. Archived March 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  45. ^ Thousands march for immigration rights[dead link]
  46. ^ Carson students join nationwide protest of immigration reform | Nevada Appeal |Serving Carson City, Nevada
  47. ^ Derek Sciba (April 13, 2006). "Woodburn students march over immigration". KATU. Archived from the original on May 18, 2006. 
  48. ^ "Minutemen volunteers build fence to protest illegal immigration". The San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 4, 2009. 
  49. ^ Bush Says Anthem Should Be in English Archived May 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  50. ^ Archibold, Randal (May 2, 2006). "Immigrants Take to U.S. Streets in Show of Strength". The New York Times. p. A1. 
  51. ^ Gorman, Anna; Miller, Marjorie; Landsberg, Mitchell (May 2, 2006). "Marchers fill L.A.'s streets". Los Angeles Times. p. A1. Retrieved February 3, 2011. 
  52. ^ Modesto Rising: 10,000 Protest, Unpermitted March Lasts Hours : Indybay
  53. ^ The Global Report
  54. ^ Massive Immigrant General Strike in US, Northern California : Indybay
  55. ^ Delson, Jennifer; Reyes, David (May 2, 2006). "Santa Ana Rally Draws at Least 10,000; Many Businesses Close". Los Angeles Times. p. B1 (Orange County edition). 
  56. ^ Repard, Pauline; Davis, Kristina (May 2, 2006). "200 officers clear streets in Vista after reported riot". The San Diego Union-Tribune.
  57. ^ Aftermath of the Mayday Immigration Walk-Out Archived May 13, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  58. ^ Roderick, Kevin (May 1, 2006). "Police fighting with protesters at MacArthur Park". LA Observed.
  59. ^ Norman, Jane; de Jesus, Jose (April 1, 2006). "Iowa's future linked to fate of immigration". The Des Moines Register.
  60. ^ Vu, Thuy. "Protests May Stir Anti Immigration Backlash". San Francisco: KPIX-TV. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. 
  61. ^ Lowe, Peggy. "New voice joins minuteman caravan". Orange County Register. 
  62. ^ Longley, Robert. "Immigration Reform: Protest and Support". US Government Info. 
  63. ^ See Dada v. Mukasey, 554 U.S. 1 (2008)
  64. ^ supremecourt.gov, Dada vs. Mukasey, No 06-1181, June 16, 2008
  65. ^ ap.google.com, Top court eases rules for foreigners to try to stay in US Archived October 29, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]