2007 California wildfires

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2007 California wildfires
AERONET La Jolla.2007297.aqua.250m.jpg
NASA satellite photo (provided by NSPO, Taiwan National Space Organization) from October 24, 2007, showing the active fire zones and smoke plumes.
Statistics[1]
Total fires 9,093
Total area 1,520,362 acres (6,152.69 km2)[2]
Cost >$2.524 billion (2007 USD)[3][4][5]
Fatalities At least 17[6][7][8]
Non-fatal injuries At least 203[9][10]
Season
← 2006
2008 →

The 2007 California wildfire season saw at least 9,093 separate wildfires that charred 1,520,362 acres (6,152.69 km2) of land.[2] Thirty of those wildfires were part of the Fall 2007 California firestorm,[8] which burned approximately 972,147 acres (about 3,934 km², or 1,520 mi²) of land from Santa Barbara County to the U.S.–Mexico border.[9] At the peak of the wildfire activity in October 2007, the raging wildfires were visible from space.[11]

The wildfires killed a total of 17 people, with nine of them dying directly from the fires;[12][8] 203 others were injured, including at least 124 firefighters.[9][13]

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency in seven California counties where fires were burning.[14] President George W. Bush concurred, and ordered federal aid to supplement state and local response efforts.[15] Over 6,000 firefighters worked to fight the blazes; they were aided by units of the United States Armed Forces,[16] United States National Guard,[17] almost 3,000 prisoners convicted of non-violent crimes,[18] and 60 firefighters from the Mexican cities of Tijuana and Tecate.[19] The fires forced approximately 1,000,000 people to evacuate from their homes, becoming the largest evacuation in California's history.[20]

Major contributing factors to the extreme fire conditions were drought in Southern California, hot weather, and the unusually strong Santa Ana winds, with gusts reaching 112 mph (180 km/h).[8][21] California's "fire season," which traditionally runs from June to October, has become a year-round threat due to a mixture of perennial drought and the increasing number of homes built in canyons and on hillsides surrounded by brush and forest.[22]

The fires had numerous sources. Several were triggered by power lines damaged by the high winds.[23] [24] One fire started when a semi-truck overturned.[25] Another was suspected as having been deliberately caused; the suspect was shot and killed in flight by state authorities.[26] A 10-year-old boy admitted that he accidentally started the Buckweed Fire by playing with matches.[27] Causes of the remaining fires remain under investigation. The last active fire of the October 2007 fires, the Poomacha Fire, was fully contained on November 13, 2007, about 24 days after the series of wildfires had begun to ignite.[8][28] The October 2007 wildfires collectively caused over $1.5 billion in property damages.[4]

During the season, the National Interagency Fire Center reported that two firefighters were killed. One died in a helicopter crash, and the second was killed in a bulldozer rollover.[29]

Fires[edit]

Below is a list of all fires that exceeded 1,000 acres (4.0 km2) during the 2007 fire season.[30] The list is taken from CAL FIRE's list of large fires.

Name County Acres Km2 Start Date Contained Date Notes
241 Orange 2,036 8.2 March 11, 2007 March 13, 2007 2 structures destroyed
Sierra Riverside 1,044 4.2 March 11, 2007 March 12, 2007
Las Flores San Bernardino 4,100 16.6 March 31, 2007 April 1, 2007 1 structure destroyed
Golden Inyo 1,988 8.0 April 14, 2007 April 15, 2007
James Kern 1,350 5.5 April 29, 2007 May 5, 2007
Island Los Angeles 4,750 19.2 May 10, 2007 May 15, 2007 6 structures destroyed
Gorman Los Angeles 2,050 8.3 May 19, 2007 May 22, 2007
Shannon Tulare 2,140 8.7 June 3, 2007 June 4, 2007
Goldledge Tulare 4,196 17.0 June 3, 2007 June 28, 2007
Inkopah Imperial 1,500 6.1 June 5, 2007 June 6, 2007
Angora El Dorado 3,100 12.5 June 24, 2007 July 2, 2007 309 structures destroyed
White Kern 12,454 50.4 June 24, 2007 July 3, 2007 31 structures destroyed
Mission Monterey 2,300 9.3 June 28, 2007 June 28, 2007
Zaca Santa Barbara 240,207 972.1 July 4, 2007 September 4, 2007 1 structure destroyed
Antelope Complex Plumas 22,902 92.7 July 5, 2007 July 13, 2007 2 structures destroyed
Inyo Complex Inyo 35,176 142.4 July 6, 2007 July 16, 2007 33 structures destroyed
Rock 2 Tulare 1,005 4.1 July 6, 2007 July 7, 2007
Fletcher Modoc 8,121 32.9 July 10, 2007 July 19, 2007 11 structures destroyed
Elk Complex Siskiyou 17,684 71.6 July 10, 2007 September 15, 2007 1 firefighter fatality
China-Back Complex Siskiyou 2,906 11.8 July 13, 2007 July 21, 2007
Bangor Butte 1,057 4.3 August 7, 2007 August 7, 2007
Tar Kings 5,644 22.8 August 10, 2007 August 19, 2007
Grouse Tulare 1,022 4.1 August 27, 2007 September 8, 2007
Wallow Trinity 1,440 5.8 August 29, 2007 September 3, 2007
North Los Angeles 2,200 8.9 September 2, 2007 September 8, 2007
Lick Santa Clara 47,760 193.3 September 3, 2007 September 11, 2007 24 structures destroyed
Moonlight Plumas 64,997 263.0 September 3, 2007 September 15, 2007 21 structures destroyed
Pine San Diego 2,170 8.8 September 12, 2007 September 16, 2007
Butler 2 San Bernardino 14,039 56.8 September 14, 2007 October 1, 2007 3 structures destroyed
Ranch Los Angeles 58,401 236.3 October 20, 2007 October 30, 2007 10 structures destroyed
Canyon Los Angeles 4,521 18.3 October 21, 2007 October 27, 2007 8 structures destroyed
Sedgewick Fire Santa Barbara 710 2.9 October 21, 2007 October 30, 2007
Harris San Diego 90,440 366.0 October 21, 2007 November 5, 2007 472 structures destroyed, 1 civilian fatality
Witch San Diego 197,990 801.2 October 21, 2007 November 6, 2007 1,650 structures destroyed, 2 civilian fatalities
McCoy Fire[nb 1] San Diego 400 1.6 October 21, 2007 October 26, 2007[31] 1 structure destroyed[32]
Buckweed Los Angeles 38,356 155.2 October 21, 2007 November 1, 2007 63 structures destroyed
Santiago Orange 28,400 114.9 October 21, 2007 November 9, 2007 24 structures destroyed
Little Mountain Fire San Bernardino 650 2.6 October 22, 2007 October 24, 2007
Magic Los Angeles 2,824 11.4 October 22, 2007 October 27, 2007
Slide San Bernardino 12,759 51.6 October 22, 2007 October 31, 2007 272 structures destroyed
Rice San Diego 9,472 38.3 October 22, 2007 November 1, 2007 248 structures destroyed
Grass Valley San Bernardino 1,247 5.0 October 22, 2007 October 29, 2007 178 structures destroyed
Meadowridge Fire Los Angeles 58,401 236.3 October 23, 2007 October 30, 2007
Poomacha[nb 1] San Diego 49,410 200.0 October 23, 2007 November 13, 2007[8] 217 structures destroyed
Ammo (Horno) Fire San Diego 21,004 85.0 October 23, 2007 October 29, 2007
Jack Mariposa 1,108 4.5 October 29, 2007 December 15, 2007
Corral Los Angeles 4,901 19.8 November 24, 2007 November 27, 2007 86 structures destroyed

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b These wildfires merged into the Witch Fire.

October 2007 wildfires[edit]

Wind and weather[edit]

QuikSCAT image from 2002 showing the speed of the Santa Ana winds (m/s)

The October 2007 fires occurred at the end of a dry summer and were exacerbated by the seasonal Santa Ana winds, blowing at an abnormally high strength. The San Diego Union Tribune reported, "Santa Ana winds blowing up to 60 mph (97 km/h) combined with temperatures into the 90s to create in the worst possible fire conditions."[33] At one point, swirling winds threatened to bring fire into densely populated urban areas.[22] At the height of the Santa Ana winds on October 22, sustained wind speeds reached 90 mph (140 km/h), with wind gusts up to 112 mph (180 km/h) reported.[8]

Southern California was in the midst of an unusual drought; in Los Angeles, with only 3.21 in (82 mm) of precipitation in 2006–2007, it was the driest year on record.[34] The combination of wind, heat, and dryness turned the chaparral into fire fuel. Officials believed that some of the fires generated their own winds, similar to the Oakland Firestorm of 1991. The effects of the smoke were felt as far away as Brentwood, California (in the East Bay, near Stockton), where it impacted local weather. The high-speed Santa Ana winds also rendered the use of dropping water from fire fighting aircraft inefficient; until such winds abate, most payloads of water are just dispersed by the wind over an area so large that the water evaporates before it can reach a large fire on the ground.

A comparison of the Simi Valley skyline from October 21, 2007 (left and center) to October 22, 2007 (right)

Impact[edit]

Evacuees at evacuation site Mira Mesa High School
The remains of a home destroyed by the Witch Creek Fire

On October 21, the Harris Fire damaged and disabled the Southwest Power Link, a 500,000-volt power line from Arizona to San Diego.[35] Power outages were reported in Los Angeles, Orange, San Diego, and other counties on October 22 to 333,500 Southern California Edison customers, most being restored within 24 hours. The power outage also affected the areas of Ojai, Oxnard, Simi Valley, Santa Clarita, Thousand Oaks, Agoura Hills, Rialto, Fontana, San Bernardino, Rancho Cucamonga, Mira Loma, Hesperia, Corona, Bloomington, Irvine, Calimesa and Rubidoux. This outage also caused 230 people to be without power in Malibu.[36] The California Independent System Operator Corp declared an energy transmission emergency in southern California on October 23, due to wildfires affecting the lines. 500,000-, 230,000- and 138,000-volt lines were disabled in San Diego, and some lines in other areas were also disabled. 24,992 people lost power, due to the lack of power from the power grid.[35] During the crisis, Mexico provided power to help augment the electrical needs of the San Diego area.[37]

Authorities have stated that the evacuations, which displaced more than 900,000 people, have been the largest evacuation number in the history of California.[38] By mid-morning on October 22, 2007, thousands of evacuees were taking shelter in Qualcomm Stadium and other locations throughout San Diego.[39] On the afternoon of October 22, 2007, the Marines evacuated some planes from Marine Corps Air Station Miramar to other military bases in California and Arizona.[40] The Navy moved all non-essential personnel from Naval Base San Diego barracks onto nearby vessels to accommodate refugees.[17] The San Diego Wild Animal Park moved some animals to the on-site animal hospital for their protection.[41]

The Horno Fire had charred 6,000 acres (24 km2) in Camp Pendleton by 4:00 A.M PDT, on October 24, 2007. It caused the closure of Interstate 5 and it also caused Amtrak to stop Surfliner service between Oceanside and San Clemente.[42] Traffic was being diverted to Interstate 15, which had itself been closed earlier.[43] Illegal migrant workers were endangered by the crisis, sometimes staying at work in the fields within mandatory evacuation zones. Many had lived in the canyons nearby and distrusted officials.[44] When fleeing the fires, some were arrested, while others were turned away from shelters due to lack of adequate identification.[45] Some Mexican firefighters expressed concern about their countrymen, while others felt the migrant workers were aware of the risks they were taking.[46]

Only a few cases of looting were documented. Six people were arrested for stealing supplies from Qualcomm stadium,[47] another was arrested for theft after being found in possession of stolen goods in the Jamul fire area,[48] and two were arrested near the Tecate border crossing.[49]

Air quality and effects on health[edit]

The concentration of particulate matter 10 micrometers and smaller (designated PM10) reached unhealthy levels as a result of the fires. PM10 particles are small enough to enter deep into the lungs, and possibly the bloodstream. San Diego city attorney Michael Aguirre, citing concerns over weather conditions and air quality, urged the city to consider a voluntary evacuation of the entire city.[50]

Smoke fills the horizon in East San Diego County, October 22, 2007.

Response[edit]

At Naval Air Station North Island, a plane captain launches an MH-60S Seahawk from Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron (HSC) 85 to conduct operations in support of the California Department of Forestry's efforts in combating the San Diego wildfires.
Firefighters battle a blaze near Irvine, California.

Government agencies and volunteers worked together to mitigate the effects of the fires. According to the state of California's Consolidated Response web page, "There are 17 active fires in Southern California. The priority for fighting fires as of 19:30 on October 21 were the Buckweed, Witch, Harris, Canyon, Ranch, Santiago, and Sedgewick Fires."[51] March Air Reserve Base is the primary staging area for relief supplies as coordinated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.[17]

With many businesses and schools closed, some people used their time off to help others. Officials estimated that 10,000 people were gathered at Qualcomm Stadium, the largest shelter point in San Diego. Besides food, blankets and water, volunteers provided toys for children, massages, and a live rock and roll band performance.[52] CERT teams, in various cities, received their first activation since the program's inception in this region. Trained volunteers provided assistance ranging from coordinating relief, to acting as a fire department auxiliary.[53][54] Religious groups such as Victim Relief Ministries, Giving Children Hope, Hope Force International, Apostolic World Relief, and the Salvation Army responded by opening places of worship, donating supplies, and feeding workers and evacuees.[55][56]

The Department of Defense contributed twelve engines for firefighting efforts. The National Guard called more than 2,400 troops,[57] with 17,000 available if needed; of which 100 California National Guard medical personnel provided medical assistance.[17] Six crews from the Navy's Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron 85 based at Naval Air Station North Island were assigned to battle the Witch Creek fire. They flew MH-60 Seahawk helicopters equipped with a 420-gallon water bucket and they were the only local Navy teams trained to fight fires from the air. Marine Corps Air Station Miramar contributed several aircraft as well as fire fighting trucks to operations based in Ramona.[16] One of the larger airtankers, the Martin Mars, sent through a private contract from its home in Port Alberni, British Columbia on October 25, landing on Lake Elsinore in Riverside County, California. It has a 7,000 gallon capacity. Two other airtankers and their crews from Quebec worked on the fires, part of an annual three-month contract with the state of California.[58]

California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger declared a state of emergency in seven California counties where fires burned. President George W. Bush concurred[15] and visited the region on Thursday, October 25, 2007.[59][60]

Rep. Duncan Hunter criticized state fire officials for delaying the use of Marine helicopters until CalFire spotters were in position to coordinate their efforts. However, California Fire Marshal Kate Dargan said that the Marines and officials at CalFire were following procedures worked out with the military after serious problems with air coordination during the 2003 California wildfires. Other state officials also praised the federal response. Aaron McLear, a spokesman for Schwarzenegger, said the governor "is getting everything he needs from the federal government".[61]

NBC Nightly News reported that with the evacuations reaching about 950,000 people, this was the largest peacetime movement of Americans since the Civil War era,[62] although similar evacuation figures were cited for Hurricane Rita[63] and Hurricane Katrina.[64]

Cots prepared for potential evacuees

On November 6, 2007, the state of California reported that the fires were under control. On November 9, the last vole of wildfires were finally contained. According to the state's consolidated report on the fires, Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger "called on the Blue Ribbon Task Force to assess the next steps to take at federal, state and local levels of government to prevent and fight future fires. Additionally, the Governor asked the task force to review the Governor’s Blue Ribbon Fire Commission’s recommendations, generated after the 2003 fires, to evaluate if the recommendations are still the best and most effective ways in preventing and fighting fires."[65]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "National Report of Wildland Fires and Acres Burned by State 2007" (PDF). National Interagency Fire Center. Retrieved 2 October 2015. 
  2. ^ a b "California Wildfires and Acres for all Jurisdictions (1987-2016)" (PDF). CalFire. August 1, 2017. Retrieved December 12, 2017. 
  3. ^ Dr. Tomas Girnius; Tyler Hauteniemi; Scott Stransky (August 2008). "California Wildfire: How Large Can The Losses Be?" (PDF). AIRCurrents. Retrieved December 11, 2017. 
  4. ^ a b Walker F. Ekard (February 2008). "2007 San Diego County Firestorms After Action Report" (PDF). County of San Diego. Retrieved 13 November 2017. 
  5. ^ "CAL FIRE 2007 Wildland Fire Summary" (PDF). CalFire. September 2011. Retrieved December 11, 2017. 
  6. ^ Christine Hanley, Janet Wilson and Mitchell Landsberg (October 24, 2007). "1,155 homes -- and counting". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  7. ^ Elliot Spagat (October 25, 2007). "2 burned bodies are found in Calif". Yahoo! News. Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g "California Fire Siege 2007: An Overview" (PDF). Fire.ca.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-19. 
  9. ^ a b c "Archived Fires 2007". cdfdata.fire.ca.gov. Retrieved 2015-08-21. 
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  11. ^ "California Fires Rage, Visible in Space". National Geographic. 2007-10-23. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  12. ^ "Firestorm Claims 9th Victim". NBCSandiego.com. KNSD. November 8, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-12-02. Retrieved 2007-11-09. 
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  14. ^ Archibold, Randal C. (2007-10-23). "Residents Flee Wildfires in S. California". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  15. ^ a b "Statement on Federal Disaster Assistance for California" (Press release). The White House. 2007-10-23. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  16. ^ a b "Six Navy copter crews helping fight wildfires". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. October 22, 2007. Archived from the original on June 13, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  17. ^ a b c d "Military helps fight fires while personnel evacuated". CNN.com. October 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  18. ^ "California turns to prisoners to fight huge fires". reuters.com. Reuters News Service. October 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  19. ^ "Mexican firefighters helping in California return to Mexico to fight blaze". signonsandiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. October 23, 2007. Archived from the original on October 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  20. ^ McLean, Demian; Peter J. Brennan (October 24, 2007). "California Fires Rout Almost 1 Million People, Kill 5 (Update7)". Bloomberg. 
  21. ^ Chang, Alicia (2007-10-22). "Southern California wildfires blamed on unusual Santa Ana winds". KOLO-TV. Archived from the original on 2014-06-13. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  22. ^ a b Adams, Guy (2008-11-17). "50,000 flee homes as fires rage in California". The Independent. London. Retrieved 2009-05-06. 
  23. ^ "Firefighters Protect Homes In Foothill Ranch". KNBC. 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  24. ^ "Power lines cited as cause of largest wildfires". SAN DIEGO UNION-TRIBUNE. 2007-11-16. Archived from the original on 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2007-11-16. 
  25. ^ Stephen Wall; Gina Tenorio; Jannise Johnson. "Fontana homes evacuated, freeways closed". DailyBulletin.com. Archived from the original on 2008-03-24. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  26. ^ Attewill, Fred (October 25, 2007). "California police shoot dead suspected arsonist". Guardian. London. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  27. ^ Daisy Nguyen (2007-10-30). "Boy with matches started fire that burned 21 homes". Long Beach Press-Telegram. Retrieved 2007-10-31. 
  28. ^ "Late October, 2007 California Wildfire Web Pages". FIRESCOPE: FIrefighting RESources of California Organized for Potential Emergencies. 2007-11-09. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  29. ^ "Wildland Fire Accidents and Fatalities by Year" (PDF). National Interagency Fire Center. Retrieved 28 August 2015. 
  30. ^ "Large Fires 2007" (PDF). CAL FIRE. Retrieved 21 August 2015. 
  31. ^ Chip Prather (March 28, 2008). "After Action Report Santiago Fire: October 21 - November 9, 2007" (PDF). Orange County Fire Authority. Retrieved November 8, 2017. 
  32. ^ "Fire Crews Surround McCoy Fire". 10news.com. October 23, 2007. Retrieved November 7, 2017. 
  33. ^ McDonald, Jeff and Janine Zuniga and Kristina Davis (October 22, 2007). "County asks for 1,000 more firefighters". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  34. ^ Kahn, Carrie (July 6, 2007). "NPR: Water Flows in Los Angeles Despite Drought". Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  35. ^ a b "Fires wreak havoc on region's electricity supply". Jeran Wittenstein. San Diego Daily Transcript. October 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-26. 
  36. ^ "SoCal Crews Respond To 'Fire After Fire'". KNBC. KNBC.com. October 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  37. ^ "From far and wide, helpers pour into a fire-stricken San Diego". scmonitor.com. The Christian Science Monitor. October 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  38. ^ Reza, H.G.; Leovy, Jill; Pham, Alex (October 23, 2007). "Scale of the fires' disruption on display at San Diego stadium". LATimes.com. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  39. ^ H.G. Reza, Jill Leovy and Alex Pham (October 24, 2007). "Scale of the fires' disruption on display at San Diego stadium". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  40. ^ "Miramar evacuating some aircraft". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. October 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  41. ^ Martinez, Angelica and Greg Gros (October 22, 2007). "Witch fire roars west across Rancho Bernardo and Poway". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  42. ^ "Camp Pendleton fire spread to 6,000 acres (24 km2)". The San Diego Union-Tribune. October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  43. ^ "Traffic diverting to north I-15". The San Diego Union-Tribune. October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  44. ^ Amy Isackson (October 25, 2007). "Fires Highlight Safety Needs of Migrant Workers". npr.org. National Public Radio. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  45. ^ "Immigrants Step Out of the Smoke". kcbs.com. KCBS All News Radio 740 AM. October 27, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  46. ^ Ari B. Bloomekatz (October 27, 2007). "Mexican fire crew joins the fight". latimes.org. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  47. ^ "Illegal immigrants suspected of stealing supplies". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  48. ^ "Another looting arrest". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  49. ^ "Two looting arrests in Tecate". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. October 24, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  50. ^ Vigil, Jennifer (October 24, 2007). "Aguirre wants San Diego evacuated in wake of wildfires". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  51. ^ "Southern California Fire Report". CalFires.com. State of California. October 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  52. ^ "Surveyor makes order out of chaos for evacuees". The San Diego Union-Tribune. October 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  53. ^ Kelly Strodl (October 25, 2007). "Daily Pilot". Daily Pilot. Retrieved 2014-02-07. 
  54. ^ "Emergency volunteers' debut lauded". Metro News. San Diego Union Tribune. 2007-11-26. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  55. ^ "Faith community reaches out to fire victims". The Kansas City Star. 26 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. [dead link]
  56. ^ "Religious Group Offers Gentle Comfort to Wildfire Victims". foxnews.com. Fox Network. 28 October 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-28. 
  57. ^ LTC Jon Seipmann (2007-10-25). "Press Release 10-17". California National Guard. State of California. Archived from the original on 2009-05-14. Retrieved 2009-05-12. 
  58. ^ "Privately owned B.C. water bomber flying to fight California fires". cbc.ca. CBC News. October 23, 2007. Archived from the original on June 13, 2014. Retrieved 2014-06-12. 
  59. ^ "Fire damage severe, but worst may be over". The San Diego Union-Tribune. October 23, 2007. 
  60. ^ "Bush promises aid for victims of California fires". Associated Press. October 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  61. ^ "Did the state delay Marine copters?". SignOnSanDiego.com. San Diego Union Tribune. October 23, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-23. 
  62. ^ "USNews.com Political Bulletin". US News and World Report. 2007-10-24. Archived from the original on 2008-04-02. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  63. ^ "Hurricane Rita Information". Texas Online. State of Texas. Retrieved 2007-10-24. 
  64. ^ "New Orleans braces for monster hurricane". CNN. August 29, 2005. 
  65. ^ "Governor Calls on Blue Ribbon Task Force to Review State Fire Response". State of California. November 6, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-06. 

External links[edit]

Maps[edit]

Academics and research[edit]