2008 Constitution of Ecuador
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The Constitution of Ecuador is the supreme law of Ecuador. The current constitution has been in place since 2008. It is the country's 20th constitution.
Following his election as President of Ecuador, Rafael Correa called for a referendum on establishing a Constituent Assembly to write a new constitution for the country, which was held on April 15, 2007 and passed with over 80.0% approval. The elections for the Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly were held on September 30, 2007. With 74 seats, Rafael Correa's political party, PAIS Alliance, won the majority of the 130 available seats. The assembly first convened on November 29, 2007 in Montecristi, and was given six months to write a new constitution, with a possible two-month extension. In late July, 2008, the assembly approved a draft constitution consisting of 494 articles.
When Ecuador began the process of writing a new constitution, they received help from the Community Environmental Legal Defense Fund to draft environmental laws giving nature and ecosystems rights.
The Constitution was approved by the electorate in the constitutional referendum in September 2008 by 63.93% to 28.10%.
The Constitution is the first in the world to recognize legally enforceable Rights of Nature, or ecosystem rights. Article 71-74 prohibits the extraction of non-renewable resources in protected areas. Moreover, the production of monocultures will be avoided for reforestation and rehabilitation of the soil. The state will also protect the intellectual property of collective work based on national biodiversity and begin to recognize the Rights of Nature.
The Constitution prohibits Ecuador from yielding jurisdiction over private trade or contract disputes to external organizations. As a result, Ecuador was forced to withdraw from the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).
Article 281, labelled Food Sovereignty, reads: "Food Sovereignty constitutes an objective and strategic obligation from the State to guarantee its people, communities, pueblos and nationalities self sufficiency in healthy food, culturally appropriate in a permanent form." This entails the following state responsibilities:
- Incite production, transformation of the agro-food and fishery of small to medium size units of production, communities and social and solidarity economies.
- Adopt fiscal politics, tributaries and tariffs to protect the ago-food sector and national fishery to avoid dependency on food imports.
- Strengthen diversification and the introduction of ecological and organic technologies in the production of agriculture.
- Promote redistributive politics to permit access to farmers to soil, water and other productive resources.
- Establish preferential financial mechanisms for small and medium producers, facilitating the acquisition of the means of production.
- Promote the preservation and rehabilitation of agro biodiversity linked to ancestral knowledge; likewise its use, conservation and free seed exchange.
- Ensure that animals destined for human consumption are healthy and raised in sound environments.
- Assure the development of scientific investigation and innovative technologies are appropriate to guarantee food sovereignty.
- Regulate under bio-security standards the use and development of biotechnology, including experimentation and commercial use.
- Strengthen the development of organizations and networks of producers and consumers and the commercialization and distribution of food to promote equity within rural and urban spaces.
- Generate just and solidarity systems of distribution and commercialization of food. Impede monopolistic practices and any type of speculation with food products.
- Supply food to the victims of anthropogenic or natural disasters in risk of accessing food. International food donations should not affect health or future production of local food.
- Prevent and protect the population from consuming contaminated food or places their health in risk or if science has uncertainties of its effects.
- Acquire food and primary materials for social and food programs, prioritizing in associative networks of small producers.
Article 15 protects agricultural, wild and genetic biodiversity by prohibiting genetically modified seeds and crops. The President and the National assembly can introduce exceptions, but genetic modification are not allowed if its intervenes with food sovereignty.
According to the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador in its Article 364 the Ecuadorian state does not see drug consumption as a crime but only as a health concern. Since June 2013 the State drugs regulatory office CONSEP has published a table which establishes maximum quantities carried by persons so as to be considered in legal possession and that person as not a seller of drugs.
Recognition of same-sex relationships
Article 67 of the Ecuadorian Constitution adopted in 2009 limits marriage to the union of a man and a woman. However, according to an unofficial English language translation of Article 68 the article provides that same-sex couples in stable and monogamous unions enjoy the same rights and obligations of married couples.
The stable and monogamous union between two persons without any other marriage ties who have a common-law home, for the lapse of time and under the conditions and circumstances provided for by law, shall enjoy the same rights and obligations of those families bound by formal marriage ties.[Note 1]
Recognition of sexual orientation and Gender Identity
Article 11, paragraph two of the Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador reaffirmed as a fundamental right to sexual orientation and included for the first time and even globally Gender Identity. Until 2008 no constitution in the world recognized gender identity.
- 1830 Constitution of Ecuador
- Ecuadorian Constituent Assembly
- Constitutional law
- Constitutional economics
- Case No. 111-97-TC (1997), is a landmark decision by the Constitutional Tribunal of Ecuador on November 25, 1997, regarding the country's sodomy laws.
- Recognition of same-sex unions in Ecuador, (2009), Civil unions for same-sex couples were legalized by the approval of the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador.
- Legal Precedent (2009), Right to change legal names female to male and vice versa for people transgender and intersex by the approval of the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador.
- In Spanish, the official version of Article 68 reads as follows:
La unión estable y monogámica entre dos personas libres de vínculo matrimonial que formen un hogar de hecho, por el lapso y bajo las condiciones y circunstancias que señale la ley, generará los mismos derechos y obligaciones que tienen las familias constituidas mediante matrimonio. Article 68, Constitución de la República del Ecuador
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- Pena, Karla (2008) "Putting Food First in the Constitution of Ecuador," Food First Institute for Food & Development Policy, https://www.foodfirst.org/en/node/2301, (updated 31 October 2008, accessed 21 May 2008).
- Tawil, Guido Santiago (2011). On the Internationalization of Administrative Contracts, Arbitration and the Calvo Doctrine. Arbitration Advocay in Changing Times 15. Kluwer Law International. pp. 345–346.
- Olivier de Schutter (2010) "Countries tackling hunger with a right to food approach. Significant progress in implementing the right to food at national scale in Africa, Latin America and South Asia" United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food, Briefing Note 01, 14 May 2010. <www.srfood.org/images/stories/pdf/otherdocuments/20100514_briefing-note-01_en.pdf> Downloaded 3 May 2012
- ""La nueva tabla para consumo de drogas es una guía para jueces" in El Telegrafo". Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- "Dosis máximas de droga para consumo ya están vigentes" at El Comercio.com. Accessed 2013-06-24. Archived 2013-07-05.
- "Voters in Ecuador Approve Constitution", Washington Post, reported by Joshua Partlow and Stephan Küffner, 29 September 2008
- Constitution of the Republic of Ecuador, Political Database of the Americas, 31 January 2011
- (Spanish) "Apoyo al matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo en América Latina", Perspectivas desde el Barómetro de las Américas, authored by Germán Lodola and Margarita Corral, 2010 (No. 44), retrieved 23 January 2013. Archived 2013-07-05.
- ""Ecuador Approves New Constitution Including Same-Sex Civil Unions", Towleroad, posted by Andy Towle, 30 September 2008, retrieved 23 January 2013". Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2013-06-24.
- (Spanish) "Ecuador un estado constitucional de Derechos", retrieved 23 January 2013