2008 in spaceflight

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2008 in spaceflight
Iss016e034176.jpg
The first Automated Transfer Vehicle, Jules Verne approaches the ISS
Orbital launches
First15 January
Last25 December
Total69
Successes66
Failures2
Partial failures1
Catalogued67
National firsts
Satellite Venezuela
 Vietnam
Space traveller South Korea
Rockets
Maiden flightsAriane 5ES
Long March 3C
PSLV-XL
Safir
Zenit-3SLB
RetirementsH-IIA 2024
Crewed flights
Orbital7
Total travellers37

The year 2008 contained several significant events in spaceflight, including the first flyby of Mercury by a spacecraft since 1975, the discovery of water ice on Mars by the Phoenix spacecraft, which landed in May, the first Chinese spacewalk in September, and the launch of the first Indian Lunar probe in October.

Overview[edit]

The internationally accepted definition of a spaceflight is any flight which crosses the Kármán line, 100 kilometres above sea level. The first recorded spaceflight launch of the year occurred on 11 January, when a Black Brant was launched on a suborbital trajectory from White Sands, with the LIDOS ultraviolet astronomy payload.[1] This was followed by the first orbital launch of the year on 15 January, by a Sea Launch Zenit-3SL, with the Thuraya 3 communications satellite.[2] The launch marked the return to flight for Sea Launch following the explosion of a Zenit-3SL on the launch pad the previous January during an attempt to launch the NSS-8 satellite.

The fourth Falcon 1 launches with RatSat

Five carrier rockets made their maiden flights in 2008; the Ariane 5ES, Long March 3C, Zenit-3SLB, PSLV-XL, and the operational version of the Falcon 1, with an uprated Merlin-1C engine.[3] These were all derived from existing systems. The Blue Sparrow and Sejjil missiles also conducted their maiden flights, and the ATK Launch Vehicle made its only flight, but was destroyed by range safety after it went off course. In November, the baseline Proton-M was retired in favour of the Enhanced variant, first launched in 2007.

The first Vietnamese and Venezuelan satellites, Vinasat-1 and Venesat-1 respectively, were launched in 2008, while a failed Iranian launch was reported to have been that country's first indigenous orbital launch attempt. In September, SpaceX conducted the first successful orbital launch of a privately developed and funded liquid-fuelled carrier rocket, when the fourth Falcon 1 launched RatSat, following previous failures in 2006, 2007, and August.

Space exploration[edit]

The discovery of water ice on Mars

India launched its first Lunar probe, Chandraayan-1, on 22 October, with the spacecraft entering selenocentric orbit on 8 November. On 16 November, the Moon Impact Probe was released, and crashed into the Lunar surface. Although no other spacecraft were launched beyond geocentric orbit in 2008, several significant events occurred in interplanetary flights which had been launched in previous years. MESSENGER conducted flybys of Mercury in January and October, the first spacecraft to do so since Mariner 10 in 1975. Cassini continued to make flybys of the moons of Saturn, including several close passes of Enceladus, one at a distance of 25 kilometres.[4] In September Rosetta flew past the asteroid 2867 Šteins. On 25 May, the Phoenix spacecraft landed in the Green Valley on Mars, where it discovered water ice.[5] Phoenix exceeded its design life of 90 days, finally failing on 10 November. The Ulysses spacecraft, launched in 1990, was also retired in 2008.[6]

Crewed spaceflight[edit]

Seven crewed flights were launched in 2008, one by China, two by Russia and four by the United States. In April, Yi So-yeon became the first South Korean to fly in space, aboard Soyuz TMA-12. On the same flight, Sergey Volkov became the first second-generation cosmonaut. Yi returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-11, which nearly ended in disaster following a separation failure between the descent and service modules, resulting in a ballistic reentry.[7] In September, China conducted its third crewed mission, Shenzhou 7, from which Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming conducted the first Chinese spacewalk.[8] Soyuz TMA-13, launched in October, was the hundredth flight of the Soyuz programme to carry a crew at some point in its mission.[9]

Assembly of the International Space Station continued, with the delivery of the Columbus module by Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-122 in February. March saw the launch of the Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle, an uncrewed European spacecraft which was used to resupply the space station. Also in March, Space Shuttle Endeavour launched on STS-123 with the first component of the Japanese Experiment Module, the Experiment Logistics Module. STS-123 marked the final flight of the Spacelab programme, with a SpaceLab pallet used to carry the Canadian-built Dextre RMS extension. The second JEM component, the main pressurised module, was launched by STS-124, flown by Discovery in May. In November, Endeavour launched on the STS-126 logistics flight, with the Leonardo MPLM.

Launch failures[edit]

On 14 March, a Proton-M with a Briz-M upper stage launched AMC-14. Several hours later, on 15 March, the Briz-M engine cut off prematurely during a burn,[10] leaving the satellite in a medium Earth orbit. Following a small legal dispute,[11] the satellite was sold, and raised to a geosynchronous orbit by its manoeuvring thrusters, at the expense of a large amount of its fuel and hence operational life.[citation needed]

On 3 August, SpaceX launched the third Falcon 1. Due to residual thrust caused by the upgraded Merlin-1C engine which was being flown for the first time, the first stage recontacted the second during staging, resulting in the rocket failing to reach orbit. The Trailblazer, PreSat and NanoSail-D satellites were lost in the failure, as was a space burial capsule, containing the remains of several hundred people, including astronaut Gordon Cooper, actor James Doohan, writer and director John Meredyth Lucas and Apollo mission planner Mareta West.[12]

On 16 August, Iran launched a Safir, which though officially successful, was reported to have failed due to a second stage malfunction. The purpose of this launch is in doubt, as before the launch it was claimed that it would place the Omid into orbit, whilst following the launch, it was reported that a boilerplate payload had been launched.[13] Other reports indicated that the launch was only a suborbital test of the rocket.[14] If this was an orbital launch attempt, it was the first Iranian attempt to launch a satellite.

On 22 August, the inaugural launch of the Alliant Techsystems ALV X-1 was terminated 27 seconds after launch from Wallops Flight Facility when it veered off course. Both hypersonic physics experiments on board were destroyed.[15]

Summary of launches[edit]

The ATK Launch Vehicle, launched on a suborbital flight in August

In total, sixty nine orbital launches were made in 2008, with sixty seven reaching orbit, and two outright failures if the Iranian launch in August is counted.[3] This is an increase of one orbital launch attempt on 2007, with two more launches reaching orbit, which continues a trend of increasing launch rates seen since 2006. The final launch of the year was conducted on 25 December, by a Proton-M with three GLONASS navigation satellites for the Russian government.

Launch of an SM-3 missile to destroy USA-193

Suborbital spaceflight in 2008 saw a number of sounding rocket and missile launches. On 21 February, a RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 was used as an anti-satellite weapon to destroy the USA-193 satellite. USA-193 was a US spy satellite which had failed immediately after launch in 2006.[16][17]

By country[edit]

China conducted twelve orbital launches of a planned fifteen. Europe had intended to conduct seven launches of Ariane 5 rockets, and the maiden flight of the Vega rocket, however payload delays pushed one of the Arianes into 2009, and the Vega was delayed due to development issues. India had originally scheduled five to seven launches, however only three of these were conducted, mostly due to delays with the launch of Chandraayan-1. Japan scheduled three launches for 2008, of which one was launched; an H-IIA with WINDS in February. Russia and the former Soviet Union conducted twenty six launches, not including the international Sea and Land launch programmes, which conducted six. Fourteen launches were conducted by the United States, which had originally announced plans to launch many more, however technical issues with several rockets, particularly the Atlas V, Delta II and Falcon 1, caused a number of delays. The Atlas problems, combined with a series of delays to the launch of NRO L-26 on a Delta IV, resulted in just two of ten planned EELV launches being conducted.[3][18] Two of six planned Space Shuttle launches were also delayed to 2009, one due to problems with External Tank delivery, and another due to a major systems failure on the Hubble Space Telescope, which it was to have serviced. Israel was not reported to have scheduled, or conducted an orbital launch attempt.

List of launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Flight number Launch site LSP
Payload
(⚀ = CubeSat)
Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

11 January
05:32[1]
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States LIDOS JHU Suborbital UV Astronomy 05:42 Successful
Apogee: 315 kilometres (196 mi)
15 January
11:49[2]
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
United States Thuraya 3 Thuraya Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
17 January[19] Israel Jericho III Israel Palmachim Israel Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Missile test 17 January Successful
18 January
07:30[20]
Canada Black Brant XII Norway Andøya United States NASA
United States SCIFER-2 Cornell/Dartmouth Suborbital Ionospheric research 18 January Successful
Apogee: 1,460 kilometres (910 mi)
21 January
03:45[2]
India PSLV-CA India Satish Dhawan FLP India ISRO
Israel TecSAR (Polaris) IAI Low Earth Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
25 January[21] Pakistan Shaheen-I Pakistan Sonmiani Pakistan Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army Suborbital Missile test 25 January Successful
28 January
00:18[2]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia Roskosmos
Russia Ekspress AM-33 RSCC Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
31 January
19:14[22]
Brazil United States VS-30-Orion Norway Andøya Germany Norway DLR/Andøya
United Kingdom HotPay-2 University of Leeds Suborbital Ionospheric research 31 January Successful
Apogee: 380.6 kilometres (236.5 mi)

February[edit]

4 February[23] Iran Safir Iran Semnan Iran ISA
Iran Kavoshgar-1 ISA Suborbital Test flight 4 February Successful
5 February
13:02:54[2]
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-63 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 7 April
11:50[24]
Successful
ISS flight 28P
6 February
09:14:40[25]
Japan S-310 Japan Uchinoura Japan JAXA
JAXA Suborbital Ionospheric research 6 February Successful
7 February
11:30[26]
Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Germany Europe DLR / ESA
Germany Europe TEXUS-44 DLR / ESA Suborbital Microgravity 7 February Successful
Apogee: 264 kilometres (164 mi)
7 February
19:45:30[2]
United States Space Shuttle Atlantis United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-122 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 20 February
14:07:10[27]
Successful
United Nations Columbus ESA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly In orbit Operational
Crewed flight with seven astronauts
11 February
11:34[2]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
Norway Thor-5 Telenor Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
21 February
03:26[28]
United States RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 United States USS Lake Erie United States U.S. Navy / MDA
United States ASAT MDA Suborbital Satellite intercept 03:29[28] Successful
Destroyed USA-193 satellite[16]
21 February
06:15[26]
Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Germany Europe DLR / ESA
Germany Europe TEXUS-45 DLR / ESA Suborbital Microgravity 21 February Successful
23 February
08:55[2]
Japan H-IIA 2024 Japan Tanegashima LA-Y Japan Mitsubishi
Japan WINDS (Kizuna) JAXA / NICT Geosynchronous Communications
Technology
In orbit Successful[29]
26 February
07:28[30]
India K-15 Sagarika India INS Kalinga India Indian Navy
Indian Navy Suborbital Missile test 26 February Successful

March[edit]

9 March
04:03:07[2]
Europe Ariane 5ES France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
EuropeJules Verne ATV ESA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 29 September
13:31
Successful
Maiden flight of Ariane 5ES and ATV
11 March
06:28:14[2]
United States Space Shuttle Endeavour United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-123 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 27 March
00:39:08[32]
Successful
United States Spacelab MD002[31] NASA Low Earth (STS/ISS) ISS logistics Successful
United Nations JEM ELM-PF JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly In orbit Operational
United Nations Dextre (SPDM) MDA Corporation Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly In orbit Operational
Crewed flight with seven astronauts
Final flight of Spacelab programme, pallet used to transport Dextre[31]
13 March
10:02[2]
United States Atlas V 411 United States Vandenberg SLC-3E United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-200 (Improved Trumpet)[33] NRO Molniya[33] ELINT[33] In orbit Operational
NRO Launch 28, first Atlas V launch from Vandenberg
14 March
23:18:55[2][37]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
United States AMC-14 SES Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Partial launch failure[3]
Upper stage malfunction during second burn left spacecraft in wrong orbit[10][34]
Initial recovery attempted but abandoned due to legal issues.[11][35] Later sold and recovery efforts restarted.[36]
15 March
06:10[38]
United States Delta II 7925-9.5 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-17A United States United Launch Alliance
United States USA-201 (GPS IIR-19/M6)[39] US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
80th consecutive successful Delta II launch.[38]
19 March
22:47:59[40]
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
United States DirecTV-11 DirecTV Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
23 March
04:45[41]
India Agni 1 India Integrated Test Range LC-4[41] India Indian Army
SFC / DRDO Suborbital Missile test 23 March Successful
27 March
17:15[42]
Russia Kosmos-3M Russia Plesetsk Site 132/1 Russia Germany COSMOS International
Germany SAR-Lupe 4 Bundeswehr Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
28 March Brazil VSB-30 Norway Andøya Norway Andøya
Norway Mini-DUSTY 14 Andøya Suborbital Ionospheric research 28 March Successful

April[edit]

2 April
08:01[43]
United States LGM-30G Minuteman III United States Vandenberg LF-09 United States U.S. Air Force
United StatesGT-196GM U.S. Air Force Suborbital Missile test 2 April Successful
Travelled 6,759 kilometres (4,200 mi) downrange[43]
8 April
11:16:39[24][45]
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz TMA-12 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 17[45] 24 October
03:37[46]
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts, including first South Korean in space[24] and first second-generation cosmonaut[44]
Docked on 10 April at 12:57 GMT[45]
14 April
16:58[47]
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
United States SEE UCB LASP Suborbital UV Astronomy[48] 17:08[47] Successful
14 April
20:12:00[49]
United States Atlas V 421 United States Cape Canaveral SLC-41 United States United Launch Alliance
United States ICO G1 ICO Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Heaviest single commercial satellite to be placed in GSO.
Heaviest satellite to be launched by an Atlas rocket.[49]
15 April Israel Blue Sparrow Israel F-15 Eagle, Israel Israel Israeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Test flight 15 April Successful
Maiden flight of Blue Sparrow.
16 April
17:01[50]
United States Pegasus-XL Marshall Islands United StatesStargazer, Kwajalein Atoll United States Orbital Sciences
United States C/NOFS STP/NASA Low Earth Electrodynamics 28 November 2015 Successful
18 April
22:17[51]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Vietnam Vinasat-1 VNPT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Brazil Star One C2 Star One Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
First Vietnamese satellite
19 April[52][53] Pakistan Shaheen-II Pakistan Sonmiani Pakistan Pakistan Army[54]
Pakistan Army[54] Suborbital Missile test 19 April Successful
21 April[55] Pakistan Shaheen-II Pakistan Sonmiani Pakistan Pakistan Army
Pakistan Army Suborbital Missile test 21 April Successful
25 April
15:35[56]
China Long March 3C China Xichang LA-2 China CNSA
China Tianlian I-01 CNSA Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Long March 3C
26 April
22:16:02[57]
Russia Soyuz-FG / Fregat Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 31/6 Europe Russia Starsem
Europe GIOVE-B ESA Medium Earth Navigation
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational
28 April
03:53:51[59][60]
India PSLV-C India Satish Dhawan SLP India ISRO
India Cartosat-2A[61] ISRO Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
India TWSAT[61] ISRO Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
Canada CanX-2[62] UTIAS Low Earth Technology demonstration[62] In orbit Operational
Japan Cute-1.7+APD II[63] Tokodai Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Netherlands Delfi-C3[64] Delft Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Denmark AAUSAT-II[65] Aalborg Low Earth Radiation[65] In orbit Operational
Germany COMPASS-1[66] Aachen Low Earth Earth observation
Technology demonstration
In orbit Operational
Japan SEEDS-2[67] Nihon Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Canada CanX-6[68] UTIAS/COM DEV Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
Germany RUBIN-8[69] OHB System Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
All payloads except CartoSat, TWSAT and RUBIN were CubeSats, launched under designation NSL-4, except CanX-6 which was NSL-5.[58]
RUBIN-8 intentionally remained attached to upper stage
28 April
05:00[71]
Ukraine Zenit-3SLB Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 45/1 United Nations Land Launch
Israel AMOS-3 (AMOS-60) SCL Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
First Land Launch flight and maiden flight of Zenit-3SLB.
Reached incorrect orbit due to carrier rocket underperformance.[70] Corrected by satellite through use of spare fuel, without affecting operational life.

May[edit]

1 May
05:30[72][73]
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
JHU Suborbital UV Astronomy 05:40 Successful
7 May
04:26[74][75]
India Agni-III IndiaIntegrated Test Range LC-4 IndiaIndian Army
SFC/DRDO Suborbital Missile test 04:41 Successful
8 May United States UGM-133 Trident II United States USS Nebraska United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test 8 May Successful
8 May United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesUSS Nebraska United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test 8 May Successful
14 May
20:22:54[76][77]
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-64 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 8 September[78] Successful
ISS flight 29P
15 May
04:00[80][81][79]
Brazil VSB-30 Sweden Esrange Sweden Germany SSC/DLR
Sweden Europe MASER-11 SSC/ESA Suborbital Microgravity 15 May Successful[79]
Apogee: 252 kilometres (157 mi)[79]
21 May
09:43[82]
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
United Nations Galaxy 18 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
22 May
10:04[84][85]
United States LGM-30G Minuteman III United States Vandenberg LF-10 United States U.S. Air Force
United States GT-197GM U.S. Air Force/NNSA[84] Suborbital Missile test 22 May Successful
Long range test[83]
23 May
05:00[86]
India Prithvi IndiaIntegrated Test Range India Indian Army
Indian Army[86] Suborbital Missile test 23 May Successful
User test[86]
23 May
15:20:09[87]
Russia Rokot / Briz-KM Russia Plesetsk Site 133/3[71] Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2437 (Rodnik)[88] VKS Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2438 (Rodnik)[88] VKS Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2439 (Rodnik)[88] VKS Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational
Russia Yubeleiny NPO PM[89] Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
27 May
03:02[90]
China Long March 4C China Taiyuan LC-1 China CASC
China Fengyun 3A CMA Sun-synchronous Weather[91] In orbit Operational
29 May China Tszyuylan-2 China P629 Submarine, Yellow Sea China PLAN
PLAN Suborbital Missile test 29 May Successful
31 May
21:02:12[92][93]
United States Space Shuttle Discovery United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-124 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 14 June
15:15[94]
Successful
United Nations JEM-PM JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly In orbit Operational
Crewed flight with seven astronauts

June[edit]

5 June
18:13
United States TR-SRBM United States USS Tripoli, Kauai United States U.S. Navy / MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target 5 June Successful
Destroyed after re-entry by endoatmospheric SM-2 missile launch
9 June
12:15[95]
China Long March 3B[96] China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China Chinasat 9[97] CNPT Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
11 June
16:05[98]
United States Delta II 7920H-10C United States Cape Canaveral SLC-17B United States United Launch Alliance
United States FGST[99] (GLAST)[100] NASA Low Earth Gamma-ray astronomy In orbit Operational
12 June
22:05:02[101]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
United Kingdom Skynet 5C MoD Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Turkey Turksat 3A Turksat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
13 June United States MRT United States Barking Sands United States U.S. Navy / MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target 13 June Successful
Used for simulated test, not intercepted
13 June United States MRT United States Barking Sands United States U.S. Navy / MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target 13 June Successful
Used for simulated test, not intercepted
19 June
06:36
[103][104]
Russia Kosmos-3M Russia Kapustin Yar Site 107 Russia Germany COSMOS International
United States Orbcomm CDS-3 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
United States Orbcomm QL-1 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational[105]
United States Orbcomm QL-2 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
United States Orbcomm QL-3 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Operational[105]
United States Orbcomm QL-4 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
United States Orbcomm QL-5 Orbcomm Low Earth Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure
Spacecraft affected by communications problems, four had failed by December 2009.[102]
20 June
07:46:25[103]
United States Delta II 7320 United States Vandenberg SLC-2W United States United Launch Alliance
United States Jason-2 (OSTM) NASA Low Earth Oceanography In orbit Operational
26 June
02:16[106]
United States TRBM United States C-17, Pacific Ocean United States U.S. Air Force
MDA Suborbital THAAD Target 26 June Successful
Intercepted after re-entry by THAAD launched from KMR at 02:22 GMT.[106][107][108]
26 June
19:57[109][110]
Canada Black Brant XI United States Wallops Island United States NASA
MDA[110] Suborbital Technology demonstration 26 June Successful
26 June
23:59[111]
Russia Proton-K / DM-2[112] (?? DM-3[36]) Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2440 (Prognoz)[36] VKS Geosynchronous Missile defence[36] In orbit Operational
30 June[113] United States Nike-Orion Norway Andøya Norway Andøya
Norway Germany ECOMA 2008-1 Andøya / DLR Suborbital Aeronomy 30 June Successful

July[edit]

7 July
21:30[113]
United States Nike-Orion Norway Andøya Norway Andøya
Norway Germany ECOMA 2008-2 Andøya / DLR Suborbital Aeronomy 7 July Successful
Apogee: 125 kilometres (78 mi)
7 July
21:47[114]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Saudi Arabia Badr-6 Arabsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Bermuda ProtoStar-1[115] ProtoStar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
9 July[117] Iran Shahab-3[116] Iran Strait of Hormuz[117] Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 9 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise.[116]
9 July[117] Iran Shahab-2[118] Iran Strait of Hormuz[117] Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 9 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise,[116] missile type not confirmed.
9 July[117] Iran Shahab-1[118] Iran Strait of Hormuz[117] Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 9 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise,[116] missile type not confirmed.
10 July[119] Iran Shahab-3 Iran Strait of Hormuz Iran IRGC
IRGC Suborbital Missile test 10 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise, missile type not confirmed.
12 July
10:46[113]
United States Nike-Orion Norway Andøya[113] Norway Andøya
Norway Germany ECOMA 2008-3 Andøya / DLR Suborbital Aeronomy[113] 12 July Successful
Apogee: 123 kilometres (76 mi)[113]
14 July
10:10[120]
United States Terrier-Orion[121] United States Wallops Island LP-1 United States NASA
United States SubTEC-II NASA / Wallops Suborbital Technology demonstration 14 July Successful
16 July
05:20:59
[122][123]
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
United States Echostar 11 Echostar Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
18 July
22:47[124]
United States UGM-27 Polaris (STARS United States Kodiak Island United States U.S. Air Force
United States FTX-03 MDA Suborbital Target 18 July Successful[125]
Radar targeting test only, missile not intercepted
22 July
02:40:09
[126][127][128]
Russia Kosmos-3M Russia Plesetsk Site 132/1 Russia Germany COSMOS International[126]
Germany SAR-Lupe 5 Bundeswehr Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Operational
26 July
18:31[130]
Russia Soyuz-2.1b Russia Plesetsk Site 43/4 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2441 (Persona)[130] VKS Low Earth (SSO) Reconnaissance In orbit Spacecraft failure
Spacecraft lost due to electrical malfunction[129]

August[edit]

1 August[131] Russia R-29 Russia RFS Ryazan, Barents Sea[131] Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 1 August Successful[131]
2 August
08:30[132][133]
Japan S-520 Japan Uchinoura Japan JAXA
JAXA/Teikyo Suborbital Microgravity 2 August Successful
Apogee: 293 kilometres (182 mi)
3 August
03:34[134][139]
United States Falcon 1 Marshall Islands Omelek United States SpaceX
United States Trailblazer ORS / MDA Intended: Low Earth Technology demonstration ~T+140 seconds[140] Launch failure[140]
United States PreSat[141] Santa Clara / NASA[141][142] Intended: Low Earth Biological
United States NanoSail-D[141] Santa Clara / NASA[141][143] Intended: Low Earth Solar sail
United States Explorers[144] Celestis Intended: Low Earth Space burial
First and second stage recontact due to residual thrust.[134] PreSAT and NanoSail-D CubeSats, Celestis burial payload included remains of astronaut Gordon Cooper,[135] actor James Doohan,[136] writer and director John Meredyth Lucas,[137] and Apollo mission planner Mareta West[138]
13 August
08:01[146]
United States LGM-30G Minuteman III United States Vandenberg United States U.S. Air Force
United States GT-195GM U.S. Air Force Suborbital Missile test 13 August Successful[146]
Travelled about 6,790 kilometres (4,220 mi) downrange.[145]
14 August
20:44[103]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
Japan Superbird 7 SCC Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
United States AMC-21 SES Americom Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
16 August
19:32[147]
Iran Safir[148] Iran Semnan Iran ISA
Iran DemoSat[149] ISA Intended: Low Earth[147] Test flight 16 August Launch failure[147]
Reported to have been first Iranian orbital launch attempt. Officially successful, however no objects were left in orbit.[147] Unofficial reports of a second stage malfunction.[147] Also reported to have been a suborbital test, or an attempt to launch the Omid satellite, instead of an orbital test launch.
18 August
22:43[150][151][152]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39[152] Russia United States International Launch Services
United Kingdom Inmarsat-4 F3[153] Inmarsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
22 August
09:10[155]
United States ALV United States MARS LP-0B United States Alliant Techsystems
United States SOAREX-VI NASA Suborbital Technology demonstration T+27 seconds[155] Launch failure
United States Hy-BoLT NASA Suborbital Aerodynamics
Only flight of ALV, veered off course to the South and destroyed by RSO[154]
25 August[156] United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United States USS Louisiana, Pacific Ocean United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test 25 August Successful
25 August[156] United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesUSS Louisiana, Pacific Ocean United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Missile test 25 August Successful
28 August[157] Russia RT-2PM Topol (RS-12M) Russia Plesetsk Russia RVSN RF
RVSN RF Suborbital Missile test 28 August Successful
29 August
07:15:58[158]
Ukraine Dnepr Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 109/95 Russia ISC Kosmotras
Germany Tachys (RapidEye-1)[159] RapidEye / Planet Labs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Successful[160]
Germany Mati (RapidEye-2)[159] RapidEye / Planet Labs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Successful[160]
Germany Choma (RapidEye-3)[159] RapidEye / Planet Labs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Successful[160]
Germany Choros (RapidEye-4)[159] RapidEye / Planet Labs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Successful[160]
Germany Trochia (RapidEye-5)[159] RapidEye / Planet Labs Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Successful[160]

September[edit]

6 September
03:25[161]
China Long March 2C China Taiyuan LC-1 China CASC
China Huan Jing 1A CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
China Huan Jing 1B CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
6 September
18:50:57[162]
United States Delta II 7420 United States Vandenberg SLC-2W United States United Launch Alliance
United States GeoEye 1 (Orbview 5) GeoEye Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
10 September
19:50:02[78]
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-65 Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 7 December
08:48:47[163]
Successful
ISS flight 30P
18 September
02:05[164]
United States Kauai United States MDA
MDA Suborbital Target 18 September Launch failure[164]
Two THAAD intercept launches cancelled.[164]
18 September
14:45[165]
Russia RSM-56 Bulava (R-30) Russia RFS Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea[166] Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 15:05[167] Successful
19 September
21:48[159][168]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
Canada Nimiq-4[169] Telesat Canada Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
24 September
06:57[170]
United States Chimera[170] (Minuteman/Minotaur II) United States Vandenberg LF-06 United States Orbital Sciences
United States NFIRE 2b MDA Suborbital Target 24 September Successful
Tracked by NFIRE satellite
24 September
09:27:59[171]
Ukraine Zenit-3SL Norway Ocean Odyssey United Nations Sea Launch
United Nations Galaxy 19 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
25 September
08:49:37
[159][172]
Russia Proton-M / DM-2[173] Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2442 (GLONASS)[159][174] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[175] In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2443 (GLONASS)[159][174] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[175] In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2444 (GLONASS)[159][174] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[175] In orbit Operational
25 September
13:10[159][177]
China Long March 2F China Jiuquan LA-4/SLS-1 China CASC
China Shenzhou 7 CNSA Low Earth Crewed flight 28 September
09:37:40[176]
Successful
China Ban Xing[176] CNSA Low Earth Technology demonstration 30 October 2009[178] Successful
China Shenzhou 7-GC[176] CNSA Low Earth Technology demonstration 4 January 2010[179] Successful
Crewed flight with three yǔhángyuán, crew conducted first Chinese EVA
Ban Xing deployed from Shenzhou on 27 September at 11:27 GMT, GC separated on 28 September at 08:48 to begin independent mission[176]
28 September
23:15[181]
United States Falcon 1 Marshall Islands Omelek United States SpaceX
United States RatSat[176] SpaceX Low Earth Boilerplate In orbit Successful[181][180]
Launched boilerplate payload. First privately funded and developed liquid fuelled rocket to reach orbit.[180]

October[edit]

1 October
06:37:16
Ukraine Dnepr Russia Dombarovskiy Russia ISC Kosmotras
Thailand THEOS GISTDA Low Earth Earth observation In orbit Operational
11 October[182] Russia R-29RMU Sineva Russia RFS Tula, Barents Sea Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 11 October Successful
Long-range test[182]
12 October
07:01[183]
Russia Soyuz-FG Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Soyuz TMA-13[184] Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 18 8 April 2009
07:16
Successful
Crewed flight with three cosmonauts, including a space tourist. 100th flight of the Soyuz programme to be crewed at some point in its mission[9]
12 October
07:24[185]
Russia RT-2PM Topol (RS-12M) Russia Plesetsk Russia RVSN RF
RVSN RF Suborbital Missile test 07:50[185] Successful
12 October[186] Russia R-29R Vysota Russia RFS Zelenograd, Sea of Okhotsk[186] Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
12 October[186] Russia R-29RM Shtil Russia RFS Yekaterinburg, Barents Sea[186] Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
19 October
17:47:23[187]
United StatesPegasus-XL/Star-27 Marshall Islands United StatesStargazer, Kwajalein Atoll United StatesOrbital Sciences
United States IBEX NASA High Earth Solar In orbit Operational
20 October
08:39[188]
Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
NRL Suborbital UV Astronomy[189] 08:49[188] Successful
22 October
00:52:11[191]
India PSLV-XL India Satish Dhawan SLP India ISRO
India Chandrayaan-1[192] ISRO Selenocentric Lunar orbiter In orbit Partial spacecraft failure
India MIP ISRO Selenocentric Lunar impactor 14 November Successful
First Indian lunar spacecraft,[190] failed on 28 August 2009 after less than half of planned mission duration, maiden flight of PSLV-XL
22 October
09:10[193]
Russia RS-18 UR-100N Kazakhstan Baikonur Russia RVSN RF
RVSN RF Suborbital Missile test 22 October Successful
22 October
12:30[194]
United States Nike-Orion Sweden Esrange Sweden Germany EuroLaunch
Sweden Germany REXUS-4 SSC / DLR Suborbital Student research 22 October Successful
Apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
25 October
01:15[196]
China Long March 4B China Taiyuan LC-2[195] China CASC
China Shijian 6E CNSA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
China Shijian 6F CNSA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
First launch from Taiyuan LC-2[195]
25 October
02:28[197]
United States Delta II 7420-10 United States Vandenberg SLC-2W United States United Launch Alliance
Italy COSMO-3 ASI[198] Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
29 October
16:53:53[199]
China Long March 3B/E China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
Venezuela VeneSat-1 (Simón Bolívar) VMoST Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Successful; Partial spacecraft failure
First Venezuelan satellite.[199] Lost in March 2020 due to the failure of both solar array drives.[200]

November[edit]

1 November[201] United States Barking Sands United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Target 1 November Successful
Intercepted by SM-3 missile, part of Pacific Blitz exercise[201]
1 November[201] United States RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 United States USS Paul Hamilton, Pacific Ocean[201] United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy[201] Suborbital Intercept test 1 November Successful
Intercepted target missile, part of Pacific Blitz exercise[201]
1 November[201] United States Barking Sands United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy Suborbital Target 1 November Successful
Intercept by SM-3 missile failed. Part of Pacific Blitz exercise[201]
1 November[201] United States RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 United States USS Hopper, Pacific Ocean[201] United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy[201] Suborbital Intercept test 1 November Spacecraft failure
Sensor fault resulted in failure to intercept target missile.[201] Part of Pacific Blitz exercise[201]
5 November
00:15[202]
China Long March 2D[203] China Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center SLS-2[204] China CASC
China Chuang Xin 1B CNSA Low Earth Weather In orbit Operational
China Shiyan Weixing 3[204] CNSA Low Earth Technology demonstration In orbit Operational
5 November
09:00[205]
United States LGM-30G Minuteman III United States Vandenberg United States U.S. Air Force
United States GT-198GM U.S. Air Force Suborbital Missile test 5 November Successful
Travelled 6,740 kilometres (4,190 mi) downrange[205]
5 November
20:44
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
Luxembourg Astra 1M SES Astra Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
Final flight of standard Proton-M
12 November
05:56[206]
India Shaurya[207] IndiaIntegrated Test Range LC-3[208] IndiaDRDO
Indian Army Suborbital Missile test 12 November Successful
12 November[209] Iran Sejjil Iran Iran Iran IRGC AF
IRGC AF Suborbital Missile test 12 November Successful
Maiden flight of Sejjil missile
13 November
09:06[210]
France M51 France CEL France FOST
FOST Suborbital Missile test 13 November Successful
14 November
15:50[211]
Russia Soyuz-U Russia Plesetsk Site 16/2 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2445 (Kobalt-M) VKS Low Earth Optical imaging 23 February 2009[212]
16:15[213]
Successful
14 November Canada Black Brant IX United States White Sands LC-36 United States NASA
NRL[214] Suborbital Solar[214] 14 November Successful
15 November
00:55:39[216]
United States Space Shuttle Endeavour[217] United States Kennedy LC-39A United States United Space Alliance
United States STS-126[218] NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 30 November
21:25:06[219]
Successful
Italy United States Leonardo MPLM ASI / NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics Successful
United States PSSC U.S. Air Force Low Earth Technology demonstration 17 February 2010
17:31[220]
Successful
Crewed flight with seven astronauts, PSSC deployed from Shuttle at 20:33 GMT on 29 November and operated for 110 days.[215]
19 November
02:18[221][222]
United States Barking Sands United States U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy / JMSDF Suborbital Target 19 November Successful
Intercept by SM-3 missile failed
19 November
02:21[222]
United States RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 Japan JDS Chōkai, Pacific Ocean Japan JMSDF
JMSDF Suborbital Interceptor 19 November Spacecraft failure
Infrared sensor fault, failed to intercept target[223]
26 November
12:38:27[224]
Russia Soyuz-U Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 1/5 Russia Roscosmos
Russia Progress M-01M Roscosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS logistics 8 February 2009
08:20[225]
Successful
First flight of modernised Progress spacecraft, Kurs anomaly necessitated manual docking.
ISS flight 31P
26 November
13:24[226]
Russia RS-24 Yars Russia Plesetsk Russia RVSN RF
RVSN RF Suborbital Missile test 26 November Successful
26 November[227] Iran Kavoshgar-2 Iran Semnan Iran ISA
Iran Kavoshgar-2 ISA Suborbital Test flight 26 November Successful
Payload recovered by parachute
28 November[228] RussiaRSM-56 Bulava (R-30) RussiaRFS Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea[229] Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 28 November Successful

December[edit]

1 December
04:42[230]
China Long March 2D China Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center SLS-2 China CASC
China Yaogan-4 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation In orbit Operational
2 December
05:00[231]
Russia Molniya-M/2BL[232] Russia Plesetsk Site 16/2 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2446 (Oko) VKS Molniya Missile defence In orbit Operational
5 December
10:35:10[233]
Brazil United StatesVS-30-Orion Norway SvalRak Norway Andøya
Norway ICI-2[234] Oslo Suborbital Auroral 10:45[233] Successful
Apogee: 330 kilometres (210 mi)[233]
5 December
20:04[236]
United StatesUGM-27 Polaris (STARS) United StatesKodiak Island United States U.S. Air Force
United States FTG-05 MDA Suborbital Target 20:29[237] Partial spacecraft failure
Decoy target failed to deploy,[235] intercepted by GBI
5 December
20:21[236]
United States Ground Based Interceptor United States Vandenberg United States U.S. Air Force
United States FTG-05 MDA Suborbital Target 20:29[237] Successful
Intercepted Polaris
10 December
13:43:00[238]
Russia Proton-M / Briz-M Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 200/39 Russia United States International Launch Services
Canada Ciel-2[103] Ciel[239] Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
15 December
03:22[240]
China Long March 4B China Taiyuan LC-2 China CASC
China Yaogan-5 CNSA Low Earth (SSO) Earth observation 2 September 2014 Successful
20 December
22:35[241]
Europe Ariane 5 ECA France Kourou ELA-3 France Arianespace
France Hot Bird 9[103] Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Operational
France Eutelsat W2M[103] Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communications In orbit Spacecraft failure[242]
23 December
00:54[243]
China Long March 3A China Xichang LC-2 China CASC
China Fengyun 2E CMA Geosynchronous Meteorology In orbit Operational
23 December
03:00[245]
RussiaRSM-56 Bulava[246] RussiaRFS Dmitry Donskoi[244] Russia VMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 23 December Launch failure
Self-destruct system activated after missile went off course.[244]
25 December
10:43[247]
Russia Proton-M / DM-2 Enhanced Kazakhstan Baikonur Site 81/24 Russia RVSN RF
Russia Kosmos 2447 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2448 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
Russia Kosmos 2449 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
First flight of Proton-M Enhanced with DM-2 upper stage, last orbital launch from Baikonur to be conducted by the Russian military

Deep Space Rendezvous[edit]

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
5 January Cassini 40th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,010 kilometres (630 mi)
14 January MESSENGER 1st flyby of Mercury Closest approach: 200 kilometres (120 mi) at 19:04 GMT[248]
22 February Cassini 41st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 March Cassini 3rd flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 52 kilometres (32 mi)
25 March Cassini 42nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 May Cassini 43rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
25 May Phoenix Landing on Mars Region D, Arctic area - Green Valley, near the Heimdal crater: 68°N, 236°E. Touchdown at 23:38 GMT. Successful[249]
28 May Cassini 44th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,400 kilometres (870 mi)
31 July Cassini 45th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,613 kilometres (1,002 mi)
11 August Cassini 4th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 54 kilometres (34 mi)
5 September Rosetta Flyby of 2867 Šteins

Closest approach: 800 kilometres (500 mi)

6 October MESSENGER 2nd flyby of Mercury
9 October Cassini 5th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 25 kilometres (16 mi)
31 October Cassini 6th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 200 kilometres (120 mi)
3 November Cassini 46th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,100 kilometres (680 mi)
8 November Chandrayaan-1 Injection into Selenocentric orbit Periselene: 504 kilometres (313 mi), Aposelene: 7,502 kilometres (4,662 mi)[250]
14 November MIP Landing on the Moon Lunar Impactor
19 November Cassini 47th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,023 kilometres (636 mi)
5 December Cassini 48th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
21 December Cassini 49th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
Distant, non-targeted flybys of Dione, Enceladus, Mimas, Tethys and Titan by Cassini occurred throughout the year.

EVAs[edit]

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Function Remarks
30 January
09:56[251]
7 hours
10 minutes
17:06[252] Expedition 16
(ISS Quest)
United StatesPeggy Whitson
United StatesDaniel M. Tani
Replace motor and bearing in solar array joint
11 February
14:13[253]
7 hours
58 minutes
22:11[253] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRex J. Walheim
United StatesStanley G. Love
Install Power Data Grapple Fixture on Columbus Originally to have been conducted by Walheim and Hans Schlegel, Love replaced Schlegel on medical grounds.[254]
13 February
14:27[255]
6 hours
45 minutes
21:12[255] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRex J. Walheim
GermanyHans Schlegel
Replace depleted nitrogen tank
15 February
12:07[255]
7 hours
25 minutes
20:32[255] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRex J. Walheim
United StatesStanley G. Love
Install experiments on Columbus, load failed gyroscope onto Shuttle for return to Earth
14 March
01:18[256]
7 hours
1 minute
08:19[256] STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRichard M. Linnehan
United StatesGarrett Reisman
Install Kibo ELM-PS and start Dextre assembly
15 March
23:49[257]
7 hours
8 minutes
16 March
06:57[257]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRichard M. Linnehan
United StatesMichael Foreman
Dextre assembly
17 March
22:52[257]
6 hours
53 minutes
18 March
05:44[257]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRichard M. Linnehan
United StatesRobert L. Behnken
Dextre assembly, install MISSE-6 experiment, and store spare parts outside the ISS MISSE installation failed[257]
20 March
22:04[257]
6 hours
24 minutes
21 March
04:08[257]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRobert L. Behnken
United StatesMichael Foreman
Test heat shield repair techniques
22 March
20:34[257]
6 hours
2 minutes
23 March
02:36[257]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRobert L. Behnken
United StatesMichael Foreman
Store OBSS on ISS, retry MISSE-6 installation[258]
3 June
16:22[259]
6 hours
48 minutes[93]
23:10[93] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
United StatesMike Fossum
United StatesRon Garan
Install JEM Pressurised Module, Inspect SARJ, retrieve OBSS.[259]
5 June
15:04[93]
7 hours
11 minutes[93]
22:15[93] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
United StatesMike Fossum
United StatesRon Garan
Adjust covers on JEM, Inspect SARJ.[260]
8 June
13:55[93]
6 hours
33 minutes[93]
20:28[93] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
United StatesMike Fossum
United StatesRon Garan
Replace nitrogen tank, inspect SARJ.[261]
10 July
18:48[262]
6 hours
18 minutes[262]
11 July
01:06[262]
Expedition 17
(ISS Pirs)[262]
RussiaSergei Volkov
RussiaOleg Kononenko
Remove pyrotechnic bolt from Soyuz TMA-12 for inspection.[263]
15 July
17:08[262]
5 hours
54 minutes[262]
23:02[262] Expedition 17
(ISS Pirs)[262]
RussiaSergei Volkov
RussiaOleg Kononenko
Install docking targeting equipment, rotate exposed experiments[264]
27 September
08:38
22 minutes 09:00 Shenzhou 7 ChinaZhai Zhigang (full)
ChinaLiu Boming (stand-up)
Test spacesuit, collect experiment First Chinese EVA
18 November
18:09
6 hours
52 minutes
19 November
01:01
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesHeidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
United StatesStephen G. Bowen
Transferred an empty nitrogen tank assembly from ESP3 to the shuttle's cargo bay, transferred a new flex hose rotary coupler to ESP3 for future use, removed an insulation cover on the Kibo Exposed Facility berthing mechanism, began cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ, and replacement of its 11 trundle bearing assemblies.[265][266]
20 November
17:58
6 hours
45 minutes
21 November
00:43
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesHeidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
United StatesRobert S. Kimbrough
Relocated the two CETA carts from the starboard side of the Mobile Transporter to the port side, lubricated the station robotic arm's latching end effector A snare bearings, continued cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ[267][268][269] Conducted on tenth anniversary of the launch of the ISS[267]
22 November
18:01
6 hours
57 minutes
23 November
00:58
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesHeidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
United StatesStephen G. Bowen
Completed cleaning and lubrication of all but one of the trundle bearing assemblies (TBA) on the starboard SARJ.[270][271]
24 November
18:24
6 hours
7 minutes
25 November
00:31
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesStephen G. Bowen
United StatesRobert S. Kimbrough
Completed replacement of trundle bearing assemblies on starboard SARJ, lubricated the port SARJ, installed a video camera, re‐installed insulation covers on the Kibo External Facility berthing mechanism, performed Kibo robotic arm grounding tab maintenance, installed spacewalk handrails on Kibo, installed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) antennae on Kibo, photographed radiators, and photographed trailing umbilical system cables.[272]
23 December
00:51
5 hours
38 minutes
06:29 Expedition 18
(ISS Pirs)
United StatesMichael Fincke
RussiaYuri Lonchakov
Install Langmuir probe, EXPOSE-R and IPI-SM experiments.[273] EXPOSE-R installation failed[273]

Orbital launch statistics[edit]

By country[edit]

China: 11Europe: 6India: 3Iran: 1Japan: 1Russia: 24Ukraine: 8USA: 15Circle frame.svg
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 China 11 11 0 0
 Europe 6 6 0 0
 India 3 3 0 0
 Iran 1 0 1 0 First orbital launch attempt[147]
 Japan 1 1 0 0
 Russia 24 23 0 1
 Ukraine 8 8 0 0
 United States 15 14 1 0
World 69 66 2 1

By rocket[edit]

By family[edit]

By type[edit]

By configuration[edit]

By launch site[edit]

5
10
15
20
China
France
India
International waters
Iran
Japan
Kazakhstan
Marshall Islands
Russia
United States
Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur  Kazakhstan 19 18 0 1
Cape Canaveral  United States 3 3 0 0
Dombarovsky  Russia 1 1 0 0
Jiuquan  China 3 3 0 0
Kapustin Yar  Russia 1 1 0 0
Kennedy  United States 4 4 0 0
Kwajalein  Marshall Islands 4 3 1 0 Two launches used Stargazer aircraft
Kourou  France 6 6 0 0
Ocean Odyssey United Nations International 5 5 0 0
Plesetsk  Russia 6 6 0 0
Satish Dhawan  India 3 3 0 0
Semnan  Iran 1 0 1 0 First orbital launch attempt
Taiyuan  China 4 4 0 0
Tanegashima  Japan 1 1 0 0
Vandenberg  United States 4 4 0 0
Xichang  China 4 4 0 0
Total 69 66 2 1

By orbit[edit]

  •   Transatmospheric
  •   Low Earth
  •   Low Earth (ISS)
  •   Low Earth (SSO)
  •   Low Earth (retrograde)
  •   Medium Earth
  •   Geosychronous
    (transfer)
  •   Inclined GSO
  •   High Earth
  •   Heliocentric
Orbital regime Launches Successes Failures Accidentally
achieved
Remarks
Transatmospheric 0 0 0 0
Low Earth 36 34 2 0 11 to ISS
Medium Earth / Molniya 6 6 0 0
Geosynchronous / GTO 25 25 0 0
High Earth / Lunar transfer 2 2 0 0
Heliocentric / Planetary transfer 0 0 0 0
Total 69 67 2 0

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Generic references:
RocketSunIcon.svg Spaceflight portal
  • Bergin, Chris. "NASASpaceFlight.com".
  • Clark, Stephen. "Spaceflight Now".
  • Kelso, T.S. "Satellite Catalog (SATCAT)". CelesTrak.
  • Krebs, Gunter. "Chronology of Space Launches".
  • Kyle, Ed. "Space Launch Report".
  • McDowell, Jonathan. "Jonathan's Space Report".
  • Pietrobon, Steven. "Steven Pietrobon's Space Archive".
  • Wade, Mark. "Encyclopedia Astronautica".
  • Webb, Brian. "Southwest Space Archive".
  • Zak, Anatoly. "Russian Space Web".
  • "ISS Calendar". Spaceflight 101.
  • "NSSDCA Master Catalog". NASA Space Science Data Coordinated Archive. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.
  • "Space Calendar". NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • "Space Information Center". JAXA.
  • "Хроника освоения космоса" [Chronicle of space exploration]. CosmoWorld (in Russian).

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "36.243 UG McCandliss/Johns Hopkins University". NASA Sounding Rockets Office. 11 January 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McDowell, Dr. Jonathan (14 March 2008). "Issue 593". Jonathan's Space Report. Archived from the original on 30 October 2008. Retrieved 15 March 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d Krebs, Gunter (15 March 2008). "Orbital Launches of 2008". Gunter's Space Page. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2008.
  4. ^ Baldwin, Emily (8 October 2008). "Cassini prepares for double flyby of Enceladus". Astronomy Now. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
  5. ^ "NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Confirms Frozen Water". NASA. 20 June 2008. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 4 January 2009.
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