2008 in spaceflight

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2008 in spaceflight
Iss016e034176.jpg
The first Automated Transfer Vehicle, Jules Verne approaches the ISS
Orbital launches
First 15 January
Last 25 December
Total 69
Successes 66
Failures 2
Partial failures 1
Catalogued 67
National firsts
Satellite  Venezuela
 Vietnam
Space traveller  South Korea
Rockets
Maiden flights Ariane 5ES
Long March 3C
PSLV-XL
Safir
Zenit-3SLB
Retirements H-IIA 2024
Manned flights
Orbital 7
Total travellers 37

The year 2008 contained several significant events in spaceflight, including the first flyby of Mercury by a spacecraft since 1975, the discovery of water ice on Mars by the Phoenix spacecraft, which landed in May, the first Chinese spacewalk in September, and the launch of the first Indian Lunar probe in October.

Overview[edit]

The internationally accepted definition of a spaceflight is any flight which crosses the Kármán line, 100 kilometres above sea level. The first recorded spaceflight launch of the year occurred on 11 January, when a Black Brant was launched on a suborbital trajectory from White Sands, with the LIDOS ultraviolet astronomy payload.[1] This was followed by the first orbital launch of the year on 15 January, by a Sea Launch Zenit-3SL, with the Thuraya 3 communications satellite.[2] The launch marked the return to flight for Sea Launch following the explosion of a Zenit-3SL on the launch pad the previous January during an attempt to launch the NSS-8 satellite.

The fourth Falcon 1 launches with RatSat

Five carrier rockets made their maiden flights in 2008; the Ariane 5ES, Long March 3C, Zenit-3SLB, PSLV-XL, and the operational version of the Falcon 1, with an uprated Merlin-1C engine.[3] These were all derived from existing systems. The Blue Sparrow and Sejjil missiles also conducted their maiden flights, and the ATK Launch Vehicle made its only flight, but was destroyed by range safety after it went off course. In November, the baseline Proton-M was retired in favour of the Enhanced variant, first launched in 2007.

The first Vietnamese and Venezuelan satellites, Vinasat-1 and Venesat-1 respectively, were launched in 2008, while a failed Iranian launch was reported to have been that country's first indigenous orbital launch attempt. In September, SpaceX conducted the first successful orbital launch of a privately developed and funded liquid-fuelled carrier rocket, when the fourth Falcon 1 launched RatSat, following previous failures in 2006, 2007, and August.

Space exploration[edit]

The discovery of water ice on Mars

India launched its first Lunar probe, Chandraayan-1, on 22 October, with the spacecraft entering selenocentric orbit on 8 November. On 16 November, the Moon Impact Probe was released, and crashed into the Lunar surface. Although no other spacecraft were launched beyond geocentric orbit in 2008, several significant events occurred in interplanetary flights which had been launched in previous years. MESSENGER conducted flybys of Mercury in January and October, the first spacecraft to do so since Mariner 10 in 1975. Cassini continued to make flybys of the moons of Saturn, including several close passes of Enceladus, one at a distance of 25 kilometres.[4] In September Rosetta flew past the asteroid 2867 Šteins. On 25 May, the Phoenix spacecraft landed in the Green Valley on Mars, where it discovered water ice.[5] Phoenix exceeded its design life of 90 days, finally failing on 10 November. The Ulysses spacecraft, launched in 1990, was also retired in 2008.[6]

Manned spaceflight[edit]

Seven manned flights were launched in 2008, one by China, two by Russia and four by the United States. In April, Yi So-yeon became the first South Korean to fly in space, aboard Soyuz TMA-12. On the same flight, Sergey Volkov became the first second-generation cosmonaut. Yi returned to Earth aboard Soyuz TMA-11, which nearly ended in disaster following a separation failure between the descent and service modules, resulting in a ballistic reentry.[7] In September, China conducted its third manned mission, Shenzhou 7, from which Zhai Zhigang and Liu Boming conducted the first Chinese spacewalk.[8] Soyuz TMA-13, launched in October, was the hundredth flight of the Soyuz programme to carry a crew at some point in its mission.[9]

Assembly of the International Space Station continued, with the delivery of the Columbus module by Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-122 in February. March saw the launch of the Jules Verne Automated Transfer Vehicle, an unmanned European spacecraft which was used to resupply the space station. Also in March, Space Shuttle Endeavour launched on STS-123 with the first component of the Japanese Experiment Module, the Experiment Logistics Module. STS-123 marked the final flight of the Spacelab programme, with a SpaceLab pallet used to carry the Canadian-built Dextre RMS extension. The second JEM component, the main pressurised module, was launched by STS-124, flown by Discovery in May. In November, Endeavour launched on the STS-126 logistics flight, with the Leonardo MPLM.

Launch failures[edit]

On 14 March, a Proton-M with a Briz-M upper stage launched AMC-14. Several hours later, on 15 March, the Briz-M engine cut off prematurely during a burn,[10] leaving the satellite in a medium Earth orbit. Following a small legal dispute,[11] the satellite was sold, and raised to a geosynchronous orbit by its manoeuvring thrusters, at the expense of a large amount of its fuel and hence operational life.[citation needed]

On 3 August, SpaceX launched the third Falcon 1. Due to residual thrust caused by the upgraded Merlin-1C engine which was being flown for the first time, the first stage recontacted the second during staging, resulting in the rocket failing to reach orbit. The Trailblazer, PreSat and NanoSail-D satellites were lost in the failure, as was a space burial capsule, containing the remains of several hundred people, including astronaut Gordon Cooper, actor James Doohan, writer and director John Meredyth Lucas and Apollo mission planner Mareta West.[12]

On 16 August, Iran launched a Safir, which though officially successful, was reported to have failed due to a second stage malfunction. The purpose of this launch is in doubt, as before the launch it was claimed that it would place the Omid into orbit, whilst following the launch, it was reported that a boilerplate payload had been launched.[13] Other reports indicated that the launch was only a suborbital test of the rocket.[14] If this was an orbital launch attempt, it was the first Iranian attempt to launch a satellite.

On 22 August, the inaugural launch of the Alliant Techsystems ALV X-1 was terminated 27 seconds after launch from Wallops Flight Facility when it veered off course. Both hypersonic physics experiments on board were destroyed.[15]

Summary of launches[edit]

The ATK Launch Vehicle, launched on a suborbital flight in August

In total, sixty nine orbital launches were made in 2008, with sixty seven reaching orbit, and two outright failures if the Iranian launch in August is counted.[3] This is an increase of one orbital launch attempt on 2007, with two more launches reaching orbit, which continues a trend of increasing launch rates seen since 2006. The final launch of the year was conducted on 25 December, by a Proton-M with three GLONASS navigation satellites for the Russian government.

Launch of an SM-3 missile to destroy USA-193

Suborbital spaceflight in 2008 saw a number of sounding rocket and missile launches. On 21 February, a RIM-161 Standard Missile 3 was used as an anti-satellite weapon to destroy the USA-193 satellite. USA-193 was a US spy satellite which had failed immediately after launch in 2006.[16][17]

By country[edit]

China conducted twelve orbital launches of a planned fifteen. Europe had intended to conduct seven launches of Ariane 5 rockets, and the maiden flight of the Vega rocket, however payload delays pushed one of the Arianes into 2009, and the Vega was delayed due to development issues. India had originally scheduled five to seven launches, however only three of these were conducted, mostly due to delays with the launch of Chandraayan-1. Japan scheduled three launches for 2008, of which one was launched; an H-IIA with WINDS in February. Russia and the former Soviet Union conducted twenty six launches, not including the international Sea and Land launch programmes, which conducted six. Fourteen launches were conducted by the United States, which had originally announced plans to launch many more, however technical issues with several rockets, particularly the Atlas V, Delta II and Falcon 1, caused a number of delays. The Atlas problems, combined with a series of delays to the launch of NRO L-26 on a Delta IV, resulted in just two of ten planned EELV launches being conducted.[3][18] Two of six planned Space Shuttle launches were also delayed to 2009, one due to problems with External Tank delivery, and another due to a major systems failure on the Hubble Space Telescope, which it was to have serviced. Israel was not reported to have scheduled, or conducted an orbital launch attempt.

List of launches[edit]

Date and time (UTC) Rocket Launch site LSP
Payload Operator Orbit Function Decay (UTC) Outcome
Remarks

January[edit]

11 January
05:32[1]
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
United StatesLIDOS JHU Suborbital UV Astronomy 05:42 Successful
Apogee: 315 kilometres (196 mi)
15 January
11:49[2]
UkraineZenit-3SL NorwayOcean Odyssey United NationsSea Launch
United StatesThuraya 3 Thuraya Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
17 January[19] IsraelJericho III IsraelPalmachim IsraelIsraeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Missile test 17 January Successful
18 January
07:30[20]
CanadaBlack Brant XII NorwayAndøya United StatesNASA
United StatesSCIFER-2 Cornell/Dartmouth Suborbital Ionospheric 18 January Successful
Apogee: 1,460 kilometres (910 mi)
21 January
03:45[2]
IndiaPSLV-CA IndiaSatish Dhawan FLP IndiaISRO
IsraelTecSAR (Polaris) IAI Low Earth Radar imaging In orbit Operational
25 January[21] PakistanShaheen-I PakistanSonmiani PakistanArmy of Pakistan
Army of Pakistan Suborbital Missile test 25 January Successful
28 January
00:18[2]
RussiaProton-M/Briz-M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaEkspress AM-33 RSCC Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
31 January
19:14[22]
BrazilUnited StatesVS-30-Orion NorwayAndøya GermanyNorwayDLR/Andøya
United KingdomHotPay-2 Leeds Suborbital Ionospheric 31 January Successful
Apogee: 380.6 kilometres (236.5 mi)

February[edit]

4 February[23] IranSafir IranSemnan IranISA
IranKavoshgar-1 ISA Suborbital Test 4 February Successful
5 February
13:02:54[2]
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBakionur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-63 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics 7 April
11:50[24]
Successful
ISS flight 28P
6 February
09:14:40[25]
JapanS-310 JapanUchinoura JapanJAXA
JAXA Suborbital Ionospheric 6 February Successful
7 February
11:30[26]
BrazilVSB-30 SwedenEsrange GermanyEuropean UnionDLR/ESA
GermanyEuropean UnionTEXUS-44 DLR/ESA Suborbital Microgravity 7 February Successful
Apogee: 264 kilometres (164 mi)
7 February
19:45:30[2]
United StatesSpace Shuttle Atlantis United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-122 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS assembly 20 February
14:07:10[27]
Successful
United NationsColumbus ESA Low Earth (ISS) ISS component In orbit Operational
Manned flight with seven astronauts
11 February
11:34[2]
RussiaProton-M/Briz-M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 RussiaUnited StatesInternational Launch Services
NorwayThor-5 Telenor Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
21 February
03:26[28]
United StatesRIM-161 Standard Missile 3 United StatesUSS Lake Erie United StatesUS Navy/MDA
United StatesASAT MDA Suborbital Satellite intercept 03:29[28] Successful
Destroyed USA-193 satellite[16]
21 February
06:15[26]
BrazilVSB-30 SwedenEsrange GermanyEuropean UnionDLR/ESA
GermanyEuropean UnionTEXUS-45 DLR/ESA Suborbital Microgravity 21 February Successful
23 February
08:55[2]
JapanH-IIA 2024 JapanTanegashima LA-Y JapanMitsubishi
JapanWINDS (Kizuna) JAXA/NICT Geosynchronous Communication
Technology
In orbit Operational
26 February
07:28[29]
IndiaK-15 Sagarika IndiaINS Kalinga IndiaIndian Navy
Indian Navy Suborbital Missile test 26 February Successful

March[edit]

9 March
04:03:07[2]
European UnionAriane 5ES FranceKourou ELA-3 FranceArianespace
European UnionJules Verne ATV ESA Low Earth (ISS) Logistics 29 September
13:31
Successful
Maiden flight of Ariane 5ES and ATV
11 March
06:28:14[2]
United StatesSpace Shuttle Endeavour United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-123 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly 27 March
00:39:08[31]
Successful
United StatesSpacelab MD002[30] NASA Low Earth (STS/ISS) Logistics Successful
United NationsJEM ELM-PF JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS component In orbit Operational
United NationsDextre (SPDM) MDA Corporation Low Earth (ISS) ISS component In orbit Operational
Manned flight with seven astronauts
Final flight of Spacelab programme, pallet used to transport Dextre[30]
13 March
10:02[2]
United StatesAtlas V 411 United StatesVandenberg SLC-3E United StatesUnited Launch Alliance
United StatesUSA-200 (Improved Trumpet)[32] NRO Molniya[32] ELINT[32] In orbit Operational
NRO Launch 28, first Atlas V launch from Vandenberg
14 March
23:18:55[2][36]
RussiaProton-M/Briz-M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 RussiaUnited StatesInternational Launch Services
United StatesAMC-14 SES Americom Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
Partial launch failure[3]
Upper stage malfunction during second burn left spacecraft in wrong orbit[10][33]
Initial recovery attempted but abandoned due to legal issues.[11][34] Later sold and recovery efforts restarted.[35]
15 March
06:10[37]
United StatesDelta II 7925-9.5 United StatesCape Canaveral SLC-17A United StatesUnited Launch Alliance
United StatesUSA-201 (GPS IIR-19/M6)[38] US Air Force Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
80th consecutive successful Delta II launch.[37]
19 March
22:47:59[39]
UkraineZenit-3SL NorwayOcean Odyssey United NationsSea Launch
United StatesDirecTV-11 DirecTV Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
23 March
04:45[40]
IndiaAgni 1 IndiaIntegrated Test Range LC-4[40] IndiaIndian Army
SFC/DRDO Suborbital Missile test 23 March Successful
27 March
17:15[41]
RussiaKosmos-3M RussiaPlesetsk Site 132/1 GermanyCOSMOS International
GermanySAR-Lupe 4 Bundeswehr Low Earth, polar Radar imaging In orbit Operational
28 March BrazilVSB-30 NorwayAndøya NorwayAndøya
NorwayMini-DUSTY 14 Andøya Suborbital Ionospheric 28 March Successful

April[edit]

2 April
08:01[42]
United StatesLGM-30G Minuteman III United StatesVandenberg LF-09 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGT-196GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 2 April Successful
Travelled 6,759 kilometres (4,200 mi) downrange[42]
8 April
11:16:39[24][44]
RussiaSoyuz-FG KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaSoyuz TMA-12 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 17[44] 24 October
03:37[45]
Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts, including first South Korean in space[24] and first second-generation cosmonaut[43]
Docked on 10 April at 12:57 GMT[44]
14 April
16:58[46]
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
United StatesSEE UCB LASP Suborbital UV Astronomy[47] 17:08[46] Successful
14 April
20:12:00[48]
United StatesAtlas V 421 United StatesCape Canaveral SLC-41 United StatesUnited Launch Alliance
United StatesICO G1 ICO Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
Heaviest single commercial satellite to be placed in GSO.
Heaviest satellite to be launched by an Atlas rocket.[48]
15 April IsraelBlue Sparrow IsraelF-15 Eagle, Israel IsraelIsraeli Air Force
Israeli Air Force Suborbital Test flight 15 April Successful
Maiden flight of Blue Sparrow
16 April
17:01[49]
United StatesPegasus-XL Marshall IslandsUnited StatesStargazer, Kwajalein Atoll United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesC/NOFS STP/NASA Low Earth Electrodynamics In orbit Operational
18 April
22:17[50]
European UnionAriane 5ECA FranceKourou ELA-3 FranceArianespace
VietnamVinasat-1 VNPT Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
BrazilStar One C2 Star One Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
First Vietnamese satellite
19 April[51][52] PakistanShaheen-II PakistanSonmiani PakistanArmy of Pakistan[53]
Army of Pakistan[53] Suborbital Missile test 19 April Successful
21 April[54] PakistanShaheen-II PakistanSonmiani PakistanArmy of Pakistan
Army of Pakistan Suborbital Missile test 21 April Successful
25 April
15:35[55]
ChinaLong March 3C ChinaXichang LA-2 ChinaCNSA
ChinaTianlian I-01 CNSA Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
Maiden flight of Long March 3C
26 April
22:16:02[56]
RussiaSoyuz-FG/Fregat KazakhstanBaikonur Site 31/6 European UnionRussiaStarsem
European UnionGIOVE-B ESA Medium Earth Navigation
Technology
In orbit Operational
28 April
03:53:51[58][59]
IndiaPSLV-C IndiaSatish Dhawan SLP IndiaISRO
IndiaCartosat-2A[60] ISRO Low Earth Remote sensing In orbit Operational
IndiaTWSAT[60] ISRO Low Earth Remote sensing In orbit Operational
CanadaCanX-2[61] UTIAS Low Earth Technology[61] In orbit Operational
JapanCute-1.7+APD II[62] Tokodai Low Earth Technology In orbit Operational
NetherlandsDelfi-C3[63] Delft Low Earth Technology In orbit Operational
DenmarkAAUSAT-II[64] Aalborg Low Earth Radiation[64] In orbit Operational
GermanyCOMPASS-1[65] Aachen Low Earth Remote sensing
Technology
In orbit Operational
JapanSEEDS-2[66] Nihon Low Earth Technology In orbit Operational
CanadaCanX-6[67] UTIAS/COM DEV Low Earth Technology In orbit Operational
GermanyRUBIN-8[68] OHB System Low Earth Technology In orbit Operational
All payloads except CartoSat, TWSAT and RUBIN were CubeSats, launched under designation NSL-4, except CanX-6 which was NSL-5.[57]
RUBIN-8 intentionally remained attached to upper stage
28 April
05:00[70]
UkraineZenit-3SLB KazakhstanBaikonur Site 45/1 United NationsLand Launch
IsraelAMOS-3 (AMOS-60) SCL Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
First Land Launch flight and maiden flight of Zenit-3SLB.
Reached incorrect orbit due to carrier rocket underperformance.[69] Corrected by satellite through use of spare fuel, without affecting operational life.

May[edit]

1 May
05:30[71][72]
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
JHU Suborbital UV Astronomy 05:40 Successful
7 May
04:26[73][74]
IndiaAgni-III IndiaIntegrated Test Range LC-4 IndiaIndian Army
SFC/DRDO Suborbital Missile test 04:41 Successful
8 May United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesUSS Nebraska United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 8 May Successful
8 May United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesUSS Nebraska United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 8 May Successful
14 May
20:22:54[75][76]
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-64 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics 8 September[77] Successful
ISS flight 29P
15 May
04:00[79][80][78]
BrazilVSB-30 SwedenEsrange SwedenGermanySSC/DLR
SwedenEuropean UnionMASER-11 SSC/ESA Suborbital Microgravity 15 May Successful[78]
Apogee: 252 kilometres (157 mi)[78]
21 May
09:43[81]
UkraineZenit-3SL NorwayOcean Odyssey United NationsSea Launch
United NationsGalaxy 18 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
22 May
10:04[83][84]
United StatesLGM-30G Minuteman III United StatesVandenberg LF-10 United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGT-197GM US Air Force/NNSA[83] Suborbital Missile test 22 May Successful
Long range test[82]
23 May
05:00[85]
IndiaPrithvi IndiaIntegrated Test Range IndiaIndian Army
Indian Army[85] Suborbital Missile test 23 May Successful
User test[85]
23 May
15:20:09[86]
RussiaRokot/Briz-KM RussiaPlesetsk Site 133/3[70] RussiaRVSN
RussiaKosmos 2437 (Rodnik)[87] VKS Low Earth Communication In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2438 (Rodnik)[87] VKS Low Earth Communication In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2439 (Rodnik)[87] VKS Low Earth Communication In orbit Operational
RussiaYubeleiny NPO PM[88] Low Earth Technology In orbit Operational
27 May
03:02[89]
ChinaLong March 4C ChinaTaiyuan LC-1 ChinaCNSA
ChinaFeng Yun 3A CMA Sun-synchronous Weather[90] In orbit Operational
29 May ChinaTszyuylan-2 ChinaP629 Submarine, Yellow Sea ChinaPLAN
PLAN Suborbital Missile test 29 May Successful
31 May
21:02:12[91][92]
United StatesSpace Shuttle Discovery United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-124 NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly 14 June
15:15[93]
Successful
United NationsJEM-PM JAXA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Component In orbit Operational
Manned flight with seven astronauts

June[edit]

5 June
18:13
United StatesTR-SRBM United StatesUSS Tripoli, Kauai United StatesUS Navy/MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target 5 June Successful
Destroyed after re-entry by endoatmospheric SM-2 missile launch
9 June
12:15[94]
ChinaLong March 3B[95] ChinaXichang LA-2 ChinaCNSA
ChinaChinasat 9[96] CNPT Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
11 June
16:05[97]
United StatesDelta II 7920H-10C United StatesCape Canaveral SLC-17B United StatesUnited Launch Alliance
United StatesFGST[98] (GLAST)[99] NASA Low Earth Gamma-ray astronomy In orbit Operational
12 June
22:05:02[100]
European UnionAriane 5ECA FranceKourou ELA-3 FranceArianespace
United KingdomSkynet 5C MoD Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
TurkeyTurksat 3A Turksat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
13 June United StatesMRT United StatesBarking Sands United StatesUS Navy/MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target 13 June Successful
Used for simulated test, not intercepted
13 June United StatesMRT United StatesBarking Sands United StatesUS Navy/MDA
MDA Suborbital AEGIS target 13 June Successful
Used for simulated test, not intercepted
19 June
06:36
[102][103]
RussiaKosmos-3M RussiaKapustin Yar Site 107 GermanyCOSMOS International
United StatesOrbcomm CDS-3 Orbcomm Low Earth Communication In orbit Spacecraft failure
United StatesOrbcomm QL-1 Orbcomm Low Earth Communication In orbit Operational[104]
United StatesOrbcomm QL-2 Orbcomm Low Earth Communication In orbit Spacecraft failure
United StatesOrbcomm QL-3 Orbcomm Low Earth Communication In orbit Operational[104]
United StatesOrbcomm QL-4 Orbcomm Low Earth Communication In orbit Spacecraft failure
United StatesOrbcomm QL-5 Orbcomm Low Earth Communication In orbit Spacecraft failure
Spacecraft affected by communications problems, four had failed by December 2009.[101]
20 June
07:46:25[102]
United StatesDelta II 7320 United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesUnited Launch Alliance
United StatesJason-2 (OSTM) NASA Low Earth Oceanography In orbit Operational
26 June
02:16[105]
United StatesTRBM United StatesC-17, Pacific Ocean United StatesUS Air Force
MDA Suborbital THAAD Target 26 June Successful
Intercepted after re-entry by THAAD launched from KMR at 02:22 GMT.[105][106][107]
26 June
19:57[108][109]
CanadaBlack Brant XI United StatesWallops Island United StatesNASA
MDA[109] Suborbital Technology 26 June Successful
26 June
23:59[110]
RussiaProton-K/DM-3[35] KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/24 RussiaRVSN
RussiaKosmos 2440 (Prognoz)[35] VKS Geosynchronous Missile defence[35] In orbit Operational
30 June[111] United StatesNike-Orion NorwayAndøya NorwayAndøya
NorwayGermanyECOMA 2008-1 Andøya/DLR Suborbital Aeronomy 30 June Successful

July[edit]

7 July
21:30[111]
United StatesNike-Orion NorwayAndøya NorwayAndøya
NorwayGermanyECOMA 2008-2 Andøya/DLR Suborbital Aeronomy 7 July Successful
Apogee: 125 kilometres (78 mi)
7 July
21:47[112]
European UnionAriane 5ECA FranceKourou ELA-3 FranceArianespace
Saudi ArabiaBadr-6 Arabsat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
BermudaProtoStar-1[113] ProtoStar Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
9 July[115] IranShahab-3[114] IranStrait of Hormuz[115] IranIRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test 9 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise[114]
9 July[115] IranShahab-2[116] IranStrait of Hormuz[115] IranIRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test 9 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise,[114] missile type not confirmed
9 July[115] IranShahab-1[116] IranStrait of Hormuz[115] IranIRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test 9 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise,[114] missile type not confirmed
10 July[117] IranShahab-3 IranStrait of Hormuz IranIRG
IRG Suborbital Missile test 10 July Successful
Part of Great Prophet III exercise, missile type not confirmed
12 July
10:46[111]
United StatesNike-Orion NorwayAndøya[111] NorwayAndøya
NorwayGermanyECOMA 2008-3 Andøya/DLR Suborbital Aeronomy[111] 12 July Successful
Apogee: 123 kilometres (76 mi)[111]
14 July
10:10[118]
United StatesTerrier-Orion[119] United StatesWallops Island LP-1 United StatesNASA
United StatesSubTEC-II Andøya/DLR Suborbital Technology 14 July Successful
16 July
05:20:59
[120][121]
UkraineZenit-3SL NorwayOcean Odyssey United NationsSea Launch
United StatesEchostar 11 Echostar Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Ongoing
18 July
22:47[122]
United StatesUGM-27 Polaris (STARS United StatesKodiak Island United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesFTX-03 MDA Suborbital Target 18 July Successful[123]
Radar targeting test only, missile not intercepted
22 July
02:40:09
[124][125][126]
RussiaKosmos-3M RussiaPlesetsk Site 132/1 GermanyCOSMOS International[124]
GermanySAR-Lupe 5 Bundeswehr Low Earth, polar Radar imaging In orbit Operational
26 July
18:31[128]
RussiaSoyuz-2.1b RussiaPlesetsk Site 43/4 RussiaRVSN
RussiaKosmos 2441 (Persona)[128] VKS Sun-synchronous Optical imaging In orbit Spacecraft failure
Spacecraft lost due to electrical malfunction[127]

August[edit]

1 August[129] RussiaR-29 RussiaRFS Ryazan, Barents Sea[129] RussiaVMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 1 August Successful[129]
2 August
08:30[130][131]
JapanS-520 JapanUchinoura JapanJAXA
JAXA/Teikyo Suborbital Microgravity 2 August Successful
Apogee: 293 kilometres (182 mi)
3 August
03:34[132][137]
United StatesFalcon 1 Marshall IslandsOmelek United States SpaceX
United StatesTrailblazer ORS/MDA Intended: Low Earth Technology ~T+140 seconds[138] Launch failure[138]
United StatesPreSat[139] Santa Clara/NASA[139][140] Intended: Low Earth Biological
United StatesNanoSail-D[139] Santa Clara/NASA[139][141] Intended: Low Earth Solar sail
United StatesExplorers[142] Celestis Intended: Low Earth Space burial
First and second stage recontact due to residual thrust.[132] PreSat and Nanosail CubeSats, Celestis burial payload included remains of astronaut Gordon Cooper,[133] actor James Doohan,[134] writer and director John Meredyth Lucas,[135] and Apollo mission planner Mareta West[136]
13 August
08:01[144]
United StatesLGM-30G Minuteman III United StatesVandenberg United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGT-195GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 13 August Successful[144]
Travelled about 6,790 kilometres (4,220 mi) downrange.[143]
14 August
20:44[102]
European UnionAriane 5ECA FranceKourou ELA-3 FranceArianespace
JapanSuperbird 7 SCC Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
United StatesAMC-21 SES Americom Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
16 August
19:32[145]
IranSafir[146] IranSemnan IranISA
IranDemoSat[147] ISA Intended: Low Earth[145] Test flight 16 August Launch failure[145]
Reported to have been first Iranian orbital launch attempt. Officially successful, however no objects were left in orbit.[145] Unofficial reports of a second stage malfunction.[145] Also reported to have been a suborbital test, or an attempt to launch the Omid satellite, instead of an orbital test launch.
18 August
22:43[148][149][150]
RussiaProton-M/Briz-M Enhanced KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39[150] RussiaUnited StatesInternational Launch Services
United KingdomInmarsat-4 F3[151] Inmarsat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
22 August
09:10[153]
United StatesALV United StatesMARS LP-0B United StatesAlliant Techsystems
United StatesSOAREX VI NASA Suborbital Technology T+27 seconds[153] Launch failure
United StatesHy-BoLT NASA Suborbital Aerodynamics
Only flight of ALV, veered off course to the South and destroyed by RSO[152]
25 August[154] United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesUSS Louisiana, Pacific Ocean United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 25 August Successful
25 August[154] United StatesUGM-133 Trident II United StatesUSS Louisiana, Pacific Ocean United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Missile test 25 August Successful
28 August[155] RussiaRT-2PM Topol (RS-12M) RussiaPlesetsk RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 28 August Successful
29 August
07:15[156]
UkraineDnepr KazakhstanBaikonur Site 109/95 RussiaISC Kosmotras
GermanyTachys (RapidEye-1)[157] RapidEye Low Earth Imaging In orbit Operational
GermanyMati (RapidEye-2)[157] RapidEye Low Earth Imaging In orbit Operational
GermanyChoma (RapidEye-3)[157] RapidEye Low Earth Imaging In orbit Operational
GermanyChoros (RapidEye-4)[157] RapidEye Low Earth Imaging In orbit Operational
GermanyTrochia (RapidEye-5)[157] RapidEye Low Earth Imaging In orbit Operational

September[edit]

6 September
03:25[158]
ChinaLong March 2C ChinaTaiyuan LC-1 ChinaCNSA
ChinaHuan Jing 1A CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensing In orbit Operational
ChinaHuan Jing 1B CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensing In orbit Operational
6 September
18:50:57[159]
United StatesDelta II 7420 United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesUnited Launch Alliance
United StatesGeoEye 1 (Orbview 5) GeoEye Sun-synchronous Imaging In orbit Operational
10 September
19:50:02[77]
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-65 Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics 7 December
08:48:47[160]
Successful
ISS flight 30P
18 September
02:05[161]
United StatesKauai United StatesMDA
MDA Suborbital Target 18 September Launch failure[161]
Two THAAD intercept launches cancelled.[161]
18 September
14:45[162]
RussiaRSM-56 Bulava (R-30) RussiaRFS Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea[163] RussiaVMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 15:05[164] Successful
19 September
21:48[157][165]
RussiaProton-M/Briz-M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 RussiaUnited StatesInternational Launch Services
CanadaNimiq-4[166] Telesat Canada Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
24 September
06:57[167]
United StatesChimera[167] (Minuteman/Minotaur II) United StatesVandenberg LF-06 United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesNFIRE 2b MDA Suborbital Target 24 September Successful
Tracked by NFIRE satellite
24 September
09:27:59[168]
UkraineZenit-3SL NorwayOcean Odyssey United NationsSea Launch
United NationsGalaxy 19 Intelsat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
25 September
08:49:37
[157][169]
RussiaProton-M/DM-2[170] KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/24 RussiaRVSN
RussiaKosmos 2442 (GLONASS)[157][171] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[172] In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2443 (GLONASS)[157][171] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[172] In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2444 (GLONASS)[157][171] VKS Medium Earth Navigation[172] In orbit Operational
25 September
13:10[157][174]
ChinaLong March 2F ChinaJiuquan LA-4/SLS-1 ChinaCNSA
ChinaShenzhou 7 CNSA Low Earth Manned flight 28 September
09:37:40[173]
Successful
ChinaBan Xing[173] CNSA Low Earth Technology 30 October 2009[175] Successful
ChinaShenzhou 7-GC[173] CNSA Low Earth Technology 4 January 2010[176] Successful
Manned flight with three yǔhángyuán, crew conducted first Chinese EVA
Ban Xing deployed from Shenzhou on 27 September at 11:27 GMT, GC separated on 28 September at 08:48 to begin independent mission[173]
28 September
23:15[178]
United StatesFalcon 1 Marshall IslandsOmelek United StatesSpaceX
United StatesRatSat[173] SpaceX Low Earth DemoSat In orbit Successful[178][177]
Launched boilerplate payload. First privately funded and developed liquid fuelled rocket to reach orbit[177]

October[edit]

1 October
06:37:16
UkraineDnepr RussiaDombarovskiy RussiaISC Kosmotras
ThailandTHEOS GISTDA Low Earth Remote sensing In orbit Operational
11 October[179] RussiaR-29RMU Sineva RussiaRFS Tula, Barents Sea RussiaVMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 11 October Successful
Long-range test[179]
12 October
07:01[180]
RussiaSoyuz-FG KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaSoyuz TMA-13[181] Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) ISS Expedition 18 8 April 2009
07:16
Successful
Manned flight with three cosmonauts, including a space tourist. 100th flight of the Soyuz programme to be manned at some point in its mission[9]
12 October
07:24[182]
RussiaRT-2PM Topol (RS-12M) RussiaPlesetsk RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 07:50[182] Successful
12 October[183] RussiaR-29R Vysota RussiaRFS Zelenograd, Sea of Okhotsk[183] RussiaVMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
12 October[183] RussiaR-29RM Shtil RussiaRFS Yekaterinburg, Barents Sea[183] RussiaVMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 12 October Successful
19 October
17:47:23[184]
United StatesPegasus-XL/Star-27 Marshall IslandsUnited StatesStargazer, Kwajalein Atoll United StatesOrbital Sciences
United StatesIBEX NASA High Earth Solar In orbit Operational
20 October
08:39[185]
CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
NRL Suborbital UV Astronomy[186] 08:49[185] Successful
22 October
00:52:11[188]
IndiaPSLV-XL IndiaSatish Dhawan SLP IndiaISRO
IndiaChandrayaan-1[189] ISRO Selenocentric Lunar orbiter In orbit Partial spacecraft failure
IndiaMIP ISRO Selenocentric Lunar impactor 14 November Successful
First Indian lunar spacecraft,[187] failed on 28 August 2009 after less than half of planned mission duration, maiden flight of PSLV-XL
22 October
09:10[190]
RussiaRS-18 UR-100N KazakhstanBaikonur RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 22 October Successful
22 October
12:30[191]
United StatesNike-Orion SwedenEsrange SwedenGermanyEuroLaunch
SwedenGermanyREXUS-4 SSC/DLR Suborbital Student research 22 October Successful
Apogee: 175 kilometres (109 mi)
25 October
01:15[193]
ChinaLong March 4B ChinaTaiyuan LC-2[192] ChinaCNSA
China Shi Jian 6E CNSA Low Earth Scientific In orbit Operational
China Shi Jian 6F CNSA Low Earth Scientific In orbit Operational
First launch from Taiyuan LC-2[192]
25 October
02:28[194]
United StatesDelta II 7420-10 United StatesVandenberg SLC-2W United StatesUnited Launch Alliance
ItalyCOSMO-3 ASI[195] Sun-synchronous Radar imaging In orbit Operational
29 October
16:53:53[196]
ChinaLong March 3B/E ChinaXichang LA-3 ChinaCNSA
VenezuelaVenesat-1 VMoST Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
First Venezuelan satellite[196]

November[edit]

1 November[197] United StatesBarking Sands United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Target 1 November Successful
Intercepted by SM-3 missile, part of Pacific Blitz exercise[197]
1 November[197] United StatesRIM-161 Standard Missile 3 United StatesUSS Paul Hamilton, Pacific Ocean[197] United StatesUS Navy
US Navy[197] Suborbital Intercept test 1 November Successful
Intercepted target missile, part of Pacific Blitz exercise[197]
1 November[197] United StatesBarking Sands United StatesUS Navy
US Navy Suborbital Target 1 November Successful
Intercept by SM-3 missile failed. Part of Pacific Blitz exercise[197]
1 November[197] United StatesRIM-161 Standard Missile 3 United StatesUSS Hopper, Pacific Ocean[197] United StatesUS Navy
US Navy[197] Suborbital Intercept test 1 November Spacecraft failure
Sensor fault resulted in failure to intercept target missile.[197] Part of Pacific Blitz exercise[197]
5 November
00:15[198]
ChinaLong March 2D[199] ChinaJiuquan LA-4/SLS-2[200] ChinaCNSA
ChinaChuang Xin 1B CNSA Low Earth Weather In orbit Operational
ChinaShiyan Weixing 3[200] CNSA Low Earth Technology In orbit Operational
5 November
09:00[201]
United StatesLGM-30G Minuteman III United StatesVandenberg United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesGT-198GM US Air Force Suborbital Missile test 5 November Successful
Travelled 6,740 kilometres (4,190 mi) downrange[201]
5 November
20:44
RussiaProton-M/Briz-M KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 RussiaUnited StatesInternational Launch Services
LuxembourgAstra 1M SES Astra Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
Final flight of standard Proton-M
12 November
05:56[202]
IndiaShaurya[203] IndiaIntegrated Test Range LC-3[204] IndiaDRDO
Indian Army Suborbital Missile test 12 November Successful
12 November[205] IranSejjil IranIran IranIRGC AF
IRGC AF Suborbital Missile test 12 November Successful
Maiden flight of Sejjil missile
13 November
09:06[206]
FranceM51 FranceCEL FranceFOST
FOST Suborbital Missile test 13 November Successful
14 November
15:50[207]
RussiaSoyuz-U RussiaPlesetsk Site 16/2 RussiaRVSN
RussiaKosmos 2445 (Kobalt-M) VKS Low Earth Optical imaging 23 February 2009[208]
16:15[209]
Successful
14 November CanadaBlack Brant IX United StatesWhite Sands LC-36 United StatesNASA
NRL[210] Suborbital Solar[210] 14 November Successful
15 November
00:55:39[212]
United StatesSpace Shuttle Endeavour[213] United StatesKennedy LC-39A United StatesUnited Space Alliance
United StatesSTS-126[214] NASA Low Earth (ISS) ISS Assembly 30 November
21:25:06[215]
Successful
ItalyUnited StatesLeonardo MPLM ASI/NASA Low Earth (ISS) Logistics Successful
United StatesPSSC US Air Force Low Earth Technology 17 February 2010
17:31[216]
Successful
Manned flight with seven astronauts, PSSC deployed from Shuttle at 20:33 GMT on 29 November and operated for 110 days.[211]
19 November
02:18[217][218]
United StatesBarking Sands United StatesUS Navy
US Navy/JMSDF Suborbital Target 19 November Successful
Intercept by SM-3 missile failed
19 November
02:21[218]
United StatesRIM-161 Standard Missile 3 JapanJDS Chōkai, Pacific Ocean JapanJMSDF
JMSDF Suborbital Interceptor 19 November Spacecraft failure
Infrared sensor fault, failed to intercept target[219]
26 November
12:38:27[220]
RussiaSoyuz-U KazakhstanBaikonur Site 1/5 RussiaRoskosmos
RussiaProgress M-01M Roskosmos Low Earth (ISS) Logistics 8 February 2009
08:20[221]
Successful
First flight of modernised Progress spacecraft, Kurs anomaly necessitated manual docking.
ISS flight 31P
26 November
13:24[222]
RussiaRS-24 Yars RussiaPlesetsk RussiaRVSN
RVSN Suborbital Missile test 26 November Successful
26 November[223] IranIran IranISA
IranKavoshgar-2 ISA Suborbital Test flight 26 November Successful
Payload recovered by parachute
28 November[224] RussiaRSM-56 Bulava (R-30) RussiaRFS Dmitri Donskoi, White Sea[225] RussiaVMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 28 November Successful

December[edit]

1 December
04:42[226]
ChinaLong March 2D ChinaJiuquan LA-4/SLS-2 ChinaCNSA
ChinaYaogan-4 CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensing In orbit Operational
2 December
05:00[227]
RussiaMolniya-M/2BL[228] RussiaPlesetsk Site 16/2 RussiaRVSN
RussiaKosmos 2446 (Oko) VKS Molniya Missile defence In orbit Operational
5 December
10:35:10[229]
BrazilUnited StatesVS-30-Orion NorwaySvalRak NorwayAndøya
NorwayICI-2[230] Oslo Suborbital Auroral 10:45[229] Successful
Apogee: 330 kilometres (210 mi)[229]
5 December
20:04[232]
United StatesUGM-27 Polaris (STARS) United StatesKodiak Island United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesFTG-05 MDA Suborbital Target 20:29[233] Partial spacecraft failure
Decoy target failed to deploy,[231] intercepted by GBI
5 December
20:21[232]
United StatesGround Based Interceptor United StatesVandenberg United StatesUS Air Force
United StatesFTG-05 MDA Suborbital Target 20:29[233] Successful
Intercepted Polaris
10 December
13:43:00[234]
RussiaProton-M/Briz-M Enhanced KazakhstanBaikonur Site 200/39 RussiaUnited StatesInternational Launch Services
CanadaCiel-2[102] Ciel[235] Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
15 December
03:22[236]
ChinaLong March 4B ChinaTaiyuan LC-2 ChinaCNSA
ChinaYaogan-5 CNSA Sun-synchronous Remote sensing 2 September 2014 Successful
20 December
22:35[237]
European UnionAriane 5ECA FranceKourou ELA-3 FranceArianespace
FranceHot Bird 9[102] Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Operational
FranceEutelsat W2M[102] Eutelsat Geosynchronous Communication In orbit Spacecraft failure[238]
23 December
00:54[239]
ChinaLong March 3A ChinaXichang LA-2 ChinaCNSA
ChinaFeng Yun 2E CMA Geosynchronous Weather In orbit Operational
23 December
03:00[241]
RussiaRSM-56 Bulava[242] RussiaRFS Dmitry Donskoi[240] ChinaVMF
VMF Suborbital Missile test 23 December Launch failure
Self-destruct system activated after missile went off course[240]
25 December
10:43[243]
RussiaProton-M/DM-2 Enhanced KazakhstanBaikonur Site 81/24 RussiaRVSN
RussiaKosmos 2447 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2448 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
RussiaKosmos 2449 (GLONASS) VKS Medium Earth Navigation In orbit Operational
First flight of Proton-M Enhanced with DM-2 upper stage, last orbital launch from Baikonur to be conducted by the Russian military

Deep Space Rendezvous[edit]

Date (GMT) Spacecraft Event Remarks
5 January Cassini 40th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,010 kilometres (630 mi)
14 January MESSENGER 1st flyby of Mercury Closest approach: 200 kilometres (120 mi) at 19:04 GMT[244]
22 February Cassini 41st flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 March Cassini 3rd flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 52 kilometres (32 mi)
25 March Cassini 42nd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
12 May Cassini 43rd flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,000 kilometres (620 mi)
25 May Phoenix Landing on Mars Region D, Arctic area - Green Valley, near the Heimdal crater: 68°N, 236°E. Touchdown at 23:38 GMT. Successful[245]
28 May Cassini 44th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,400 kilometres (870 mi)
31 July Cassini 45th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,613 kilometres (1,002 mi)
11 August Cassini 4th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 54 kilometres (34 mi)
5 September Rosetta Flyby of 2867 Šteins

Closest approach: 800 kilometres (500 mi)

6 October MESSENGER 2nd flyby of Mercury
9 October Cassini 5th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 25 kilometres (16 mi)
31 October Cassini 6th flyby of Enceladus Closest approach: 200 kilometres (120 mi)
3 November Cassini 46th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,100 kilometres (680 mi)
8 November Chandrayaan-1 Injection into Selenocentric orbit Periselene: 504 kilometres (313 mi), Aposelene: 7,502 kilometres (4,662 mi)[246]
14 November MIP Landing on the Moon Lunar Impactor
19 November Cassini 47th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 1,023 kilometres (636 mi)
5 December Cassini 48th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 960 kilometres (600 mi)
21 December Cassini 49th flyby of Titan Closest approach: 970 kilometres (600 mi)
Distant, non-targeted flybys of Dione, Enceladus, Mimas, Tethys and Titan by Cassini occurred throughout the year.

EVAs[edit]

Start Date/Time Duration End Time Spacecraft Crew Function Remarks
30 January
09:56[247]
7 hours
10 minutes
17:06[248] Expedition 16
(ISS Quest)
United StatesPeggy Whitson
United StatesDaniel M. Tani
Replace motor and bearing in solar array joint
11 February
14:13[249]
7 hours
58 minutes
22:11[249] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRex J. Walheim
United StatesStanley G. Love
Install Power Data Grapple Fixture on Columbus Originally to have been conducted by Walheim and Hans Schlegel, Love replaced Schlegel on medical grounds.[250]
13 February
14:27[251]
6 hours
45 minutes
21:12[251] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRex J. Walheim
GermanyHans Schlegel
Replace depleted nitrogen tank
15 February
12:07[251]
7 hours
25 minutes
20:32[251] STS-122
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRex J. Walheim
United StatesStanley G. Love
Install experiments on Columbus, load failed gyroscope onto Shuttle for return to Earth
14 March
01:18[252]
7 hours
1 minute
08:19[252] STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRichard M. Linnehan
United StatesGarrett Reisman
Install Kibo ELM-PS and start Dextre assembly
15 March
23:49[253]
7 hours
8 minutes
16 March
06:57[253]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRichard M. Linnehan
United StatesMichael Foreman
Dextre assembly
17 March
22:52[253]
6 hours
53 minutes
18 March
05:44[253]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRichard M. Linnehan
United StatesRobert L. Behnken
Dextre assembly, install MISSE-6 experiment, and store spare parts outside the ISS MISSE installation failed[253]
20 March
22:04[253]
6 hours
24 minutes
21 March
04:08[253]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRobert L. Behnken
United StatesMichael Foreman
Test heat shield repair techniques
22 March
20:34[253]
6 hours
2 minutes
23 March
02:36[253]
STS-123
(ISS Quest)
United StatesRobert L. Behnken
United StatesMichael Foreman
Store OBSS on ISS, retry MISSE-6 installation[254]
3 June
16:22[255]
6 hours
48 minutes[92]
23:10[92] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
United StatesMike Fossum
United StatesRon Garan
Install JEM Pressurised Module, Inspect SARJ, retrieve OBSS.[255]
5 June
15:04[92]
7 hours
11 minutes[92]
22:15[92] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
United StatesMike Fossum
United StatesRon Garan
Adjust covers on JEM, Inspect SARJ.[256]
8 June
13:55[92]
6 hours
33 minutes[92]
20:28[92] STS-124
(ISS Quest)
United StatesMike Fossum
United StatesRon Garan
Replace nitrogen tank, inspect SARJ.[257]
10 July
18:48[258]
6 hours
18 minutes[258]
11 July
01:06[258]
Expedition 17
(ISS Pirs)[258]
RussiaSergei Volkov
RussiaOleg Kononenko
Remove pyrotechnic bolt from Soyuz TMA-12 for inspection.[259]
15 July
17:08[258]
5 hours
54 minutes[258]
23:02[258] Expedition 17
(ISS Pirs)[258]
RussiaSergei Volkov
RussiaOleg Kononenko
Install docking targeting equipment, rotate exposed experiments[260]
27 September
08:38
22 minutes 09:00 Shenzhou 7 ChinaZhai Zhigang (full)
ChinaLiu Boming (stand-up)
Test spacesuit, collect experiment First Chinese EVA
18 November
18:09
6 hours
52 minutes
19 November
01:01
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesHeidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
United StatesStephen G. Bowen
Transferred an empty nitrogen tank assembly from ESP3 to the shuttle's cargo bay, transferred a new flex hose rotary coupler to ESP3 for future use, removed an insulation cover on the Kibo Exposed Facility berthing mechanism, began cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ, and replacement of its 11 trundle bearing assemblies.[261][262]
20 November
17:58
6 hours
45 minutes
21 November
00:43
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesHeidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
United StatesRobert S. Kimbrough
Relocated the two CETA carts from the starboard side of the Mobile Transporter to the port side, lubricated the station robotic arm's latching end effector A snare bearings, continued cleaning and lubrication of the starboard SARJ[263][264][265] Conducted on tenth anniversary of the launch of the ISS[263]
22 November
18:01
6 hours
57 minutes
23 November
00:58
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesHeidemarie Stefanyshyn-Piper
United StatesStephen G. Bowen
Completed cleaning and lubrication of all but one of the trundle bearing assemblies (TBA) on the starboard SARJ.[266][267]
24 November
18:24
6 hours
7 minutes
25 November
00:31
STS-126
(ISS Quest)
United StatesStephen G. Bowen
United StatesRobert S. Kimbrough
Completed replacement of trundle bearing assemblies on starboard SARJ, lubricated the port SARJ, installed a video camera, re‐installed insulation covers on the Kibo External Facility berthing mechanism, performed Kibo robotic arm grounding tab maintenance, installed spacewalk handrails on Kibo, installed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) antennae on Kibo, photographed radiators, and photographed trailing umbilical system cables.[268]
23 December
00:51
5 hours
38 minutes
06:29 Expedition 18
(ISS Pirs)
United StatesMichael Fincke
RussiaYuri Lonchakov
Install Langmuir probe, EXPOSE-R and IPI-SM experiments.[269] EXPOSE-R installation failed[269]

Orbital launch summary[edit]

By country[edit]

China: 11 Europe: 6 India: 3 International: 6 Iran: 1 Japan: 1 Russia: 26 USA: 15Circle frame.svg
Country Launches Successes Failures Partial
failures
Remarks
 China 11 11 0 0
 Europe 6 6 0 0
 India 3 3 0 0
United Nations International 6 6 0 0 Sea Launch / Land Launch
 Iran 1 0 1 0 First orbital launch attempt[145]
 Japan 1 1 0 0
 Russia /
 CIS
26 25 0 1
 United States 15 14 1 0
World 69 66 2 1

By rocket[edit]

By family[edit]

Family Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Ariane  Europe 6 6 0 0
Atlas  United States 2 2 0 0
Delta  United States 5 5 0 0
H-II  Japan 1 1 0 0
Falcon  United States 2 1 1 0
Long March  China 11 11 0 0
Pegasus  United States 2 2 0 0
PSLV  India 3 3 0 0
R-7  Russia 10 10 0 0
R-14  Russia 3 3 0 0
R-36  Ukraine 2 2 0 0
Safir  Iran 1 0 1 0 Maiden flight
Space Shuttle  United States 4 4 0 0
Universal Rocket  Russia 11 10 0 1
Zenit  Ukraine /  Russia 6 6 0 0

By type[edit]

Rocket Country Family Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Ariane 5  Europe Ariane 6 6 0 0
Atlas V  United States Atlas 2 2 0 0
Delta II  United States Delta 5 5 0 0
Dnepr  Ukraine R-36 2 2 0 0
H-IIA  Japan H-II 1 1 0 0
Falcon 1  United States Falcon 2 1 1 0
Kosmos  Russia R-12/R-14 3 3 0 0
Long March 2  China Long March 4 4 0 0
Long March 3  China Long March 4 4 0 0
Long March 4  China Long March 3 3 0 0
Molniya  Russia R-7 1 1 0 0
Pegasus  United States Pegasus 2 2 0 0
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle  India PSLV 3 3 0 0
Proton  Russia Universal Rocket 10 9 0 1
Safir  Iran Safir 1 0 1 0 Maiden flight
Soyuz  Russia R-7 8 8 0 0
Soyuz-2  Russia R-7 1 1 0 0
Space Shuttle  United States Space Shuttle 4 4 0 0
UR-100  Russia Universal Rocket 1 1 0 0
Zenit  Ukraine /  Russia Zenit 6 6 0 0

By configuration[edit]

By launch site[edit]

Site Country Launches Successes Failures Partial failures Remarks
Baikonur  Kazakhstan 19 18 0 1
Cape Canaveral  United States 3 3 0 0
Dombarovsky  Russia 1 1 0 0
Jiuquan  China 3 3 0 0
Kapustin Yar  Russia 1 1 0 0
Kennedy  United States 4 4 0 0
Kwajalein Atoll  Marshall Islands 4 3 1 0 Two launches used Stargazer aircraft
Kourou  France 6 6 0 0
Ocean Odyssey United Nations International 5 5 0 0
Plesetsk  Russia 6 6 0 0
Satish Dhawan  India 3 3 0 0
Semnan  Iran 1 0 1 0 First orbital launch attempt
Taiyuan  China 4 4 0 0
Tanegashima  Japan 1 1 0 0
Vandenberg  United States 4 4 0 0
Xichang  China 4 4 0 0

By orbit[edit]

Orbital regime Launches Successes Failures Accidentally
Achieved
Remarks
Low Earth orbit 36 34 2 0 11 to ISS
Medium Earth orbit 4 4 0 1
Geosynchronous/transfer 25 24 1 0
High Earth orbit 4 4 0 0 Including lunar transfer and Molniya orbits

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Generic references:

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "36.243 UG McCandliss/Johns Hopkins University". NASA Sounding Rockets Office. 11 January 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-05-11. Retrieved 15 March 2008. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l McDowell, Dr. Jonathan (14 March 2008). "Issue 593". Jonathan's Space Report. Retrieved 15 March 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d Krebs, Gunter (15 March 2008). "Orbital Launches of 2008". Gunter's Space Page. Archived from the original on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 18 June 2008. 
  4. ^ Baldwin, Emily (2008-10-08). "Cassini prepares for double flyby of Enceladus". Astronomy Now. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  5. ^ "NASA Phoenix Mars Lander Confirms Frozen Water". NASA. 2008-06-20. Archived from the original on 22 January 2009. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  6. ^ "Ulysses". Science and Technology. ESA. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
  7. ^ Harwood, William (2008-05-02). "Whitson describes rough Soyuz entry and landing". Spaceflight Now. Archived from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-04. 
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