2009 Boko Haram uprising

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2009 Boko Haram uprising
Part of Boko Haram insurgency
Date 26–29 July 2009
Location Bauchi, Bauchi State
Maiduguri, Borno
Potiskum, Yobe
Wudil, Kano State
Result Violence quelled
Flag of Jihad.svg Boko Haram  Nigeria
Commanders and leaders
Flag of Jihad.svg Mohammed Yusuf  
Flag of Jihad.svg Abubakar Shekau
Nigeria Umaru Yar'Adua
Nigeria Ibrahim Geidam
Nigeria Ali Modu Sheriff
Nigeria Isa Yuguda
Nigeria Saleh Maina
Nigeria Christopher Dega
Casualties and losses
Around 1,000 dead total.[1][2]
Bauchi is located in Nigeria
The battles began in Bauchi and quickly spread to Maiduguri, Potiskum and Wudil.

The 2009 Boko Haram uprising was a conflict between Boko Haram, a militant Islamist group and Nigerian security forces. Violence across several states in northeastern Nigeria left over 1,000 dead, with around 700 killed in the city of Maiduguri alone, according to one military official.[1][2][3]

A government inquiry later found that, while long-standing tensions existed between Boko Haram and the Nigerian Security forces, the immediate cause of the violence stemmed from an incident in which a group of the sect's members were stopped by police in the city of Maiduguri as they were on the way to the cemetery to bury a comrade. The officers, part of a special operation aimed at stamping out violence and rampant crime in Borno State, demanded that the young men comply with a law requiring motorcycle passengers to wear helmets. They refused and, in the confrontation that followed, several were shot and wounded by police.[1]

According to initial media reports the violence began on 26 July when Boko Haram launched an attack on a police station in Bauchi state, with clashes between militants and the Nigeria Police Force spreading to Kano, Yobe and Borno soon after. However President Umaru Yar’Adua disputed this version of events, claiming that government security forces had struck first.

“I want to emphasize that this is not an inter-religious crisis and it is not the Taliban group that attacked the security agents first, no. It was as a result of a security information gathered on their intention ... to launch a major attack,’’ he said.[4]

Nigerian troops surrounded the home of Ustaz Mohammed Yusuf in Maiduguri on 28 July after his followers barricaded themselves inside. On July 30, Yusuf was captured by the military, taken to police headquarters, and executed.[5]

Islam online suggests that politics, not religion, was the cause of the violence.[6] However some people, including Christian pastor George Orjih, were murdered specifically because they refused to convert to Islam.[7][5]

Prior to the clashes, many local Muslim leaders and at least one military official had warned the Nigerian authorities about Boko Haram. Those warnings were reportedly ignored.[3]

Bauchi, Bauchi State[edit]

On 26 July, over fifty people were killed and several dozen were injured in Bauchi when a gun-battle erupted as a police station was attacked by seventy Nigerian Boko Haram gang members who possessed grenades and guns. 32 Boko Haram militants were killed in the fighting, along with a soldier.[8][9] The government claimed that 39 militants had been killed, and confirmed the death of a soldier. The attack was carried out following the detainment of the gang's leaders.[8] Security forces then retaliated by raiding the group's neighbourhoods.[8]

Isa Yuguda, State Governor of Bauchi, commented: "We have pre-empted the militants. Otherwise the situation would have been bad. I'm calling on all the people of Bauchi to be calm and be rest assured the situation has been brought under control."

A night time curfew was declared in the aftermath and police maintained a visible profile.[9][10] Businesses were still open in the area.[9]

Maiduguri, Borno State[edit]

100 bodies were reported to be found beside police headquarters in Maiduguri.[10][11] Hundreds of people are leaving their homes there to escape the violence.[10][11] A jailbreak was also reported but this has not yet been confirmed.[10] Several civilian corpses lie on the city's streets; many were shot dead after being pulled from cars.[10] The country's army and police are on patrol and firing.[10]

On 28 July, Army soldiers reportedly launched an offensive on the compound of sect leader Mohammed Yusuf and a nearby mosque used by his followers in the Borno state capital of Maiduguri. Troops shelled Mohammed Yusuf's home in the city after Yusuf's followers barricaded themselves inside.[12][13][14] Shots rained across the city.[12] On 30 July, Nigerian security forces killed 100 Boko Haram militants in fighting in Maiduguri. Security forces fought their way into a Mosque occupied by militants and raked the inside with machine gun fire. Elsewhere, Military and Police forces engaged militants in house to house fighting. It was initially reported that among them was Boko Haram vice-chairman Abubakar Shekau, but that has since been proven false as video has appeared of Shekau since. [15] Nigerian policemen were also killed. Maidguri was declared secure, and Nigerian forces began setting up mortar positions to shell the remaining enemy compound.

On 30 July, Yusuf was captured by the military and handed over to the police at the police headquarters in Maiduguri. Police officers then summarily executed Yusuf inside the compound in full view of public onlookers.[5][16] Police officials initially claimed that either Yusuf was shot while trying to escape or died of wounds he sustained during a gunbattle with the military.[5][16] The police also executed other Boko Haram suspects, including Yusuf's father-in-law, outside the police headquarters.[5][16]

On 2 August, another group of women and children abducted by the Boko Haram sect were found locked in a house in Maiduguri.[17] The military said 700 people were killed in Maiduguri during the clashes.[17] The Red Cross later said that 780 bodies had been taken from the streets of the city and buried in mass graves.[18]

Potiskum, Yobe State[edit]

A gun-battle lasting several hours took place in Potiskum where a police station was set alight and burnt to the ground by militants using fuel-laden motorcycles, killing a police officer and a fire safety officer. Police engaged the fighters and wounded several. Police arrested twenty-three fighters in response.[10] According to Nigerian sources, 43 Boko Haram fighters were killed in a shootout near the city on 30 July.

Wudil, Kano State[edit]

Three people were killed in an attack in Wudil, leading to over thirty-three arrests.[10] Wudil's senior police officer was injured.[10]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Umar, Sani (2011). "The Discourses of Salafi Radicalism and Salafi Counter-radicalism in Nigeria : A Case-study of Boko Haram". Northwestern University. p. 12. 
  2. ^ a b Bavier, Jow (17 February 2012). "Nigeria: Boko Haram 101". Pulizer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  3. ^ a b "Nigeria accused of ignoring sect warnings before wave of killings". The Guardian (London). Associated Press. 2 August 2009. Retrieved 6 August 2009. 
  4. ^ "Nigeria accused of ignoring sect warnings before wave of killings". Boston.com. Associated Press. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d e Human Rights Watch (11 October 2012). Spiraling Violence: Boko Haram Attacks and Security Force Abuses in Nigeria. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  6. ^ Oriyomi, Rafiu (29 July 2009). "Politics Vs Religion in Nigeria Attacks". IslamOnline. Archived from the original on 31 July 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2009. 
  7. ^ Ola, Timothy (6 August 2009). "Boko Haram: How 3 pastors were beheaded eyewitness". Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 12 August 2009. 
  8. ^ a b c "Nigeria forces kill 32 after attack on police station". Reuters. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 
  9. ^ a b c "Security forces kill 50 in Nigeria". The Irish Times. 26 July 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009. (registration required (help)). 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Nigerian Islamist attacks spread". BBC News. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 
  11. ^ a b "Over 100 dead in Nigerian clashes". RTÉ. 27 July 2009. Archived from the original on 30 July 2009. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "Nigerian troops shell Islamists". BBC News. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 
  13. ^ "Sect leader's home shelled". news.com.au. Agence France-Presse. 29 July 2009. Archived from the original on 2 August 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009. 
  14. ^ "Nigerian troops surround militant hideout". The Miami Herald. 28 July 2009. Retrieved 28 July 2009. [dead link]
  15. ^ "Islamist leader Shekau 'hiding in the desert'". Worldwide Religious News. 16 July 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  16. ^ a b c "Video shows Nigeria 'executions'". Al Jazeera. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2015. 
  17. ^ a b "Nigerian police find sect women". BBC News. 2 August 2009. Retrieved 2 August 2009. 
  18. ^ "Red Cross finds 780 corpses in single Nigeria city". Press TV. 3 August 2009. Archived from the original on 7 September 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2009. 

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