2009 flu pandemic in the United States
|This article's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (March 2010)|
The 2009 flu pandemic in the United States was a pandemic experienced in the United States of a novel strain of the Influenza A/H1N1 virus, commonly referred to as 'swine flu', that began in the spring of 2009. The virus had spread to the US from an outbreak in Mexico.
As of mid-March 2010, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that about 59 million Americans contracted the H1N1 virus, 265,000 were hospitalized as a result, and 12,000 died.
- 1 History
- 2 Initial cases
- 3 Outbreak across the US
- 4 Flu strain severity
- 5 Response
- 6 Summary
- 7 Notes
- 8 External links
The earliest reported cases in the US began appearing in late March 2009, in California, then spread to infect people in Texas, New York, and assorted other states by mid-April. This spread continued across the country's population and by the end of May had infected citizens in all 50 states. The pattern continued through June of the same year. The total number of confirmed cases varied from 27,717 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed and probable cases) and 25,453[better source needed] (total of all state confirmed cases) as of June 26, 2009.
Towards the middle of June 2009, the number of US cases surpassed those of Mexico, which had been the previous leader in diagnosed cases of the disease. Toward the end of June 2009, the number of deaths related to the virus in the US surpassed those of all other countries as well.
On June 25, the CDC released information revealing that there were more than likely over one million (1,000,000) cases of the disease in the US, most of which had not been reported or diagnosed.
Deaths relating to this new strain of influenza began appearing in the US in late April, and by early June 15, states had reported fatalities related to or directly occurring from the virus. These deaths totaled at 4,000 as of November 15, 2009. The CDC distributed a vaccine for the novel flu strain. using mechanisms already in place for its Vaccines for Children (VFC) program.
On October 24, 2009, President Barack Obama declared Swine Flu a national emergency in the United States. On November 12, 2009, the CDC reported an estimated 22 million Americans had been infected with 2009 A H1N1 and 4,000 Americans have died. On December 10, 2009, the CDC reported an estimated 50 million Americans or 1 in 6 people had been infected with the 2009 A H1N1 Virus and 10,000 American had died, by which time the vaccine was beginning to be widely distributed to the general public by several states. On December 23, 2009 the CDC reported a reduction of the disease by 59% percent and the disease was expected to end in the United States in January 2010.
On January 15, 2010, the CDC released new estimate figures for swine flu, saying it has sickened about 55 million Americans and killed about 11,160 from April through mid-December. On February 12, 2010, the CDC released updated estimate figures for swine flu, reporting that, in total, 57 million Americans had been sickened, 257,000 had been hospitalised and 11,690 people had died (including 1,180 children) due to swine flu from April through to mid-January.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) identified the first two A/09(H1N1) swine flu cases in California on April 17, 2009, via the Border Infectious Disease Program, for the San Diego County child, and a naval research facility studying a special diagnostic test, where influenza sample from the child from Imperial County was tested. By April 21, enhanced surveillance was established to search for additional cases in both California and Texas and the CDC determined that the virus strain was genetically similar to the previously known A(H1N1) swine flu circulating among pigs in the United States since about 1999.
It was established that the virus was a combination of human, North American swine, and Eurasian swine influenza viruses; the viruses from the initial two Californian cases were also noted to be resistant to amantadine and rimantadine, two common influenza antiviral drugs. No contact with pigs was found for any of the seven Californian nor either of the two Texas cases, suggesting human-to-human transmission of the virus.
On April 28, 2009, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention confirmed the first official US death of swine flu. Tests confirmed that a 23-month-old toddler from Mexico, who was probably infected there, died on April 27 from the flu while visiting Texas.
Outbreak across the US
|This section requires expansion. (December 2009)|
Cases of H1N1 spread rapidly across the United States, with particularly severe outbreaks in Texas, New York, Utah, and California. Early cases were associated with recent travel to Mexico; many were students who had traveled to Mexico for Spring Break. On May 4, 2009, the CDC reported one death, 286 confirmed cases of H1N1 flu across 36 states, 35 hospitalizations, and expects H1N1 to eventually spread to all states. A large number of cases, according to medics, have happened in the days that preceded the launch of the alert and came out only in these days due to a massive backlog. By May 5, 2009, the number had risen to 403 and a second death was reported in Texas. The CDC and government officials had expressed cautious optimism about the severity and spread of H1N1.
Changes in surveillance of cases of influenza-like illness, including new guidelines for identifying cases to test, increased laboratory testing, and new test kits able to distinguish this novel strain, resulted in a spike in the percent of cases tested positive for influenza. Of the positive cases, about a third were due to the novel strain. Also found were a substantial number of cases where the strain could not be subtyped.
The proportion of US deaths due to pneumonia and influenza climbed above the epidemic threshold in the 2007–2008 winter flu season but not in the 2008–2009 season. Although the 2009 H1N1 outbreak reached epidemic levels of infection early in 2009, it did not contribute to epidemic levels of pneumonia and influenza related deaths until October 2009.
|2009 US Swine Flu Summary|
|Number of Confirmed Cases/Deaths||See Table Above|
|Number of States/Territories
with Reported Cases
|Number of States/Territories
with Confirmed Deaths
|Earliest Confirmed Infection in US||March 28, 2009|
|First Death Inside the US||April 27, 2009|
|First Death of US Citizen||May 5, 2009|
|Number of People Hospitalized||9,079 (as of September 3)|
|Fatalities||593 (as of September 3)|
The second wave
|This section requires expansion. (December 2009)|
|This section's factual accuracy may be compromised due to out-of-date information. (November 2010)|
In early October 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that swine flu was widespread across the country. It also said there was significant flu activity in virtually all states, which was considered to be quite unusual for this time of year. There was particular worry about pregnant women. As of late August, 100 had been hospitalized in intensive care units and 28 had died since the beginning of the outbreak in April. On October 1, it was acknowledged that a recruit in basic training in Fort Jackson, South Carolina, was the Army's first swine flu death. The recruit fell ill on September 1 and died of pneumonia on September 10.
Dell Children's Medical Center in Austin, Texas, erected two tents in its parking lot to handle emergency room visits, and hospitals around Colorado Springs recorded a 30 percent spike in flu visits. As pediatric cases were increasing, the Dept. of Health and Human Services released 300,000 courses of children's liquid Tamiflu from the national pandemic stockpile in late September, with the first batches sent to Texas and Colorado.
In late September, the disease centers reported that 936 had died of flu symptoms or of flu-associated pneumonia since August 30, when it began a new count of deaths, including some without laboratory-confirmed swine flu.
The Agriculture Department reported on October 16 that three pigs at the Minnesota State Fair, in St. Paul, were tested positive in late August for H1N1 virus, which were the first cases in the country, although infected pigs had been found in eight other countries. There were 103 pigs tested at the Fair, including the three infected, though all appeared healthy. Scientists said the virus was already spreading widely among people, and, in fact, was more common in humans than in pigs, so humans were more likely to catch it from others than from pigs.
In mid-October, it was reported that flu caused by the H1N1 virus was widespread in 41 states, and flu-like illnesses accounted for 6.1 percent of all doctor visits, which was considered high, particularly for October. Forty-three children had died from H1N1 since August 30, which is approximately the number that usually dies in an entire flu season. Nineteen of the forty-three were teenagers while sixteen were between ages five to eleven. The rest were under five. It is reported that the severity of the disease was not increasing. About fifteen to twenty percent of the patients hospitalized for the flu were placed in the intensive care unit, a level similar to that for seasonal flu.
Projections of the supply of H1N1 vaccine had decreased significantly from a level of 120 million doses ready in October, estimated during the summer, to an estimate of 28 to 30 million doses by the end of the month. On October 14, 11.4 million doses of the H1N1 vaccine were said to be available. As of November 20, 2009, the CDC reported sharp declines in H1N1 activity throughout the United States, with influenza-like illness (which may also include meningitis, pneumonia, strep pharyngitis, gastroenteritis, and the common cold) accounting for 5.5% of doctors visits, down sharply from 8% in late October, the peak of the second wave. However, taking the vaccine is still urged by the CDC, as a third wave of the disease may sweep across the US, possibly in January/February 2010. as of December 24,the second wave of H1N1 has clearly peaked,with pneumonia and influenza deaths falling below the epidemic threshold for the first time in 11 weeks,and the proportion of doctors visits do to influenza-like illness falling to baseline (2.3%),down from 5.5% 1 month before,on November 20.however,it was reported that influenza activity was beginning to increase in West Virginia,with 5.2% of patients treated by West Virginia health care providers having influenza-like illness,an major increase from 2% of patients treated by West Virginia health care providers having influenza-like illness in November.
Flu strain severity
The new strain was identified as a combination of several different strains of Influenzavirus A, subtype H1N1, including separate strains of this subtype circulating in humans (see human influenza) and in pigs (see swine influenza). The strain transmits between humans and was initially reported to have a relatively high mortality rate in Mexico. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have expressed serious concerns that the new strain has the potential to become an influenza pandemic. It is reported that, because the virus is already widespread, containment will be impossible.
In addition, the flu death toll in Mexico could be lower than first thought, Gerald Evans, head of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada and a member of a federal pandemic-planning committee, said on April 29:
There was a lot of speculation and what seemed to be evidence there were dozens and dozens of deaths. Careful analysis showed these people likely died of something else, and not influenza. That's really good news, and that would fit with what we've seen outside of Mexico.
Moreover, another Canadian expert, Neil Rau, criticized the WHO's decision to raise its Pandemic alert to level 5, saying:
I don't agree with (the WHO) because I think it's a panic metre, not a pandemic metre. [...] If that flu-like illness is not deadly, I don't know what the cause for alarm is for people who are not really sickened by this virus. [...] I'm really eager to know how much worse this is than seasonal flu. So far it's looking like it's not that serious.
CNN stated on April 28, 2009 that there were at least 800 deaths in the U.S. due to normal influenza in each individual week between January 1 and April 18, which is higher than the combined worldwide death toll for the swine flu.
As of November 19, 2009, the official death toll attributed directly to the novel H1N1 and seasonal influenza was 877. This total exceeds the 849 deaths directly attributed to seasonal influenza in 2006. Many of the other deaths commonly attributed to influenza are caused by complicated influenza, where a second infection causes death, usually pneumonia (of which 48,657 of 55,477 official deaths in 2006 occurred in people aged 65 years and older)
The Federal response remains at US Pandemic Stage 0, congruent with the World Health Organization (WHO) Pandemic Phases 1, 2 and 3; however, the WHO's Pandemic Phase was raised to 4 on April 27, which is congruent with US Pandemic Stage 2. On April 29, the WHO raised the pandemic alert level to phase 5.
The United States federal government declared a public health emergency, and several U.S. states have indicated they may follow suit. Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano noted that this declaration was standard operating procedure, which was also done for the 2009 presidential inauguration and for flooding.
After many days of deliberation the WHO declared that the current influenza had become a true pandemic, raising the Pandemic Alert level to Phase 6, the highest on the WHO scale and congruent with U.S. Federal Government Response Stages 3–6.
An official for the White House said on April 24 that "the White House is taking the situation seriously and monitoring for any new developments. The president has been fully briefed." President Barack Obama stated that "We are closely monitoring the emerging cases of swine flu". He also noted, "This is obviously a cause for concern ... but it is not a cause for alarm". President Obama suggested that U.S. schools should consider shutting down, as a future possibility, if their students were to become infected. White House Press Secretary, Robert Gibbs said the effort to get a team in place to respond to the health scare has not been hindered by the lack of a secretary of Health and Human Services or appointees in any of the department’s 19 key posts. The president's nominee, Kansas Gov. Kathleen Sebelius, was still awaiting confirmation from the U.S. Senate until passing on April 28. The President has not yet made appointments to either the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration, the Surgeon General, or the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The current acting Surgeon General, Steven K. Galson, is also currently serving as the Acting Assistant Secretary for Health.
On April 30, it was reported that an aide to Steven Chu, the US Energy Secretary, had fallen ill from the virus after helping arrange President Barack Obama's trip to Mexico. However, the White House stated that the President is not at risk of obtaining the flu. Kathleen Sebelius was confirmed as the Secretary of Health and Human Services by the Senate on April 28, 2009 with a vote of 65-31.
|Wikinews has related news: Obama declares swine flu emergency in US|
On October 24, President Obama declared the 2009 H1N1 swine flu a national emergency. The declaration will make it easier for U.S. medical facilities to handle a surge in flu patients by allowing the waiver of some requirements of Medicare, Medicaid and other federal health insurance programs as needed.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
- Activation of Emergency Operations Center
During the week of April 19, the CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC) to augment the ongoing investigation of human cases of swine influenza A (H1N1). More than 250 CDC professionals are working from the CDC EOC as part of the agency's response. As of May 4, 2009, the CDC reported that it had deployed 25% of the supplies and medicines in the Strategic National Stockpile to the various states.
- Swine Flu Test Kits
As of April 29, only the CDC could confirm U.S. swine flu cases. Besser stated during an April 30 press briefing that California and New York had diagnostic test kits, and that the kits would be sent to all states starting the following day. On May 6, the CDC announced that testing kits were now available for all states. This is expected to generate an increase in the number of confirmed cases as more states begin doing their own tests.
- Influenza Reporting Requirements
In the United States, the majority of the 70 National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) laboratories do not report the influenza A subtype.
However, in 2007, human infection with a novel influenzavirus A became a nationally notifiable condition. Novel influenza A virus infections include all human infections with influenza A viruses that are different from currently circulating human influenza H1 and H3 viruses. These viruses include those that are subtyped as nonhuman in origin and those that are unsubtypable with standard methods and reagents. The new strain responsible for this outbreak was one such virus.
- CDC Recommendations for Schools
Initially the CDC had issued a recommendation that schools close for as long as two weeks if a student catches swine flu. Some school districts closed all schools if a single child was classified as probable. On May 5 the CDC retracted its advice stating that schools that were closed based on previous CDC guidance related to this outbreak may reopen. By that time at least 726 schools nationwide serving more than 480,000 students had closed for at least some period of time. The CDC amended its advice citing, new information on disease severity and the limiting effectiveness of school closure as a control measure. The new advice given stated, "Decisions about school closure should be at the discretion of local authorities based on local considerations, including public concern and the impact of school absenteeism and staffing shortages."
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized emergency use of medicines and diagnostic tests for flu. (FDA is part of Department of Health and Human Services.) The FDA stated it is also responding to this threat by:
- working with other government agencies and manufacturers on a series of issues related to antiviral medications.
- growing the 2009 H1N1 flu virus and preparing to make vaccine seed lots, which may be used eventually to produce a safe and effective vaccine.
- helping to prepare reagents needed for vaccine production and coordinating closely with other public health agencies for clinical development and testing.
- accelerating access to new diagnostic tools for this 2009 H1N1 flu virus
On May 6, 2009, the FDA announced that it had approved a new manufacturing facility for seasonal flu vaccine, owned by Sanofi Pasteur, which could also be used for manufacturing a vaccine for the new H1N1 flu strain. The FDA also issued a warning for consumers to be wary of products claiming to cure or prevent swine flu.
Other federal agencies
- Department of Homeland Security
Secretary Napolitano stated that DHS is the principal federal office for incidents such as the current H1N1 flu outbreak, and “Under that role, we have been leading a true collaborative effort.” The Department of Homeland Security has a document, dated November 1, 2005, entitled "National Strategy for Pandemic Influenza", detailing planning for potential pandemics. http://www.pandemicflu.gov/plan/federal/pandemic-influenza.pdf
- State Department
The State Department suggested travelers to Mexico stay alert and comply with guidance from Mexican public health officials, but did not impose any travel restrictions on US citizens to Mexico. However, the State Department did recommend US citizens avoid non-essential travel to Mexico.
- Department of Agriculture
The Department of Agriculture (USDA) reported no swine in the US have been infected so far, but the USDA is monitoring swine across the US for signs of infection.
- Department of Commerce
The Department of Commerce sent a letter to Russia and China requesting that those countries lift their ban on American pork products.
- Department of Defense
The Department of Defense (DOD) is monitoring the swine flu situation and has contingency plans to deal with such outbreaks. As of May 7, 2009, the DOD reports 104 confirmed cases among Armed Forces personnel and their families. DOD maintains a daily summary and map.
- Department of Education
The Department of Education is providing guidance to schools in the US affected by swine flu, as well as precautions to take.
State and local
Schools closed in many states in response to local flu outbreaks. By April 30, 2009, 300 U.S. schools and school districts had announced closures in response to the outbreak, giving 169,000 students time off. On May 4, 2009, about 533 schools in 24 states in the U.S. were closed, affecting about 330,000 students. On September 25, 2009, forty-two schools were closed in eight states as the second wave of the pandemic began.
On May 5, Kathleen Sebelius stated in a CDC news conference that school closures for single confirmed cases of H1N1 influenza were unnecessary, but that parents keep their child home if he or she displays an influenza-like illness.
- "Interim Guidance on Case Definitions to be Used For Investigations of Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Cases*". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009-04-30. Archived from the original on 2009-05-02. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- "H1N1 Flu" (archived version of dynamic web page). Alabama Department of Public Health. 2009-10-21. Reporting of aggregate statistics ended between 21 and 28 October, 2009 were "impractical because of the large number of people infected." (quote from this page version)
- "Novel H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu)" (archived version of dynamic webpage). Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. 2009-09-17.
updated September 2, 2009 at 12:00 PM
- "Alaska Positive Rapid Tests For Influenza". Epidemiology. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Archived from the original on 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
...(n=1,103)...from September 1, 2009 through April 6, 2010
- Armstrong, Michael (2010-02-15). "Homer woman who died at 44 tested positive for swine flu: Swine flu (H1N1)". Anchorage Daily News. Associated Press. Archived from the original on 2013-06-02. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- "Alaska Laboratory-Confirmed Influenza Deaths by Week". Epidemiology. Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. Archived from the original on 2010-06-09. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
- "Arizona - Weekly Influenze Summary: MMWR Week 25-26 (6/20/10 - 7/03/10)" (PDF). Arizona Department of Health Services. 2010. p. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-10-02.
- "H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu) Resources". Arkansas Department of Health. 2009-07-29.[dead link]
- http://arkansasmatters.com/content/news/fulltext?cid=302082[dead link]
- "Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus (Swine Flu) - Latest News". California - Department of Public Health. 2007-08-25. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- "Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations by County by Diagnosis Date" (PDF). Colorado - Department of Public Health and Environment. 2009-08-30. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- "CTFLUWATCH" (continuously updated webpage). Connecticut Department of Public Health. 2010-10-19.
Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A information for July 20, 2010
- "PAHO Influenza A(H1N1) Surveillance". PAHO. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- No longer updating "H1N1 UPDATE - JUNE 18". Delaware - Department of Health and Social Services. 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- 7th death in DE from H1N1 influenza - WGMD.COM
- Drug-resistant swine flu reported in Va., Md
- Update each Wednesday "Swine Flu Information". Florida - Department of Health. 2009-07-21. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- H1N1 Media Releases
- "H1N1". Georgia - Division of Public Health. 2009-09-24. Retrieved 2009-09-24.
- georgia.gov - Seasonal Flu
- "Influenza Surveillance Report" (PDF). July 19–August 1, 2009. HAWAI‘I STATE DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH DISEASE OUTBREAK CONTROL DIVISION. 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Delawareonline - Levi Johnston wants to be mayor; has no platform
- "Idaho Case Counts". 2009 H1N1 Flu Surveillance Data. Idaho Department of Health & Welfare. Archived from the original on 2012-04-22.
- "Statistics" (archived version of dynamic web page). H1N1 flu. Illinois Department of Public Health. 2009-08-12. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
Illinois Cases of H1N1 Flu by County (As of July 31, 2009, 10 a.m.)
- "Statistics" (archived version of dynamic web page). H1N1 flu. Illinois Department of Public Health. 2010-05-08. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
Confirmed H1N1 2009 Hospitalizations and Deaths (As of May 7, 2010, 10 a.m.)
- "ISDH Press releases". Indiana - State Department of Health. 2009-08-20. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- "Influenza and Other Respiratory Virus Weekly Activity Report" (PDF). Iowa - Department of Public Health. 2009-08-01. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- newtondailynews.com | H1N1 vaccine plentiful in Iowa
- Iowa Influenza Surveillance Network (IISN) Reports
- update at Monday"Kansas H1N1 Flu Virus Information". Kansas - Department of Health and Environment. 2009-08-24.
- Kansan dies from H1N1 - Pratt, KS - Pratt Tribune
- "Flu Activity". Commonwealth of Kentucky. 2009-10-29.
- "DHH Updates Status of Fight the Flu Campaign". Louisiana - Department of Health & Hospitals. 2009-11-09. Retrieved 2009-11-09.
- Department of Health & Hospitals | State of Louisiana
- update weekly "Maine - H1N1 Influenza (“Swine Flu”) Update". Maine - Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- Flu News - CDC; DHHS Maine
- "Maryland weekly flu report". The Baltimore Sun. 2009-07-02. Retrieved 2009-07-02.
- Maryland Flu Watch
- Department of Health and Mental Hygiene Seasonal Influenza Preparedness Guide
- "Confirmed H1N1 Influenza (swine flu)". Massachusetts - Department of Public Health. 2009-08-27.
- Weekly Flu Report: April 15, 2010 - Commonwealth Conversations: Public Health
- Daily Update of fatalities "MDCH-Influenza A (H1N1)". Michigan - Department of Community Health. 2009-06-13. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- [dead link]
- "Weekly Influenza Activity: Statistics". Minnesota - Department of Health. 2009-08-17.
- Weekly Influenza Activity - Minnesota Dept. of Health
- "Mississippi H1N1 Swine Flu Cases by County, 2009". Mississippi - State Department of Health. 2009-09-23.
- "Special Weekly Influenza Surveillance 2009-2010 Pre-Season Report, Missouri" (PDF). Missouri - Department of Health and Senior Services. 2009-08-22. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- "Confirmed Novel Influenza A/H1N1 (Swine Flu)". Billings Gazette. 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2009-08-06.
- Flathead County man dies of swine flu; 19th such death in Montana
- "Influenza Report" (PDF). Week 34 (August, 29). Nebraska - Department of Health & Human Services. 2009-08-21. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- AP Health News Online Breaking News & Headlines from Associated Press - pennlive.com
- "Nevada State Health Division Weekly Influenza Report". Nevada - State Health Division. 2009-08-21.
- Woman, 29, first H1N1 death in new year - Wednesday, Jan. 6, 2010 | 1:31 p.m. - Las Vegas Sun
- Boy, 10, dies from swine flu - News - ReviewJournal.com
- "WEEKLY INFLUENZA SURVEILLANCE REPORT" (PDF). New Hampshire - Department of Health & Human Services. 2009-08-29. Retrieved 2009-09-16.
- NH reports 10th H1N1-related death » New Hampshire » EagleTribune.com, North Andover, MA
- "New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services UCommunicable Disease Service Influenza Brief" (PDF). Week Ending August 29, 2009 (MMWR Week 34). Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- "H1N1 Flu Hospitalizations and Deaths in NJ". New Jersey DHSS. 2009-08-26. Retrieved 2009-08-27.
- Two New H1N1-Related Deaths Reported | njtoday.net – Everything New Jersey
- Flu in New Mexico - Influenza Information
- New Mexico Analyzes Swine Flu | KDBC.com
- NM Department of Health Seasonal & H1N1Flu Information
- "H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)". New York State - Department of Health. 2009-06-19. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- "Health Alert #27" (PDF). New York City DHMH. 2009-07-08. Retrieved 2009-09-02.
- Update each Wednesday "NCPH: Influenza in N.C.". North Carolina - Public Health. 2009-07-29. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- North Carolina Influenza Sentinel Surveillance Program
- ND Flu
- Few flu cases reported this year
- "Swine flu" (PDF). Ohio - Department of Health. 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- Daily Standard Stories
- updated on Mondays and Thursdays "Novel Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) Daily Updates & Alerts". Oklahoma - State Department of Health. 2009-07-29.
- Swine flu death is 44th in Oklahoma | Tulsa World
- Update each Friday "H1N1 Influenza Update". Oregon - Department of Human Services. 2009-07-24. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
- H1N1 in PA › PA Situation Update
- "Rhode Island Department of Health Swine Flu". Rhode Island - Department of Health. 2009-07-30. Retrieved 2009-06-17.
- Third swine flu death reported in RI | Turn to 10
- RI sees 10th H1N1 death; vaccine to be offered broadly - Projo 7 to 7 News Blog | Rhode Island news | The Providence Journal
- "South Carolina Influenza Activity and Surveillance: 2008-2009 Season" (PDF). South Carolina - Department of Health and Environmental Control. 2009-06-13. Retrieved 2009-06-19.
- "South Dakota (A)H1N1 Surveillance". South Dakota - Department of Health. 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2009-06-05.
- "Sentinel Provider Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) Surveillance Summary" (PDF). Tennessee - Department of Health. 2009-11-21. Retrieved 2009-11-27.
- Update each Wednesday "Surveillance". Texas - Department of State Health Services. Retrieved 2009-10-24.
- Texas Department of State Health Services, Infectious Disease Control Unit > Surveillance
- "Utah Pandemic A (H1N1) 2009 Hospitalized Case Surveillance". Utah - Department of Health. 2009-07-29. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- "Novel H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu): Status Update". Vermont - Department of Health. 2009-06-24. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- Vt. Reports Third Swine Flu Death - WCAX.COM Local Vermont News, Weather and Sports
- "Confirmed Influenza A (H1N1) Case Counts". Virginia - Department of Health. 2009-07-10. Retrieved 2009-07-11.
- "Swine flu (H1N1) monitoring changes in Washington". WSDOH. 2009-05-26. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- "Swine Flu Information". Washington - Department of Health and Human Resources. 2009-10-16. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
- Updated each Wednesday "Influenza Surveillance Data 2008-2009". West Virginia - Department of Health and Human Resources. 2009-06-18. Retrieved 2009-06-18.
- The Record Delta Woman with H1N1 dies
- Archived Influenza Season Data 2009-10
- "Current H1N1 Situation in Wisconsin". Wisconsin - Department of Health Services. 2009-07-29. Retrieved 2009-07-29.
- "Swine Influenza (Swine Flu)". Wyoming - Department of Health. 2009-08-05.
- More deaths as flu season continues in Wyoming
- pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 surveillance
- American Samoa News - Topix
- pandemic influenza A/H1N1 2009 suveillance report as of 27 October 2009
- Saipan Tribune
- Saipan Tribune
- :::** Diario La Verdad **:::
- Noticias de Prensa Latina
- AP National News Online Breaking News & Headlines from Associated Press - oregonlive.com
- "Outbreak of Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1n1) Virus Infection". CDC. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2009.
- Thomas H. Maugh II (March 19, 2010). "Swine flu danger appears to be ebbing". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved March 20, 2010.
- "Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March--April 2009". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (Centers for Disease Control). 58 (Dispatch) (15): 400–402. 2009-04-24. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-04.
- "CDC Press Briefing Transcripts April 23, 2009". CDC. April 23, 2009. Archived from the original on 5 June 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2009.
- "H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)". H1N1 Flu. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009-05-06. Archived from the original on 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "Template:2009 US swine flu otbreak table". Wikipedia. Archived from the original on 13 June 2009. Retrieved June 11, 2009.
- "1 Million Americans Likely Stricken by Swine Flu: CDC". Forbes. June 25, 2009. Archived from the original on 27 June 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2009.[dead link]
- "US Swine Flu Cases May Have Hit 1 Million". Associated Press. June 25, 2009. Retrieved June 25, 2009.
- "Swine flu has killed 10,000 Americans since April". Reuters. 2009-12-10. Archived from the original on 17 December 2009. Retrieved 13 December 2009.
- "Border Disease Program Helped Sound Alarm on Swine Flu". KPBS San Diego. Retrieved 2010-09-02.
- "CDC Briefing on Public Health Investigation of Human Cases of Swine Influenza". CDC. 2009-04-23. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- CDC (April 21, 2009). "Swine Influenza A (H1N1) Infection in Two Children --- Southern California, March--April 2009". Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- "Swine flu fatality in Texas likely infected in Mexico, official says". CNN. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "Queens School At Flu Epicenter Reopens". CBS News. May 4, 2009. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "Flu spreads across U.S., officials weigh measures | Top News | Reuters". Uk.reuters.com. 2009-02-09. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "CDC H1N1 Flu". Cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- Christopher Sherman. "The Associated Press: Texas confirms first flu death of US resident". Google.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Harris, Gardiner; Malkin, Elisabeth (2009-05-05). "Health Officials Begin to Ease Public Alerts About Swine Flu". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- Bowman, Michael (2008-07-15). "US Officials 'Cautiously Optimistic' About Swine Flu Spread". VOA News. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 18 ending May 9, 2009". FluView: A Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report Prepared by the Influenza Division (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). 2009-05-15. Archived from the original on 17 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-17.
- David Brown (April 22, 2009). "New Strain of Swine Flu Investigated: Two Children in San Diego Area Had No Contact with Pigs". The Washington Post. Retrieved April 24, 2009.
- CHRISTOPHER SHERMAN (May 6, 2009). "Texas woman with flu who died beloved teacher". Dallas Morning News/Associated Press. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved May 6, 2009.[dead link]
- "CDC H1N1 Flu | Situation Update". Archived from the original on 2009-09-10. Retrieved 2009-08-26.
- Donald G. McNeil Jr. (2009-10-02). "Swine Flu Spread Prompts Move on Vaccine". The New York Times.
- Denise Grady (2009-10-17). "Three Pigs May be the First in the U.S. With Swine Flu". The New York Times.
- "Official warns 'third wave' of H1N1 on the way". Sioux City Journal News. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2009-12-25.
- "CDC Press Briefing Transcripts". CDC. January 23, 2009. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- Laura Kennedy (April 25, 2009). "Swine Flu Spreading In The U.S.". WDIO-TV. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.[dead link]
- "Flu death toll in Mexico could be lower than first thought". National Post, Canada. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
- "Seasonal flu killing much more than swine flu". CTV, Canada. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
- "Regular flu has killed thousands since January". CNN. 28 April 2009. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
- "2009 H1N1 Flu U.S. Situation Update". CDC. 2009-11-13. Archived from the original on 18 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- HHS, CDC, NCHS, NVSS (2009-04-17). "Table 10. Number of deaths from 113 selected causes and Enterocolitis due to Clostridium difficile, by age: United States,2006—Con." (PDF). National Vital Statistics Reports: Deaths: Final Data for 2006. CDC. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 November 2009. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- Boyd, Mark; et al. (2006-11-20). "Pandemic influenza: clinical issues". Medical Journal of Australia 185 (10 Suppl): S44–7. PMID 17115951. Retrieved 2009-11-22.
- "Federal Response Stages". U.S. Government. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.[dead link]
- "Swine Flu Investigation". U.S. Government. Archived from the original on 26 April 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- Staff Writer (April 27, 2009). "Mexico suspected flu toll soars". BBC. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2009.
- "WHO raises pandemic alert level". BBC. April 29, 2009. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009.
- "Press Briefing on Swine Influenza". Department of Homeland Security. April 26, 2009. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
- Dr Margaret Chan (June 11, 2009). "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 12 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-06-11.
- Staff Writer (2009-04-24). "White House closely following U.S. swine flu outbreak". Reuters. Archived from the original on 3 May 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- Mark Silva (April 27, 2009). "Obama says he has his eye on swine flu threat". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 1 May 2009. Retrieved April 27, 2009.[dead link]
- "The President’s Remarks on H1N1". White House. 2009-04-30. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- "As flu hits, holes in W.H. health team – Carrie Budoff Brown". Politico.Com. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "Office of the Surgeon General (OSG)". Surgeongeneral.gov. Archived from the original on 28 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-28.
- "The Associated Press: White House aide's family likely has swine flu". Google.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Sebelius wins panel approval as health secretary
- Goldstein, David; Klepper, David (2009-04-28). "Sebelius sworn in to Cabinet, Parkinson becomes Kansas governor". The Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-29.[dead link]
- "Obama declares swine flu a national emergency". Reuters. 24 October 2009. Archived from the original on 25 October 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2009.
- CDC Responds to Swine Flu Outbreak Among Humans, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, April 27, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-02.
- "Interim Guidance on Specimen Collection, Processing, and Testing for Patients with Suspected Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Infection". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 30, 2009. Archived from the original on 2 May 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- "CDC Briefing on Public Health Investigation of Human Cases of Swine Influenza". CDC. 2009-04-30. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-01.
- "CDC Press Briefing Transcripts May 6, 2009". Cdc.gov. 2009-05-06. Archived from the original on 19 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- "Flu Activity & Surveillance". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. April 17, 2009. Archived from the original on 27 April 2009. Retrieved April 26, 2009.
- Stein, Rob (2007-01-15). "Schools Shut by Flu Can Reopen". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "CDC H1N1 Flu | Update on School (K – 12) Dismissal and Childcare Facilities". Cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-06.
- "FDA Authorizes Emergency Use of Influenza Medicines, Diagnostic Test in Response to Swine Flu Outbreak in Humans". Fda.gov. 2009-04-27. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- "2009 H1N1 (Swine) flu virus". Food and Drug Administration. 2009-05-12. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- "Welcome to AJC!". ajc.com. 2009-05-06. Archived from the original on 9 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- "FDA, FTC Warn Public of Fraudulent 2009 H1N1 Influenza Products". Food and Drug Administration. 2009-05-01. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- "DHS: Testimony by Secretary Napolitano to the Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs on Federal Coordination in Response to the H1N1 Flu Outbreak". Dhs.gov. 2009-04-29. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Threats of Increased Violence in Ciudad Juarez during the weekend of May 23–25, 2008". Mexico.usembassy.gov. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "Travel Alert – 2009-H1N1 Influenza". Travel.state.gov. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.[dead link]
- "Release No. 0131.09". Usda.gov. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.[dead link]
- ksullivan (2009-05-01). "Department of Commerce – Press Releases, Fact Sheets and Opinion Editorials – Commerce Secretary Gary Locke Urges China, Russia to End Ban on U.S. Pork". Commerce.gov. Archived from the original on 7 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "DefenseLink News Article: Military Monitors H1N1 Flu With Focus on Protecting Force". Defenselink.mil. Archived from the original on 6 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "DoD Pandemic Influenza Watchboard – U.S. DoD Official Website". Fhp.osd.mil. Archived from the original on 25 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-19.
- "Additional Flu Resources for School Leaders Seeking Guidance – ED.gov Blog". Edgovblogs.org. 2009-04-29. Archived from the original on 5 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-08.
- "US closes 300 schools amid swine flu scare". AFP. April 30, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2009.
- "Swine Flu Sickens 1, 490 as Answers Sought in South (Update4)". Bloomberg.com. 2005-05-30. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Stein, Rob (2009-09-27). "Swine Flu Surge Closes Schools, Tests Hospitals - washingtonpost.com". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 2009-09-30. Retrieved 2009-09-28.
- "CDC Press Briefing Transcripts May 5, 2009". Centers for Disease Control. 2009-05-05. Archived from the original on 4 May 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Miles, Kent A. (2009-04-27). "Airlines waiving change fees amid swine flu scare". ajc.com. Archived from the original on 30 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- Allen, Mike (2009-04-05). "San Diego Business Journal Online – business news for San Diego, California". Sdbj.com. Retrieved 2009-05-05.[dead link]
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 2009 swine flu outbreak in the United States.|
|Wikinews has related news: US declares public health emergency over spread of swine flu|
U.S. federal government
- PandemicFlu.gov – Access to U.S. Government swine, avian and pandemic flu information.
- U.S. Centers For Disease Control (CDC) H1N1 Flu – Updates periodically as the CDC releases new information
- Medical Encyclopedia Medline Plus: Swine Flu Encyclopic Information from the National Institutes of Health
- World Health Organization (WHO) Influenza A(H1N1) page – Updates periodically and links to archived WHO releases
- H1N1 Swine Flu in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit
- Students Prep America for High School & College Students and Families
- Get Pandemic Ready
- Influenza Research Database – Database of influenza genomic sequences and related information.
- Utah Man, 22, With Swine Flu Dies, Fox News, Associated Press reference, May 20, 2009.
- New York City public schools attendance tracking
- USA Today – State-by-state preparations
- Medical Encyclopedia WebMD: Swine Flu Center
- Worldwide Confirmed and Suspected Cases
New York City