2009 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology
In science
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Important taxa described (but not necessarily validly named) in 2009

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2009.

Arthropods[edit]

Cephalopods[edit]

Three new species of extinct Octopoda discovered in 2009. The species – Keuppia hyperbolaris, Keuppia levante, and Styletoctopus annae – lived about 95 million years ago, and bear a strong resemblance to modern octopuses, suggesting that the Octopoda order has remained relatively unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossils included evidence of arms, muscles, rows of suckers, ink, and internal gills. The discovery was made by a team led by Dirk Fuchs of the Freie University, which is located at Berlin, Germany.[2] The fossils were found at Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon.[3] Various new ammonoid taxa were named, including Ivoites.

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Keuppia[4]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Styletoctopus[4]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Ivoites[5]

gen nov

Valid

De Baets, Klug, & Korn

Lower Emsian

 Germany

Cartilaginous fish[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Harranahynchus[6]

Gen. et sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A member of the family Sclerorhynchidae. The type species is H. minutadens. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]

Bony fish[edit]

Newly named bony fish
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Aphanius yerevanicus[8]

Valid

  • Vasilyan
  • Reichenbacher
  • Carnevale

Late Miocene

 Armenia

A pupfish, a species of Aphanius.
Enchodus harranaensis[9]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]
Eophryne[10]

Valid

  • Carnevale
  • Pietsch

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A frogfish. The type species is Eophryne barbutii.
Heddleichthys[11]

Valid

  • Snitting

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Dura Den Formation

 Scotland

Hendrixella[12]

Valid

  • Bannikov
  • Carnevale

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A member of Percoidei of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Hendrixella grandei.
Langlieria[13]

Valid

  • Clément
  • Snitting
  • Ahlberg

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Evieux Formation

 Belgium

Postredectes[14]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

A member of the family Ichthyodectidae. The type species is P. harranaensis. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]
Ridewoodichthys[15]

Valid

  • Taverne

Early Paleocene

 Angola

An arowana; a new genus for "Brychaetus" caheni Taverne (1969).
Saurocephalus longicorpus[16]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]
  • Shimada, K.; Everhart, M.J. (2009). "First record of Anomoeodus (Osteichthyes: Pycnodontiformes) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 112 (1/2): 98–102. doi:10.1660/062.112.0212. 

Amphibians[edit]

Newly named amphibians[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Cratia[17]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Possible stem neobatrachian

Eurycephalella[17]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A hyloid

Nannaroter[18]

Valid

Early Permian

 USA

The smallest known ostodolepid microsaur

Nesovtriton[19]

Valid

  • Skutschas

Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Regalerpeton[20]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Huajiying Formation

 China

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Spinarerpeton[21]

Valid

  • Klembara

Early Permian

Boskovice Furrow

 Czech Republic

A discosauriscid seymouriamorph

Basal reptiles[edit]

Newly named basal reptiles[edit]

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Australothyris[22]

Valid

Middle Permian

Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone

 South Africa

A basal parareptile

Procolina[23]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Lubka

early Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A procolophonine procolophonid

Turtles[edit]

Newly named turtles[edit]

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Angolachelys[24]

Valid

Turonian (Late Cretaceous)

 Angola

Aurorachelys[25]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Strand Fiord Formation

 Canada

Basilochelys[26]

Valid

Late Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous

Phu Kradung Formation

 Thailand

Cedrobaena[27]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 USA

New genus for "Plesiobaena" putorius Gaffney, 1972

Chelonoidis alburyorum[28]

Valid

  • Franz
  • Franz

Holocene

 The Bahamas

A tortoise.

Derrisemys[29]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[30]

Eileanchelys[31]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Kilmaluag Formation

 Scotland

Hutchemys[32]

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Revan
  • Lyson
  • Danilov

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation
Tullock Formation

 USA

A plastomenine softshell turtles

Kinkonychelys[33]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

Palatobaena cohen[34]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Peckemys[27]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Late Cretaceous

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Plastomenoides[29]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[30]

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Czatkowiella[35]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Evans

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A long−necked archosauromorph

Archosaurs[edit]

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Basal lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pamelina[36]

Valid

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal kuehneosaurid

Sophineta[37]

Valid

  • Evans
  • Borsuk−Białynicka

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal lepidosauromorph

Plesiosaurs[edit]

  • In 2009, in Svalbard, Norway a new pliosaur was found by Jorn Hurum. It currently is codenamed as "Predator X."
  • O'Keefe, F. R.; Street, H. P. (2009). "Osteology of the cryptocleidoid plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis, with comments on the taxonomic status of the Cimoliasauridae". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (1): 48–57. doi:10.1671/039.029.0118. 
Newly named plesiosaurs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gallardosaurus[38]

Valid

  • Gasparini

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Jagua Formation

 Cuba

Nichollssaura[39]

Valid

  • Druckenmiller
  • Russell

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Clearwater Formation

 Canada

Replacement name for Nichollsia Druckenmiller & Russell, 2008, preoccupied by an isopod genus Nichollsia Chopra & Tiwari, 1950

Rarosaurus[40]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A member of Polycotylidae. The type species is R. singularis. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]

Squamates[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Carinodens minalmamar[41]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schulp, Bardet & Bouya

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Morocco

A mosasaur.

Carinodens palistinicus[42]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]

Harranasaurus[43]

Gen. et sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

A globidensine mosasaur. The type species is H. khuludae. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]

Prognathodon hudae[44]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]

Prognathodon primus[45]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7]

Tenerasaurus[46]

Gen. et sp. nov

Junior synonym

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur. The type species is T. hashimi. Bardet (2012) stated that all the taxa erected by Kaddumi (2009) were based on specimens from a private collection and have been erected without any consideration of the international rules of systematical nomenclature.[7] Lindgren, Kaddumi & Polcyn (2013) reinterpreted the holotype specimen as belonging to a member of the genus Prognathodon of uncertain specific assignment.[47]

Titanoboa[48]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Head et al.

Paleocene

 Colombia

In February, the fossils of 28 individual T. cerrejonensis (Titanoboas) were announced to have been found in the coal mines of Cerrejón, La Guajira, Colombia.[49]

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Protuberum[50]

Valid

  • Reichel
  • Schultz
  • Soares

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

Raranimus[51]

Valid

  • Liu
  • Rubidge
  • Li

Middle Permian (Roadian)

Xidagou Formation

 China

Yuanotherium[52]

Valid

  • Hu
  • Meng
  • Clark

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Shishugou Formation

 China

Mammals[edit]

Plants[edit]

Angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucalyptolaurus[53]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Coiffard et al.

uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian

Charente-Maritimes

 France

Relevant research in other sciences[edit]

Evolutionary biology[edit]

  • A study is published that proposes that females from certain taxa use ornaments as a criterion for mate choice because other dimorphic structures, like biological "weaponry" could be used to coerce or force them to mate.[54]
  • A study concludes that biotic factors have more pronounced local and short term evolutionary impacts than abiotic factors, which in turn have a more pronounced effect through time and on biodiversity as a whole.[55]

Extinction[edit]

A study noting the effects of the KT mass extinction on Earth's modern biota is published.[56]

Geology[edit]

  • Zhang, H.; Wei, Z.-L.; Liu, X.-M.; Li, D. (2009). "Constraints on the age of the Tuchengzi Formation by LA-ICP-MS dating in northern Hebei-western Liaoning, China". Science China Earth Sciences. 52 (4): 461–470. doi:10.1007/s11430-009-0052-9. 

Ichnology[edit]

  • Bedatou, E., Melchor, R.N., and Genise, J.F. 2009. Complex palaeosol ichnofabrics from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic successions of central Patagonia, Argentina. Sedimentary Geology. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.005

Paleobiogeography[edit]

  • Pereda-Suberbiola, X. 2009. Biogeographical affinities of Late Cretaceous

continental tetrapods of Europe: a review. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 180(1):57-71. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.180.1.57.

Paleoecology[edit]

  • Nicolas, M., and Rubidge, B.S. 2009. Changes in Permo-Triassic terrestrial tetrapod ecological representation in the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa. Lethaia. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00171.x.

Footnotes[edit]

Complete author list[edit]

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Mateus, Jacobs, Polcyn, Schulp, Vineyard, Neto, Antunes.
  2. ^ Vandermark, Tarduno, Brinkman, Cottrell, Mason.
  3. ^ Tong, Claude, Naksri, Suteethorn, Buffetaut, Khansubba, Wongko, Yuandetkla.
  4. ^ Anquetin, Barrett, Jones, Moore-Fay, Evans.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Rare fossil octopuses found, MSNBC, March 18, 2009
  3. ^ New Octopus from the late Cretaceous of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon, Palaeontology, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 65-81
  4. ^ a b Fuchs, D.; Bracchi, G.; Weis, R. (2009). "New Octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous (Upper Cenomanian) of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon". Palaeontology. 52 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x. Retrieved 24 March 2010. 
  5. ^ De Baets, K.; Klug, C.; Korn, D. (2009). "Anetoceratinae (Ammonoidea, Early Devonian) from the Eifel and Harz Mountains (Germany), with a revision of their genera". Palaeontology. 252 (3): 361–376. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0252-0361. Retrieved 24 March 2010. 
  6. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "A new genus and species of sawfishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea) from the late Maastrichtian sediments of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi. Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 178–187. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Nathalie Bardet (2012). "Maastrichtian marine reptiles of the Mediterranean Tethys: a palaeobiogeographical approach". Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France. 183 (6): 573–586. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.183.6.573. 
  8. ^ Davit Vasilyan; Bettina Reichenbacher; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new fossil Aphanius species from the Upper Miocene of Armenia (Eastern Paratethys)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (4): 511–519. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0034-4. 
  9. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "A new species of large Enchodus fishes (Aulopiformes: Enchodontidae) from the late Maastrichtian of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi. Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 204–214. 
  10. ^ Giorgio Carnevale; Theodore W. Pietsch (2009). "An Eocene frogfish from Monte Bolca, Italy: the earliest known skeletal record for the family". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 745–752. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00874.x. 
  11. ^ Snitting, D. (2009). "Heddleichthys- a new tristichopterid genus from the Dura Den Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland (Famennian, Late Devonian)". Acta Zoologica. 90: 273. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00376.x. 
  12. ^ Alexandre F. Bannikov; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new percoid fish from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy: Hendrixella grandei gen. & sp. nov.". Swiss Journal of Geosciences. 102 (3): 481–488. doi:10.1007/s00015-009-1331-3. 
  13. ^ Clément, G; Snitting, D; Ahlberg, PE; Gaël Clément; Daniel Snitting; Per Erik Ahlberg (July 2009). "A new Tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Evieux Formation (Upper Devonian) of Belgium". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 823–836. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00876.x. 
  14. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "Ichthyodectids of the late Maastrichtian sediments of the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi. Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 232–239. 
  15. ^ Louis Taverne (2009). "Ridewoodichthys, a new genus for Brychaetus caheni from the marine Paleocene of Cabinda (Africa): re-description and comments on its relationships within the Osteoglossidae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha)". Bulletin de l’Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre. 79: 147–153. 
  16. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "Saurodontids (Ichthyodectiformes: Saurocephalus) of Harrana with a description of a new species from the late Maastrichtian Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation". In Hani Faig Kaddumi. Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 215–231. 
  17. ^ a b Báez, Ana M.; Moura, Geraldo J.B.; Gómez, Raúl O.; Ana M. Báez; Geraldo J.B. Moura; Raúl O. Gómez (2009). "Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeastern Brazil: implications for the early divergence of neobatrachians". Cretaceous Research. 30 (4): 829–846. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.01.002. 
  18. ^ Anderson, J.S.; Scott, D.; Reisz, R.R. (2009). "Nannaroter mckinziei, a new ostodolepid 'microsaur' (Tetrapoda, Lepospondyli, Recumbirostra) from the Early Permian of Richards Spur (Ft. Sill), Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (2): 379–388. doi:10.1671/039.029.0222. 
  19. ^ Skutschas, Pavel P.; Pavel P. Skutschas (2009). "Re-Evaluation of Mynbulakia Nesov, 1981 (Lissamphibia: Caudata) and Description of a New Salamander Genus from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (3): 659–664. doi:10.1671/039.029.0326. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  20. ^ Zhang, Guilin; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E.H.; Evans, Susan E.; Guilin Zhang; Yuan Wang; Marc E.H. Jones; Susan E. Evans (2009). "A new Early Cretaceous salamander (Regalerpeton weichangensis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Huajiying Formation of northeastern China". Cretaceous Research. 30 (3): 551–558. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2008.10.004. Retrieved 16 August 2010. 
  21. ^ Klembara, Jozef (2009). "The skeletal anatomy and relationships of a new discosauriscid seymouriamorph from the lower Permian of Moravia (Czech Republic)". Annals of Carnegie Museum. 77 (4): 451–483. doi:10.2992/0097-4463-77.4.451. 
  22. ^ Sean P. Modesto; Diane M. Scott; Robert R. Reisz (2009). "A new parareptile with temporal fenestration from the Middle Permian of South Africa". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 46 (1): 9–20. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46....9M. doi:10.1139/E09-001. Retrieved 14 August 2010. [permanent dead link]
  23. ^ Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka; Mariusz Lubka (2009). "Procolophonids from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 107–144. Retrieved 12 August 2010. .
  24. ^ Octávio Mateus; Louis Jacobs; Michael Polcyn; Anne S. Schulp; Diana Vineyard; André Buta Neto; Miguel Telles Antunes (2009). "The oldest African eucryptodiran turtle from the Cretaceous of Angola" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54 (4): 581–588. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0063. Retrieved 21 June 2010. 
  25. ^ Vandermark, D.; Tarduno, J.A.; Brinkman, D.B.; Cottrell, R.D.; Mason, S. (2009). "New Late Cretaceous macrobaenid turtle with Asian affinities from the High Canadian Arctic: dispersal via ice-free polar routes". Geology. 37 (2): 183–186. Bibcode:2009Geo....37..183V. doi:10.1130/G25415A.1. 
  26. ^ Tong, H.; Claude, J.; Naksri, W.; Suteethorn, V.; Buffetaut, E.; Khansubha, S.; Wongko, K. & Yuangdetkla, P. (2009). "Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., a large cryptodiran turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) of the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand". In: Buffetaut, E.; Cuny, G.; Le Loeuff, J. & Suteethorn, V. (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 315: 229-243.
  27. ^ a b Lyson, T.R.; Joyce, W.G. (2009). "A revision of Plesiobaena (Testudinoes: Baenidae) and an assessment of Baenid ecology across the K/T boundary". Journal of Paleontology. 83 (6): 833–853. doi:10.1666/09-035.1. 
  28. ^ Richard Franz; Shelley E. Franz (2009). "A new fossil land tortoise in the genus Chelonoidis (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the northern Bahamas, with an osteological assessment of other Neotropical tortoises". Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. 49 (1): 1–44. 
  29. ^ a b John Howard Hutchison (2009). "New soft-shelled turtles (Plastomeninae, Trionychidae, Testudines) from the Late Cretaceous and Paleocene of North America". PaleoBios. 29 (2): 36–47. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  30. ^ a b Walter G. Joyce; Tyler R. Lyson (2011). "New Material of Gilmoremys lancensis nov. comb. (Testudines: Trionychidae) from the Hell Creek Formation and the Diagnosis of Plastomenid Turtles". Journal of Paleontology. 85 (3): 442–459. doi:10.1666/10-127.1. 
  31. ^ Anquetin, J.; Barrett, P.M.; Jones, M.E.H.; Moore-Fay, S.; Evans, S.E. (2009). "A new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland: new insights into the evolution and palaeoecology of basal turtles". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 276 (1658): 879–886. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1429. PMC 2664364Freely accessible. PMID 19019789. .
  32. ^ Walter G. Joyce; Ariel Revan; Tyler R. Lyson; Igor G. Danilov (2009). "Two New Plastomenine Softshell Turtles from the Paleocene of Montana and Wyoming" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 50 (2): 307–325. doi:10.3374/014.050.0202. Retrieved 7 August 2010. 
  33. ^ Gaffney, E.S.; Krause, D.W.; Zalmout, I.S. (2009). "Kinkonychelys, a new side-necked turtle (Pelomedusoides: Bothremydidae) from the Late Cretaceous of Madagascar". American Museum Novitates. 3662: 1–25. doi:10.1206/672.1. 
  34. ^ Lyson, T.R.; Joyce, W.G. (2009). "A New Species of Palatobaena (Testudines: Baenidae) and a Maximum Parsimony and Bayesian Phylogenetic Analysis of Baenidae". Journal of Paleontology. 83 (3): 457–470. doi:10.1666/08-172.1. Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  35. ^ Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka; Susan E. Evans (2009). "A long−necked archosauromorph from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 203–234. Retrieved 17 August 2010. 
  36. ^ Susan E. Evans (2009). "An early kuehneosaurid reptile (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 145–178. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  37. ^ Susan E. Evans; Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka (2009). "A small lepidosauromorph reptile from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 179–202. Retrieved 13 August 2010. 
  38. ^ Gasparini, Z. (2009). "A New Oxfordian Pliosaurid (Plesiosauria, Pliosauridae) in the Caribbean Seaway". Palaeontology. 52 (3): 661–669. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00871.x. 
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