2009 in paleontology

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List of years in paleontology (table)
In science
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
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2012
Important taxa described (but not necessarily validly named) in 2009

Paleontology or palaeontology is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2009.

Arthropods[edit]

Cephalopods[edit]

Three new species of extinct Octopoda discovered in 2009. The species – Keuppia hyperbolaris, Keuppia levante, and Styletoctopus annae – lived about 95 million years ago, and bear a strong resemblance to modern octopuses, suggesting that the Octopoda order has remained relatively unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossils included evidence of arms, muscles, rows of suckers, ink, and internal gills. The discovery was made by a team led by Dirk Fuchs of the Freie University, which is located at Berlin, Germany.[2] The fossils were found at Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon.[3] Various new ammonoid taxa were named, including Ivoites.

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Keuppia[4]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Styletoctopus[4]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Ivoites[5]

gen nov

Valid

De Baets, Klug, & Korn

Lower Emsian

 Germany

Cartilaginous fish[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gansuselache[6]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Wang et al.

Late Permian

Fangshankou Formation

 China

A member of Hybodontoidea. Genus includes new species G. tungshengi.

Harranahynchus[7]

Gen. et sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A member of the family Sclerorhynchidae. The type species is H. minutadens.

Papilionichthys[8]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Grogan
  • Lund

Carboniferous (Serpukhovian)

Bear Gulch Limestone

 United States

A member of Iniopterygidae. The type species is P. stahlae.

Rainerichthys[8]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Grogan
  • Lund

Carboniferous (Serpukhovian)

Bear Gulch Limestone

 United States

A member of Iniopterygidae. The type species is R. zangerli.

Bony fish[edit]

Newly named bony fish
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Aphanius yerevanicus[9]

Valid

  • Vasilyan
  • Reichenbacher
  • Carnevale

Late Miocene

 Armenia

A pupfish, a species of Aphanius.
Carpathoserranoides[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Czech Republic
 Poland

A member of Percoidei. The type species is C. brnoensis; genus also includes C. polonicus.
Caucasoserranoides[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Russia

A member of Percoidei. The type species is C. morozkiensis.
Enchodus harranaensis[11]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

Eophryne[12]

Valid

  • Carnevale
  • Pietsch

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A frogfish. The type species is Eophryne barbutii.
Gogosardina[13]

Valid

  • Choo
  • Long
  • Trinajstic

Late Devonian

Gogo Formation

 Australia

An early ray-finned fish. Genus includes new species G. coatesi.
Heddleichthys[14]

Valid

  • Snitting

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Dura Den Formation

 Scotland

Hendrixella[15]

Valid

  • Bannikov
  • Carnevale

Eocene (late Ypresian)

Monte Bolca locality

 Italy

A member of Percoidei of uncertain phylogenetic placement. The type species is Hendrixella grandei.
Langlieria[16]

Valid

  • Clément
  • Snitting
  • Ahlberg

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Evieux Formation

 Belgium

Oligoserranoides[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

Abkhazia
 Azerbaijan
 Czech Republic
 France
 Germany
 Hungary
 Poland
 Romania
 Russia
 Ukraine

A member of Percoidei. The type species is "Smerdis" budensis Heckel (1856); genus also includes "Serranus" comparabilis Daniltshenko (1960).
Postredectes[17]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

A member of the family Ichthyodectidae. The type species is P. harranaensis.
Ridewoodichthys[18]

Valid

  • Taverne

Early Paleocene

 Angola

An arowana; a new genus for "Brychaetus" caheni Taverne (1969).
Saurocephalus longicorpus[19]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (late Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

Ungarnia[10]

Valid

  • Prokofiev

Oligocene

 Romania

A member of Percoidei. The type species is "Serranus" transsylvanicus Bohm (1942).
  • Shimada, K.; Everhart, M.J. (2009). "First record of Anomoeodus (Osteichthyes: Pycnodontiformes) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 112 (1/2): 98–102. doi:10.1660/062.112.0212.

Amphibians[edit]

Newly named amphibians[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Baphetes orientalis[20]

Valid

  • Milner
  • Milner
  • Walsh

Late Carboniferous

 Czech Republic

Cratia[21]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Possible stem neobatrachian

Eurycephalella[21]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A hyloid

Nannaroter[22]

Valid

Early Permian

 USA

The smallest known ostodolepid microsaur

Nesovtriton[23]

Valid

  • Skutschas

Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Regalerpeton[24]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Huajiying Formation

 China

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Spinarerpeton[25]

Valid

  • Klembara

Early Permian

Boskovice Furrow

 Czech Republic

A discosauriscid seymouriamorph

Basal reptiles[edit]

Newly named basal reptiles[edit]

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Australothyris[26]

Valid

Middle Permian

Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone

 South Africa

A basal parareptile

Procolina[27]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Lubka

early Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A procolophonine procolophonid

Turtles[edit]

Newly named turtles[edit]

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Angolachelys[28]

Valid

Turonian (Late Cretaceous)

 Angola

Aurorachelys[29]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Strand Fiord Formation

 Canada

Basilochelys[30]

Valid

Late Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous

Phu Kradung Formation

 Thailand

Cedrobaena[31]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 USA

New genus for "Plesiobaena" putorius Gaffney, 1972

Chelonoidis alburyorum[32]

Valid

  • Franz
  • Franz

Holocene

 The Bahamas

A tortoise.

Chinlechelys[33]

Valid

  • Joyce et al.

Late Triassic (Norian)

Bull Canyon Formation

 United States

A basal member of Testudinata. The type species is C. tenertesta. The genus Chinlechelys was considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Proganochelys by Joyce (2017), though the author maintained C. tenertesta as a distinct species within the latter genus.[34]

Derrisemys[35]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[36]

Eileanchelys[37]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Kilmaluag Formation

 Scotland

Hutchemys[38]

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Revan
  • Lyson
  • Danilov

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation
Tullock Formation

 USA

A plastomenine softshell turtles

Kinkonychelys[39]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

Palatobaena cohen[40]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Peckemys[31]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Late Cretaceous

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Plastomenoides[35]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[36]

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Czatkowiella[41]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Evans

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A long−necked archosauromorph

Archosaurs[edit]

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Basal lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pamelina[42]

Valid

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal kuehneosaurid

Sophineta[43]

Valid

  • Evans
  • Borsuk−Białynicka

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal lepidosauromorph

Plesiosaurs[edit]

Newly named plesiosaurs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gallardosaurus[44]

Valid

  • Gasparini

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Jagua Formation

 Cuba

Nichollssaura[45]

Valid

  • Druckenmiller
  • Russell

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Clearwater Formation

 Canada

Replacement name for Nichollsia Druckenmiller & Russell, 2008, preoccupied by an isopod genus Nichollsia Chopra & Tiwari, 1950

Rarosaurus[46]

Disputed

  • Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A member of Polycotylidae. The type species is R. singularis.

Squamates[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Carinodens minalmamar[47]

Sp. nov

Valid

Schulp, Bardet & Bouya

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Morocco

A mosasaur.

Carinodens palistinicus[48]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur.

Harranasaurus[49]

Gen. et sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation

 Jordan

A globidensine mosasaur. The type species is H. khuludae.

Prognathodon hudae[50]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur.

Prognathodon primus[51]

Sp. nov

Disputed

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur.

Tenerasaurus[52]

Gen. et sp. nov

Junior synonym

Kaddumi

Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian)

 Jordan

A mosasaur. The type species is T. hashimi. /> Lindgren, Kaddumi & Polcyn (2013) reinterpreted the holotype specimen as belonging to a member of the genus Prognathodon of uncertain specific assignment.[53]

Titanoboa[54]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Head et al.

Paleocene

Cerrejón Formation

 Colombia

In February, the fossils of 28 individual T. cerrejonensis (Titanoboas) were announced to have been found in the coal mines of Cerrejón, La Guajira, Colombia.[55]

Synapsids[edit]

Non-mammalian[edit]

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Protuberum[56]

Valid

  • Reichel
  • Schultz
  • Soares

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

Raranimus[57]

Valid

  • Liu
  • Rubidge
  • Li

Middle Permian (Roadian)

Xidagou Formation

 China

Yuanotherium[58]

Valid

  • Hu
  • Meng
  • Clark

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Shishugou Formation

 China

Mammals[edit]

Plants[edit]

Angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Eucalyptolaurus[59]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Coiffard et al.

uppermost Albian-lowermost Cenomanian

Charente-Maritimes

 France

Relevant research in other sciences[edit]

Evolutionary biology[edit]

  • A study is published that proposes that females from certain taxa use ornaments as a criterion for mate choice because other dimorphic structures, like biological "weaponry" could be used to coerce or force them to mate.[60]
  • A study concludes that biotic factors have more pronounced local and short term evolutionary impacts than abiotic factors, which in turn have a more pronounced effect through time and on biodiversity as a whole.[61]

Extinction[edit]

A study noting the effects of the KT mass extinction on Earth's modern biota is published.[62]

Geology[edit]

  • Zhang, H.; Wei, Z.-L.; Liu, X.-M.; Li, D. (2009). "Constraints on the age of the Tuchengzi Formation by LA-ICP-MS dating in northern Hebei-western Liaoning, China". Science China Earth Sciences. 52 (4): 461–470. doi:10.1007/s11430-009-0052-9.

Ichnology[edit]

  • Bedatou, E., Melchor, R.N., and Genise, J.F. 2009. Complex palaeosol ichnofabrics from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic successions of central Patagonia, Argentina. Sedimentary Geology. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.005

Paleobiogeography[edit]

  • Pereda-Suberbiola, X. 2009. Biogeographical affinities of Late Cretaceous

continental tetrapods of Europe: a review. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 180(1):57-71. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.180.1.57.

Paleoecology[edit]

  • Nicolas, M., and Rubidge, B.S. 2009. Changes in Permo-Triassic terrestrial tetrapod ecological representation in the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa. Lethaia. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00171.x.

Footnotes[edit]

Complete author list[edit]

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Mateus, Jacobs, Polcyn, Schulp, Vineyard, Neto, Antunes.
  2. ^ Vandermark, Tarduno, Brinkman, Cottrell, Mason.
  3. ^ Tong, Claude, Naksri, Suteethorn, Buffetaut, Khansubba, Wongko, Yuandetkla.
  4. ^ Anquetin, Barrett, Jones, Moore-Fay, Evans.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716.
  2. ^ Rare fossil octopuses found, NBC News, March 18, 2009
  3. ^ New Octopus from the late Cretaceous of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon, Palaeontology, Volume 52, Issue 1, Pages 65-81
  4. ^ a b Fuchs, D.; Bracchi, G.; Weis, R. (2009). "New Octopods (Cephalopoda: Coleoidea) from the Late Cretaceous (Upper Cenomanian) of Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon". Palaeontology. 52 (1): 65–81. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2008.00828.x. Archived from the original on 14 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2010.
  5. ^ De Baets, K.; Klug, C.; Korn, D. (2009). "Anetoceratinae (Ammonoidea, Early Devonian) from the Eifel and Harz Mountains (Germany), with a revision of their genera". Palaeontology. 252 (3): 361–376. doi:10.1127/0077-7749/2009/0252-0361.
  6. ^ N.‐Z. Wang; X. Zhang; M. Zhu; W.‐J. Zhao (2009). "A new articulated hybodontoid from Late Permian of northwestern China". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 159–170. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00382.x.
  7. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "A new genus and species of sawfishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea) from the late Maastrichtian sediments of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 178–187.
  8. ^ a b Eileen D. Grogan; Richard Lund (2009). "Two new iniopterygians (Chondrichthyes) from the Mississippian (Serpukhovian) Bear Gulch Limestone of Montana with evidence of a new form of chondrichthyan neurocranium". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 134–151. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00371.x.
  9. ^ Davit Vasilyan; Bettina Reichenbacher; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new fossil Aphanius species from the Upper Miocene of Armenia (Eastern Paratethys)". Paläontologische Zeitschrift. 83 (4): 511–519. doi:10.1007/s12542-009-0034-4.
  10. ^ a b c d A.M. Prokofiev (2009). "К систематике олигоценовых перкоидных рыб, известных под сборным названием "Serranus budensis", с выделением новых таксонов". Актуальные проблемы современной науки. 46: 199–222.
  11. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "A new species of large Enchodus fishes (Aulopiformes: Enchodontidae) from the late Maastrichtian of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 204–214.
  12. ^ Giorgio Carnevale; Theodore W. Pietsch (2009). "An Eocene frogfish from Monte Bolca, Italy: the earliest known skeletal record for the family". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 745–752. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00874.x.
  13. ^ Brian Choo; John A. Long; Katherine Trinajstic (2009). "A new genus and species of basal actinopterygian fish from the Upper Devonian Gogo Formation of Western Australia". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 194–210. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00370.x.
  14. ^ Snitting, D. (2009). "Heddleichthys- a new tristichopterid genus from the Dura Den Formation, Midland Valley, Scotland (Famennian, Late Devonian)". Acta Zoologica. 90: 273–284. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00376.x.
  15. ^ Alexandre F. Bannikov; Giorgio Carnevale (2009). "A new percoid fish from the Eocene of Monte Bolca, Italy: Hendrixella grandei gen. & sp. nov". Swiss Journal of Geosciences. 102 (3): 481–488. doi:10.1007/s00015-009-1331-3.
  16. ^ Clément, G; Snitting, D; Ahlberg, PE; Gaël Clément; Daniel Snitting; Per Erik Ahlberg (July 2009). "A new Tristichopterid (Sarcopterygii, Tetrapodomorpha) from the Evieux Formation (Upper Devonian) of Belgium". Palaeontology. 52 (4): 823–836. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2009.00876.x.
  17. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "Ichthyodectids of the late Maastrichtian sediments of the Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation of Harrana". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 232–239.
  18. ^ Louis Taverne (2009). "Ridewoodichthys, a new genus for Brychaetus caheni from the marine Paleocene of Cabinda (Africa): re-description and comments on its relationships within the Osteoglossidae (Teleostei, Osteoglossomorpha)". Bulletin de l'Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, Sciences de la Terre. 79: 147–153.
  19. ^ Hani Faig Kaddumi (2009). "Saurodontids (Ichthyodectiformes: Saurocephalus) of Harrana with a description of a new species from the late Maastrichtian Muwaqqar Chalk Marl Formation". In Hani Faig Kaddumi (ed.). Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. pp. 215–231.
  20. ^ Angela C. Milner; Andrew R. Milner; Stig A. Walsh (2009). "A new specimen of Baphetes from Nýřany, Czech Republic and the intrinsic relationships of the Baphetidae". Acta Zoologica. 90 (s1): 318–334. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6395.2008.00340.x.
  21. ^ a b Báez, Ana M.; Moura, Geraldo J.B.; Gómez, Raúl O.; Ana M. Báez; Geraldo J.B. Moura; Raúl O. Gómez (2009). "Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Crato Formation of northeastern Brazil: implications for the early divergence of neobatrachians". Cretaceous Research. 30 (4): 829–846. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.01.002.
  22. ^ Anderson, J.S.; Scott, D.; Reisz, R.R. (2009). "Nannaroter mckinziei, a new ostodolepid 'microsaur' (Tetrapoda, Lepospondyli, Recumbirostra) from the Early Permian of Richards Spur (Ft. Sill), Oklahoma". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (2): 379–388. doi:10.1671/039.029.0222.
  23. ^ Skutschas, Pavel P.; Pavel P. Skutschas (2009). "Re-Evaluation of Mynbulakia Nesov, 1981 (Lissamphibia: Caudata) and Description of a New Salamander Genus from the Late Cretaceous of Uzbekistan". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 29 (3): 659–664. doi:10.1671/039.029.0326.
  24. ^ Zhang, Guilin; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E.H.; Evans, Susan E.; Guilin Zhang; Yuan Wang; Marc E.H. Jones; Susan E. Evans (2009). "A new Early Cretaceous salamander (Regalerpeton weichangensis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Huajiying Formation of northeastern China". Cretaceous Research. 30 (3): 551–558. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2008.10.004.
  25. ^ Klembara, Jozef (2009). "The skeletal anatomy and relationships of a new discosauriscid seymouriamorph from the lower Permian of Moravia (Czech Republic)". Annals of Carnegie Museum. 77 (4): 451–483. doi:10.2992/0097-4463-77.4.451.
  26. ^ Sean P. Modesto; Diane M. Scott; Robert R. Reisz (2009). "A new parareptile with temporal fenestration from the Middle Permian of South Africa". Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. 46 (1): 9–20. Bibcode:2009CaJES..46....9M. doi:10.1139/E09-001. Retrieved 14 August 2010.[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ Magdalena Borsuk−Białynicka; Mariusz Lubka (2009). "Procolophonids from the Early Triassic of Poland" (PDF). Paleontologica Polonica. 65: 107–144. Retrieved 12 August 2010..
  28. ^ Octávio Mateus; Louis Jacobs; Michael Polcyn; Anne S. Schulp; Diana Vineyard; André Buta Neto; Miguel Telles Antunes (2009). "The oldest African eucryptodiran turtle from the Cretaceous of Angola" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 54 (4): 581–588. doi:10.4202/app.2008.0063. Retrieved 21 June 2010.
  29. ^ Vandermark, D.; Tarduno, J.A.; Brinkman, D.B.; Cottrell, R.D.; Mason, S. (2009). "New Late Cretaceous macrobaenid turtle with Asian affinities from the High Canadian Arctic: dispersal via ice-free polar routes". Geology. 37 (2): 183–186. Bibcode:2009Geo....37..183V. doi:10.1130/G25415A.1.
  30. ^ Tong, H.; Claude, J.; Naksri, W.; Suteethorn, V.; Buffetaut, E.; Khansubha, S.; Wongko, K. & Yuangdetkla, P. (2009). "Basilochelys macrobios n. gen. and n. sp., a large cryptodiran turtle from the Phu Kradung Formation (latest Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous) of the Khorat Plateau, NE Thailand". In: Buffetaut, E.; Cuny, G.; Le Loeuff, J. & Suteethorn, V. (eds.). Late Palaeozoic and Mesozoic Ecosystems in SE Asia. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 315: 229-243.
  31. ^ a b Lyson, T.R.; Joyce, W.G. (2009). "A revision of Plesiobaena (Testudinoes: Baenidae) and an assessment of Baenid ecology across the K/T boundary". Journal of Paleontology. 83 (6): 833–853. doi:10.1666/09-035.1.
  32. ^ Richard Franz; Shelley E. Franz (2009). "A new fossil land tortoise in the genus Chelonoidis (Testudines: Testudinidae) from the northern Bahamas, with an osteological assessment of other Neotropical tortoises". Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History. 49 (1): 1–44.
  33. ^ Walter G. Joyce; Spencer G. Lucas; Torsten M. Scheyer; Andrew B. Heckert; Adrian P. Hunt (2009). "A thin-shelled reptile from the Late Triassic of North America and the origin of the turtle shell". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 276 (1656): 507–513. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1196. PMC 2664348. PMID 18842543.
  34. ^ Walter G. Joyce (2017). "A Review of the Fossil Record of Basal Mesozoic Turtles" (PDF). Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 58 (1): 65–113. doi:10.3374/014.058.0105.
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