2009 in science

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22 July 2009: the longest-lasting total solar eclipse of the 21st century occurs.

The year 2009 involved numerous significant scientific events and discoveries, some of which are listed below. 2009 was designated the International Year of Astronomy by the United Nations.[1]

Events, discoveries and inventions[edit]

January[edit]

February[edit]

March[edit]

  • 7 March – The Kepler space observatory is successfully launched, and begins its search for exoplanets.[8]
  • 12 March – Dartmouth researchers have found a way to develop more robust “quantum gates,” which are the elementary building blocks of quantum circuits. (Phys.org)

April[edit]

  • 3 April – Dr. Yinfa Ma develops a method for pre-cancer screening that uses urine samples for detection. Ma hopes to be able to predict types of cancer as well as severity. (Phys.org)
  • 4 April – A new method developed by Cornell biological engineers offers an efficient way to make proteins for use in medicine or industry without the use of live cells. (Phys.org)
  • 5 April – Japanese engineers build a childlike robot, the Child-robot with Biomimetic Body, or CB2, and report that it is slowly developing social skills by interacting with humans and watching their facial expressions, mimicking a mother-baby relationship. (Phys.org)

May[edit]

July[edit]

  • 22 July – A total solar eclipse – the longest-lasting total eclipse of the 21st century – takes place.[11]
  • 23 July – Two teams of Chinese researchers create live mice from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells.[12]

September[edit]

  • 3 September – Saturn's rings cross the plane of the Earth's orbit. This was the first such crossing since May 22, 1995, and another will not occur until March 23, 2025.[13]
  • 29 September – NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft makes its final flyby of Mercury, decreasing velocity enough for its orbital capture in 2011.[14]

October[edit]

  • 1 October – Paleontologists announce the discovery of an Ardipithecus ramidus fossil skeleton, deeming it the oldest fossil skeleton of a human ancestor yet found.[15]
  • 20 October – European astronomers discover 32 new exoplanets.[16]

December[edit]

Prizes[edit]

Abel Prize[edit]

Nobel Prize[edit]

Deaths[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "2009 to be International Year of Astronomy, UN declares". CBC News. December 21, 2007. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  2. ^ "Annular Solar Eclipse of 2009 Jan 26". NASA. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  3. ^ Gray, Richard; Dobson, Roger (January 31, 2009). "Extinct ibex is resurrected by cloning". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2011-11-02. 
  4. ^ "121.5 Phase-Out". COSPAS SARSAT. Retrieved 2010-07-09. 
  5. ^ Kwok, Roberta (2009-02-04). "Scientists find world's biggest snake". Nature. Retrieved 2009-02-04. 
  6. ^ Head, Jason J.; Bloch, Jonathan I.; Hastings, Alexander K.; Bourque, Jason R.; Cadena, Edwin A.; Herrera, Fabiany A.; Polly, P. David; Jaramillo, Carlos A. (2009-02-05). "Giant boid snake from the paleocene neotropics reveals hotter past equatorial temperatures". Nature 457 (7230): 715–718. Bibcode:2009Natur.457..715H. doi:10.1038/nature07671. PMID 19194448. Retrieved 2009-02-05. 
  7. ^ "JPL Close-Approach Data: C/2007 N3 (Lulin)". 2010-03-11. Retrieved 2010-03-23. "last obs" 
  8. ^ "KASC News and Schedule". Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University. Archived from the original on 9 July 2010. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  9. ^ "Shuttle Atlantis blasts off on last Hubble mission". Guardian. 11 May 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  10. ^ Franzen, Jens L.; et al. (2009). "Complete Primate Skeleton from the Middle Eocene of Messel in Germany: Morphology and Paleobiology". In Hawks, John. PLoS ONE 4 (5): e5723. Bibcode:2009PLoSO...4.5723F. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005723. PMC 2683573. PMID 19492084. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  11. ^ "Catalog of Long Total Solar Eclipses: 2001 to 3000". NASA. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  12. ^ http://www.nature.com/news/2009/090723/full/460560a.html
  13. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions About Saturn's Rings". NASA. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  14. ^ "MESSENGER Gains Critical Gravity Assist for Mercury Orbital Observations". MESSENGER Mission News. September 30, 2009. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  15. ^ Gibbons, Ann (2009). "A New Kind of Ancestor: Ardipithecus Unveiled". Science 326 (5949): 36–40. Bibcode:2009Sci...326...36G. doi:10.1126/science.326_36. PMID 19797636. 
  16. ^ Fox, Maggie; Frank, Jackie (2009-10-19). "European scientists find trawl of 32 new planets". Reuters. Archived from the original on 22 October 2009. Retrieved 2009-10-20. [dead link]
  17. ^ Espenak, F. "Partial Lunar Eclipse of 2009 Dec 31". NASA. Retrieved 9 July 2010. 
  18. ^ Moore, Carrie A. (February 11, 2009). "Kolff, 'father of artificial organs,' dies at 97". Deseret News. Archived from the original on 17 February 2009. Retrieved 2009-02-11.