2011 England riots
|2011 England riots|
Firefighters douse a shop and flats destroyed by arson during the initial rioting in Tottenham, London
|Date||6–11 August 2011 (although incidents continued after this period)|
|Location||Several districts of London, Birmingham, Merseyside, Greater Manchester, Nottingham, Bristol, and several other areas|
|Causes||Escalation of events following fatal police shooting of Mark Duggan|
|Methods||Rioting, looting, arson, mugging, assault, murder|
|Reported fatalities and injuries|
16+ members of public injured
186 police officers, 3 police community support officers as well as five police dogs injured
The 2011 England riots occurred between 6 and 11 August 2011, when thousands of people rioted in several London boroughs and in cities and towns across England. The resulting chaos generated looting, arson, and mass deployment of police and resulted in the death of five people.
Disturbances began on 6 August after a protest in Tottenham, London, following the death of Mark Duggan, a local man who was shot dead by police on 4 August. Several violent clashes with police ensued, along with the destruction of police vehicles, a double-decker bus, and many homes and businesses, thus rapidly gaining attention from the media. Overnight, looting took place in Tottenham Hale retail park and nearby Wood Green. The following days saw similar scenes in other parts of London, with the most rioting taking place in Hackney, Brixton, Walthamstow, Peckham, Enfield, Battersea, Croydon, Ealing, Barking, Woolwich, Lewisham and East Ham.
From 8 to 10 August, other towns and cities in England (including Birmingham, Coventry, Leicester, Derby, Wolverhampton, Nottingham, West Bromwich, Bristol, Liverpool, Manchester, and Salford) saw what was described by the media as "copycat violence". Social media sites including Facebook also featured rumours of further disturbances or details surrounding known disturbances which were later proven to be inaccurate; for instance there were rumours of disturbances in the town of Dudley and at the nearby Merry Hill Shopping Centre, but no incidents in these areas were detected by police. Rumours of a hospital being targeted by rioters in Birmingham were also proven to be wrong, as were rumours of disturbances in the Heath Town district of Wolverhampton, which had witnessed a serious riot in May 1989.
By 15 August, more than 3,000 arrests had been made across England, with more than 1,000 people issued with criminal charges for various offences related to the riots. Initially, courts sat for extended hours. There were a total of 3,443 crimes across London that were linked to the disorder. Along with the five deaths, at least 16 others were injured[update] as a direct result of related violent acts. An estimated £200 million worth of property damage was incurred, and local economic activity - which in many cases was already struggling due to the recession - was significantly compromised.
The online video website YouTube was soon host to much video footage of the riots, which had been recorded by witnesses and participants. The riots have generated significant ongoing debate among political, social and academic figures about the causes and context in which they happened. Attributions for the rioters' behaviour include such social factors such as racial tension, class tension, economic decline and the unemployment that it had brought, as well as individual factors like criminality, hooliganism, the breakdown of social morality and the development of gang culture.
- 1 Police shooting of Mark Duggan
- 2 Riots
- 3 Social media
- 4 Effects
- 5 Reactions
- 6 Suggested contributory factors
- 7 Celebrity involvement
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Sources
- 11 External links
Police shooting of Mark Duggan
On Thursday 4 August 2011, a police officer shot and killed 29-year-old Mark Duggan during an intelligence-led, targeted vehicle stop procedure on the Ferry Lane bridge next to Tottenham Hale station. The Independent Police Complaints Commission (IPCC) said that the planned arrest was part of Operation Trident, which at that time investigated gun crime within the black community. The incident had been referred to the IPCC, which is standard practice if death or serious injury follows police contact.
After the shooting, the media widely reported that a bullet was found embedded in a police radio, implying that Duggan fired on the police. Friends and relatives of Duggan said that he was unarmed. The police later revealed that initial ballistics tests on the bullet recovered from the police radio indicate that it was a "very distinct" police issue hollow-point bullet. The IPCC later stated that a loaded Bruni BBM blank-firing pistol, converted to fire live ammunition, was recovered from the scene. It was wrapped in a sock and there was no evidence that it had been fired.
On 13 August, the IPCC stated that Duggan did not open fire: "It seems possible that we may have verbally led journalists to [wrongly] believe that shots were exchanged". The bullet that had lodged in an officer's radio is believed to have been an overpenetration, having passed through Duggan's body.
At lunchtime on 6 August, a meeting was called by police between local community leaders, councillors and members of police advisory groups. In this meeting, police were warned several times that there could possibly be another riot similar to the Broadwater Farm riot of 1985 if local concerns regarding the death were not addressed.
On 8 January 2014, a jury at the Royal Courts of Justice concluded that Duggan was lawfully killed.
On Saturday 6 August a protest was held, initially peacefully, beginning at Broadwater Farm and finishing at Tottenham police station. The protest was organised by friends and relatives of Duggan to demand justice for the family. The group of some 300 people demanded that a senior local police officer come out to speak to them. When Chief Inspector Ade Adelekan arrived, he was met with boos and cries of "murderer", "Uncle Tom" and "coconut". The crowd stayed in front of the police station hours longer than they originally planned because they were not satisfied with the seniority of the officers available at the time. Rumours that a 16-year-old girl had sustained injuries after attacking police with a champagne bottle began circulating on social media. To date, the girl remains unidentified and the report unconfirmed. However the rumour alone was sufficient to further fuel tensions in the area
A peaceful march on Saturday 6 August in Tottenham was followed by rioting and looting, first in Tottenham and later in Tottenham Hale Retail Park. Rioting occurred shortly after about 120 people marched from the Broadwater Farm estate to Tottenham Police Station via the High Road.
The spread of news and rumours about the previous evening's disturbances in Tottenham sparked riots during the night of Sunday 7 August in the London districts of Brixton, Enfield, Islington and Wood Green and in Oxford Circus in the centre of London.
The morning of Monday 8 August was quiet, but by evening, areas across London were affected by widespread looting, arson and violence, with significant outbreaks in parts of Battersea, Brixton, Bromley, Camden, Croydon, Ealing, East Ham, Hackney, Harrow, Lewisham, Peckham, Stratford, Waltham Forest, Woolwich, and Wood Green. A man was found shot in Croydon, and died later in hospital. Another man who had been assaulted in Ealing died in hospital on Thursday 11 August.
Following a greatly increased police presence, London was quiet on Tuesday 9 August, but rioting continued in Nottingham and Birmingham (where, according to the police account, eleven shots were fired at police, including at a police helicopter, and petrol bombs thrown at officers) and spread to Leicester, parts of the West Midlands and to parts of Greater Manchester and Merseyside in the north-west of England. On Wednesday 10 August, London remained quiet while hundreds of arrests were being made by the police. Three men were killed in Birmingham in a hit-and-run incident related to the disturbances. Looting and violence continued in two locations around Manchester and Liverpool.
Throughout the rioting, many of the rioters failed to cover their faces. Some posed for pictures with stolen goods, posting them on social-networking sites.
Although London employs CCTV cameras to monitor crime and large events, reports indicate that citizen footage contributed more to capturing looters in action than the police force. Beyond the CCTV, looters were filmed and photographed with their faces visible. Police forces and investigators used websites like Flickr to find galleries of the looters to help solve and prevent cases of vandalism and further damage. Facebook pages were also created to identify looters.
Several interactive maps were implemented in the Google Maps website that showed satellite views of what was happening in the streets during the rioting. James Cridland, the managing director of the free media resources, created a Google Map that tracked verified locations of rioting. Channel 4 News also had similar maps that progressively tracked the damage in the streets as well. News channels also were able to utilise this public service to capture live footage on the streets and inform citizens of dangerous or crowded areas.
There were reports that the BlackBerry Messenger service was used by looters to organise their activities, and that inflammatory and inaccurate accounts of Mark Duggan's killing on social media sites may have incited disturbances. One of the many messages shared between users was the following:
- "Everyone in edmonton enfield wood green everywhere in north link up at enfield town station at 4 o clock sharp!!!!," it began. "Start leaving ur yards n linking up with your niggas. Fuck da feds, bring your ballys and your bags trollys, cars vans, hammers the lot!!"
Research in Motion assisted British police in tracking rioters who used BBM, stating, "We comply with the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act and co-operate fully with the Home Office and UK police forces."
Increased connectivity among individuals has led to a greater ability to organise and execute massive gatherings. This has not occurred only with the riots in England, but with other collective gatherings such as the Arab Spring and the Egyptian revolution of 2011.
Much like BBM, the mobility of technology shaped the London riots. During the Tottenham riots of 1985, citizens had to head into a public place to voice their message. Yet, with access to Twitter as a communication medium, social media was used to rapidly spread messages of the riots.
Radio 4 criticised Twitter's contribution to the riots through greed and criminality. The Daily Telegraph described Twitter as being an outlet for promoting gang violence. Evidence shows that Twitter is powerful because tweets of individuals were inspired by news content. However, an article in Time magazine suggested BlackBerry Messenger was more to blame.
During the riots, Twitter accounted for four out of every 170 UK Internet visits on Monday 8 August. In addition, citizens also used Twitter to band together, after the destruction. The aftermath of the riots resulted in a disrupted city, yet Twitter was further used to maintain peace, with hashtags including "#riotcleanup". Evidence shows that people were tweeting and re-tweeting news related to the riots, not original content.
Other than BlackBerry Messenger and social networking sites, mobile phone operators T-Mobile and Orange prioritised police requests for information about the phones that were used to plan the riots that hit British cities. Under the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act, phone companies were required to hand over data about the locations calls were made from, the owners of phones, and lists of calls made to and from a particular handset.
Deaths and injuries
Trevor Ellis, a 26-year-old from Brixton Hill, died following a shooting in Croydon, South London on 8 August. His family denied reports that Ellis, who had come from the Brixton area to Croydon with a group of friends, had been involved in looting. By 16 December 2013, 13 people had been arrested in connection with the murder. All have later been bailed and then released without action. On 16 December, the eve of Ellis's birthday, detectives opened up a fresh appeal into the murder, asking for witnesses to come forward. No one has yet[when?] been charged.
Haroon Jahan, Shahzad Ali and Abdul Musavir
On 10 August, in Winson Green, Birmingham, three men – Haroon Jahan, 21, and brothers Shahzad Ali, 30, and Abdul Musavir, 31 – were killed in a hit-and-run incident while attempting to protect their neighbourhood from rioters and looters. On 19 April 2012, a trial of eight men, each arraigned on three counts of murder, was held in the Crown Court at Birmingham before Mr Justice Flaux; the jury acquitted all of the defendants on all charges.
Richard Mannington Bowes
Bowes was attacked by members of a mob on 8 August 2011, while attempting to extinguish a fire that had been deliberately started in industrial bins on Spring Bridge Road. The attack inflicted severe head injuries which resulted in a coma. The assault was caught on CCTV and reportedly filmed on mobile phones by associates of the alleged assailant. The attack on Bowes was witnessed by several police officers, but due to the number of rioters they were unable to come to his aid until riot squad officers pushed back the rioters while being attacked to reach Bowes. A line of officers then held back the rioters as paramedics arrived. Bowes's wallet and phone had been stolen, and police faced difficulty in identifying him. He died of his injuries in St Mary's Hospital on 11 August 2011 after being removed from life support.
Many tributes were paid to Bowes, including Ealing Council who flew the Union Flag at half-mast over its town hall and announced the launch of a relief fund in his name, and London Mayor Boris Johnson, who described him as a hero.
A 16-year-old male, later named as Darrell Desuze, who lives in Hounslow was charged with murdering Bowes, violent disorder and four burglaries. He appeared at Croydon Magistrates' Court on 16 August 2011, where he was remanded in custody until his appearance at the Central Criminal Court on 18 August 2011. His 31-year-old mother Lavinia Desuze was charged with perverting the course of justice. On 12 March 2012 at the Crown Court at Inner London, Darrel Desuze pleaded guilty to manslaughter, after previously pleading guilty to burglary and violent disorder. The following day the Crown withdrew the murder charge against him. After a trial at the Crown Court at Inner London before Mr Justice Saunders and a jury, Lavinia Desuze was convicted of perverting the course of justice after she destroyed the clothing her son wore on the day of the death. On 17 April 2012, Mr Justice Saunders sentenced Darrell Desuze to detention for a term of eight years, and Lavinia Desuze to imprisonment for eighteen months.
In Barking, East London, 20-year-old Malaysian student Ashraf Rossli was beaten and then robbed twice by looters emptying his rucksack. Footage of the second mugging, which appears to show the second set of muggers pretend to help him then proceed to ransack his rucksack, was uploaded onto YouTube. He suffered a broken jaw, requiring surgery. On 2 March 2012, two men, John Kafunda of Ilford and Reece Donovan of Romford, were found guilty of the robbery of Rossli and also violent disorder by a jury at Wood Green Crown Court. The sentences were quashed by the Court of Appeal on 29 November 2012.
In Chingford, East London, three police officers were hit by a car used as a getaway vehicle by a group who looted the Aristocrat store on Chingford Mount Road. Two of the officers were seriously injured and taken to hospital.
Ten firefighters were injured as the London Fire Brigade dealt with over 100 serious fires caused by the disturbances. The LFB also reported that eight of its fire engines had their windscreens smashed and that two fire cars were attacked.
Property and business damage
Vehicles, homes and shops were attacked and set alight. At least 100 homes were destroyed in the arson and looting. Shopkeepers estimated the damages in their Tottenham Hale and Tottenham branches at several million pounds. The riots caused the irretrievable loss of heritage architecture. It was estimated that retailers lost at least 30,000 trading hours.
On 8 August 2011, a Sony DADC warehouse in Enfield at Enfield Lock, which also acted as the primary distribution centre for independent music distributor PIAS Entertainment Group, was destroyed by fire. Initially, because millions of items of stock were lost, including most of PIAS's inventory, it was thought that long-term damage to the British independent music industry might result. On 18 August 2011, PIAS confirmed that their operations were back to normal. On 11 August 2011, London police reported that they had arrested three teenagers in connection with the warehouse fire.
The Financial Times reported that an analysis showed that 48,000 local businesses – shops, restaurants, pubs and clubs – had suffered financial losses as a result of the looting and rioting in English streets.
Personal attacks and thefts
A 15-year-old was accused in August 2011 of raping a 13-year-old girl while the riots were taking place. The prosecution described the incident as being geographically "close" to the riots.
Twenty-year-old student Ashraf Haziq was attacked while cycling along Queen's Road in Barking. The prosecution said that the victim was punched in the face by one of a group of 100 youths. His bike, PlayStation Portable and mobile phone were stolen. In September 2011, an accusation of robbery was made against 24-year-old Reece Donovan. The same month, a 17-year-old was accused in court of breaking the victim's jaw with an unprovoked punch. In February 2012 John Kafunda and Reece Donovan were convicted of stealing from Rossli, after being identified on camera pretending to help him.
Four London buses were set on fire during the riots.
- Evening of 6 August: Arriva London North DAF DB250L/Alexander ALX400 double decker DLA284 (Y484 UGC) was destroyed on Tottenham High Road.
- Evening of 8 August: Abellio London Dennis Trident/Alexander ALX400 double decker 9755 (YN51 KVM) was destroyed at Reeves Corner, Croydon.
- Late afternoon of 8 August: Go Ahead London Central Volvo B9TL/Wright Gemini 2 double decker WVL302 (LX59 CZV) was set alight in Peckham, but not destroyed. This bus has been rebuilt and re-entered service at New Cross bus garage on 31 May 2012.
- Late afternoon of 8 August: First Capital Dennis Dart SLF/Caetano Nimbus single decker DMC41496 (LK03 NMF) was set alight at Dalston, but not destroyed.
Many other London buses were damaged with broken windows etc.
On 9 August, Croydon's Tramlink was partly shut down due to damage inflicted along its route. Transport for London, London Overground and London Underground shut Barking, Peckham Rye and Harrow-on-the-Hill and Hackney Central stations. The train operating company Southern later announced that trains were not stopping at many stations in south London. National Express Coaches stopped serving Wolverhampton and suburban stops in the Birmingham area (but not Birmingham Coach Station itself) and Manchester (but not Manchester Airport).
Five Football League Cup games due to be played on 9 and 10 August were postponed after requests from police due to the riots. The games at Bristol City, Bristol Rovers, Charlton Athletic, Crystal Palace and West Ham United were all postponed, as they were all situated within a short distance of areas which had seen some of the worst disturbances. There was also uncertainty as to the Third Test cricket match between India and England, at Edgbaston in Birmingham, but the match was played.
The international football friendly match between England and the Netherlands at Wembley Stadium due to take place on 10 August was cancelled, as well as the international friendly between Ghana and Nigeria scheduled for 9 August at Vicarage Road, Watford.
Tottenham Hotspur's opening game of the 2011–12 Premier League season against Everton on 13 August was postponed. The League Two game between Cheltenham Town and Swindon Town, due to be played the same day, was also initially postponed until further consultation allowed Gloucestershire Police to provide the required resources.
Following the initial disorder in Tottenham, the constituency Labour MP David Lammy appealed for calm, saying that "true justice can only follow a thorough investigation of the facts" and that Tottenham had had its "heart ripped out" by the riots. He said that rioters were not representative of the local community as a whole and insisted that the Independent Police Complaints Commission must fully establish the circumstances of Mark Duggan's death. Lammy voiced concerns that the EDL and BNP were playing on the London riots and people's fears to advance their political motives.
Streatham's Labour MP Chuka Umunna condemned the violence in Brixton and Tottenham. Umunna called for the BlackBerry Messenger service, used by some of the rioters to co-ordinate their activities, to be "temporarily disabled" between 6 pm and 6 am BST.
John Randall, the Conservative MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip said: "It’s a small minority of people causing the trouble. The events in Ealing brought it home, it’s just down the Uxbridge Road." Hackney North and Stoke Newington MP Diane Abbott called for the introduction of a curfew.
Newark MP Colonel Patrick Mercer called for the deployment of water cannon. In December 2010 Theresa May, the Home Secretary, had said that the deployment of water cannon by police forces on the British mainland was an operational decision which had been "resisted until now by senior police officers." On 9 August 2011, May rejected their use and said: "The way we police in Britain is not through use of water cannon. The way we police in Britain is through consent of communities." Ken Livingstone, the former London mayor, said "The issue of water cannon would be very useful given the level of arson we are seeing here." Scotland Yard said officers did not have any water cannon and if their use was approved they would have to be brought over from Northern Ireland.
May said: "I condemn utterly the violence in Tottenham... Such disregard for public safety and property will not be tolerated, and the Metropolitan Police have my full support in restoring order." She returned to the UK from holiday early to meet senior police officials on 8 August.
A spokesman for the Prime Minister's office added: "The rioting in Tottenham last night was utterly unacceptable. There is no justification for the aggression the police and the public faced, or for the damage to property."
London's mayor, Boris Johnson, who cut short a holiday in Canada to return to the UK on 9 August, said: "I'm appalled at the scenes of violence and destruction in Tottenham" whilst his deputy Kit Malthouse told a Sky News reporter that "criminal elements were to blame for the trouble."
Prime Minister David Cameron condemned the "terrible scenes of people looting, vandalizing, thieving, robbing" and told rioters "You will feel the full force of the law. And if you are old enough to commit these crimes, you are old enough to face the punishment."
In a strongly worded criticism of what he deems to be a misplaced "hyper-sensitivity about race", dating back to the Macpherson Report of 1999, Civitas director David Green attributed the reluctance by police to use force to a fear of disciplinary action. He said that "officers in charge of a riot think it safer to wait for orders from the top".
The city councils of Manchester and Salford are reported to be investigating their powers for ways of evicting tenants if they, or their children, have been involved in violence or looting in their cities. The London Borough of Greenwich also stated on its website: "We shall seek the eviction of anyone living in council property if they are found to have been engaged in criminal acts."
Several countries issued warnings advising caution to travellers visiting the United Kingdom during the riots.
Commentators likened the riots to the Broadwater Farm riot of 1985, during which a police officer, Keith Blakelock, was murdered. The disturbances were preceded by calls for better oversight of the Metropolitan Police, repeating observations which go back to the death of Stephen Lawrence and the New Cross Fire. In April 2011 there was a large nonviolent march to Scotland Yard as a result of the death of Smiley Culture. The very widespread scale of the violence prompted comparisons with the Gordon Riots of 1780.
The Sun called the scenes "shameful" and lamented that "[w]ith the London Olympics less than a year away, our reputation is being damaged at the worst moment". It added: "This is anarchy, pure and simple. And it presents a serious threat to life and property."
The Daily Telegraph's editorial said: "What we have experienced in London and elsewhere since Saturday night is a wholly new phenomenon: violent disorder whose sole intent is criminal... In such circumstances, there can be only one response if the law-abiding majority is to be protected: the thugs must be taught to respect the law of the land the hard way."
The Telegraph also reported: "Tottenham riots: police let gangs run riot and loot: Britain’s biggest police force is facing criticism after it let looters run riot in north London for almost 12 hours..."
The Guardian called on the public to back the police: "... Britain's 2011 riots have become a defining contest between disorder and order. In that contest, important caveats notwithstanding, there is only one right side to be on. The attacks, the destruction, the criminality and the reign of fear must be stopped. The rule of law in the cities of Britain must not only be defended against delinquent destruction. It must also be enforced."
During the height of the riots, The Guardian was accused of anti-Semitic incitement by the media monitoring organisation, Comment Is Free Watch (CiFW), after Guardian journalist Paul Lewis singled out Hasidic Jewish residents who were not involved in the rioting. The content of his report stated, "The make-up of the rioters was racially mixed. Most were men or boys, some apparently as young as 10….But families and other local residents, including some from Tottenham's Hasidic Jewish community, also gathered to watch and jeer at police." CIFW responded by condemning the newspaper saying, "A 1,800 Guardian report doesn't mention the race, ethnicity, or religion of the rioters, somehow found it pertinent to note that some of those who gathered to jeer police were, allegedly, Hasidic Jews." As a result of the negative publicity, The Guardian revised the story.
In its 9 August leading article, The Independent said the police's handling of Mark Duggan's death "looks to have been poor", and that there is "context of mistrust of the police here." The paper added that "it is spurious to draw a connection between that disaffection [by the inner-city youth] and specific outbreaks of violence of the sort we have seen in recent days."
Peter Hitchens of the Daily Mail disputed the idea that the events were riots on the basis that they were fundamentally apolitical. He further stated: "This is an equal-opportunity crime wave. The lawbreakers are not from any distinct ethnic group, and attempts to explain this behaviour on these ground are baseless and poisonous."
Psychiatrist Theodore Dalrymple wrote an opinion piece for the New York Daily News, in which he blamed the "sense of entitlement" that he sees as being common among Britain's youth as a cause for the riots, and said that British youth are today among "the most unpleasant and violent in the world" as a result.
Some journalists made comparisons between these riots and the 2005 riots in France. In both cases, the unrest started with the death of a young person during a confrontation with the police. In fact, a television report by France 2, broadcast in November 2005, showed a visit by a delegation from Évry (just outside Paris) to Tottenham, with the report calling "Tottenham part of London 'regularly shaken by riots' in earlier decades, where 'a lot of money was invested' and 'the promotion of ethnic minorities', had been made a priority."
Many people called for the government to urge the police to deploy anti-riot methods often used outside Great Britain, such as water cannon and baton rounds (which have been used in Northern Ireland), the use of which has long been resisted by senior police commanders and politicians.
Pauline Pearce, a 45-year-old woman from Hackney, was filmed close to the rioting, furiously chastising looters over their criminal behaviour. She is seen holding a walking-stick and gesturing. The resulting Heroine of Hackney video subsequently went viral. Its rapid spread was helped by tweeting from famous people such as newspaper editor Piers Morgan and former Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott. Pearce was hailed as a heroine for helping to ease tensions in Hackney; her influence was acknowledged by politicians and the national press. MP for Hackney South and Shoreditch, Meg Hillier, has invited Pearce to the Houses of Parliament. Speaking to The Australian newspaper, Pearce described the looting and vandalism as being "heart-breaking" and also contrasted people's relative poverty with expenditure for the Olympic Games. Pearce has since been featured in The Spectator, dismissing David Starkey's view that hip-hop culture was partly to blame for the riots. In September 2011, she was awarded the Team London Award at the annual Peace Awards by Boris Johnson.
On Amazon, sales of baseball bats and truncheons increased significantly overnight. Deputy Assistant Commissioner Stephen Kavanagh stated: "We are already seeing a community kickback. People are angry. This is their neighbourhoods that are at stake." Political commentator and foreign affairs analyst Nile Gardiner suggested that the British Government should prompt a debate which will allow British business owners the right to keep and bear arms.
Three men killed in a hit-and-run incident in Birmingham, Haroon Jahan, Shazad Ali, and Abdul Musavir Tariq, were described as heroes for dying while attempting to defend their neighbourhood. Tariq Jahan, the father of 21-year-old victim Haroon Jahan, gave a speech appealing for calm, social unity and an end to the violence, hours after his son's death. Jahan was hailed as a hero and a patriot for helping to ease tensions in Birmingham; his influence was acknowledged by politicians and the national press, receiving an award at the 2011 Pride of Britain Awards. Conservative MEP Daniel Hannan said of him: "Uncomplaining, in control of his emotions, Tariq Jahan reminds us of what it means to be British." The Financial Times described Jahan as eloquent and inspiring, and said "His selfless intervention contrasted with the rapacious self-interest of the looters, and was a timely reminder of the obligations of community."
Tens of thousands of users of social networking sites coordinated clean-up operations of their local shopping areas and streets. Social media sites Twitter and Facebook were also used for reporting information on the riots and to co-ordinate a voluntary citizens' operation to clear up riot-hit areas. In Clapham Junction, dozens of volunteers carrying brooms turned out to assist with clean-up efforts. On Facebook, over 900,000 people joined a group entitled 'Supporting the Met Police against the London rioters'.
Manchester City Councillor Pat Karney, the city centre spokesperson for Manchester City Council, said: "The true Mancunian civic spirit has been shown in Manchester today." Staff from city centre businesses and Manchester Metropolitan University joined the volunteers, as food outlets gave out free drinks and snacks. There were several fundraising initiatives to help independent business owners re-build their businesses and livelihoods.
A petition was submitted to the UK government proposing that any convicted rioters have their benefit payments cut. This petition has been signed by over 200,000 people.
A petition on the UK government website demanding convicted rioters to be banished to the Outer Hebrides of Scotland was set up in the summer of 2011. The reaction caused a public outcry in Scotland and eventually Westminster offered an apology to Western Isles MP Angus Brendan MacNeil.
By 20:00 on 7 August, the major rioting had spread to Wood Green, but some riot police were on hand. Again, the police did not intervene to stop the looting. The mostly Turkish and Kurdish shop owners along Wood Green, Turnpike Lane and Green Lanes, Harringay, were said to have formed local 'protection units' around their shops.
On 8 and 9 August, people from Bangladeshi, Pakistani, Kurdish, Turkish, Sikh and English communities chased down masked youths in several areas of North and East London, including Green Street, Hackney, Haringey, and Tower Hamlets. Conservative MEP Daniel Hannan praised the community for their brave and responsible reactions to the crisis.
On 9 August, vigilantes included English locals in Enfield which included several members of the English Defence League, locals and supporters of Millwall F.C. in Eltham, and the Sikh communities in Southall, East Ham, Ilford, and Romford.
Sangat TV and Sikh Channel urged their viewers to protect Sikh temples after a report that one was attacked in Birmingham. On the night of 9–10 August 2011, following violence, arson and rioting in London, members of the Sikh community in Southall volunteered to stand guard at various city Gurdwaras, with as many as 200 to 300 Sikhs from different age groups gathered in various Gurudwaras across Southall to safeguard their places of worship from rioters. The Sikhs drew praise from Prime Minister David Cameron for this action.
On 10 August in Eltham, police clashed with a bottle-throwing crowd of about 200 vigilantes, including many English Defence League members. It was reported that 50 EDL members joined forces with locals to patrol the streets. That same day, a senior police officer said that some vigilante groups were hampering police operations in London. 90 EDL members also joined vigilantes in Enfield.
The ethnic makeup of the rioters varied in different cities: 76% of those arrested in Manchester were white, while 29% were white and 39% black in London, and the West Midlands was the only area where more than 6% were Asian.
Research conducted by the University of Nottingham suggested that race relations in Britain deteriorated in the period following the riots and that prejudice towards ethnic minorities increased. After the hit-and-run incident in Birmingham, in which three Asian men were killed by a black driver, racial tensions between blacks and Asians in Birmingham increased; hostilities were diffused by the public appeals for an end to violence by Tariq Jahan, father of one of the victims.
The effects of black culture were discussed by historian David Starkey in the edition of the BBC's Newsnight TV programme of 12 August. Starkey singled out the influence of black gangster and rap culture on youths of all races, contrasting contemporary youth patois with the speech patterns of black Tottenham MP David Lammy, who, Starkey asserted, "sounded white". The author Dreda Say Mitchell countered his argument by saying that there is no one single "black culture".
Some commentators remarked on the apparently high proportion of black people involved in the riots and took the view that there was a disproportionately high number of rioters who were black, compared to the overall demographics of the United Kingdom. As the Ministry of Justice has admitted "the group of people brought before the courts is only a subset of all people who took part in the public disorder". In February 2012 a report was published by the Ministry of Justice providing demographic statistics of the people charged over participation the riots up to 1 February 2012 which revealed that 41% of those brought before the courts identified themselves as being from the White group, 39% from the Black ethnic group, 12% from the Mixed ethnic group, 6% the Asian ethnic group, and 2% the Other ethnic group. These figures were disproportionate to the average UK population; however the figures revealed varying demographics in different areas when compared to local populations. For example, in Haringey, the figures revealed that 55% of defendants in court over riot-related charges were black, compared to a 17% black population; in Salford, 94% of rioters in court were white, compared to an 88% white population, and 6% of rioters were black, compared to a 2% black population. Additionally, looters from 44 foreign countries were jailed, with Jamaicans representing the largest group.
The Ministry of Justice report also noted that rioters brought before the courts were disproportionately male (89%) and young (53% were aged 20 or under, with the number of "juveniles" ranging from 26% in London to 39% in Merseyside, and very few listed as over 40).
The Metropolitan Police Service launched Operation Withern, an investigation into the events leading up to and during the riots. The operation was initially led by Detective Superintendent John Sweeney of the Metropolitan Police Service, with detectives from the Homicide and Serious Crime Command, specialist investigators from the Public Order Branch, and police support staff. Detective Superintendent Robin Bhairam, took over the post event investigation, where officers were drawn from all over the MPS, from different business groups, and placed into 10 Investigation Hubs across London. The Deputy Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police, Steve Kavanagh, stated that the number of officers deployed tripled between 6 and 7 August.
The BBC reported that West Midlands riot police officers were issued with plastic bullets to use against looters, but that none were fired. Metropolitan Police deputy assistant commissioner Stephen Kavanagh confirmed that police in London were considering using baton rounds against rioters, not previously used by mainland police in public order operations (though they were first approved for use in England and Wales in 2001).
The Metropolitan Police Service has assigned 450 detectives to hunt for rioters and looters. The list of photographed looters has been made available on their website. Assistant Chief Constable Garry Shewan of Greater Manchester Police criticised "unprecedented" criminality. On 10 August, he warned: "Hundreds and hundreds of people, we have your image, we have your face, we have your acts of wanton criminality on film."
According to The Independent, the costs to the Metropolitan Police of policing the disorder and disturbances in London are expected to exceed £34 million. This could be more than their total bill for the policing of all major public disorder events in the year from April 2010 to March 2011.
Arrests and charges
By 15 August 2011 around 3,100 people had been arrested, of whom over 1,100 had appeared in court. On 25 August the BBC reported that more than 2,000 people had been arrested in connection with the disorder in London.
It was reported in mid-August that some courts were advised by senior justice clerks to deal harshly with offences committed during the disturbances. The advice was said to tell the courts that they could ignore existing sentencing guidelines and hand down heavy sentences. David Cameron defended the courts for handing out tough sentences, while some Liberal Democrat MPs and civil rights groups criticised some sentences being handed down. Groups of lawyers complained that Crown Prosecutors were opposing bail in more cases than usual.
Trials and sentencing
On 1 September 2011 the BBC reported that official Ministry of Justice figures showed that of the 1,566 people that had appeared before magistrates on charges connected with the disorder, 1,027 had been in London, 190 in Greater Manchester, 132 in the West Midlands, 67 in Merseyside and 64 in Nottingham.
Sentences of four years in a Young Offender Institution were given to two men who promoted riots via Facebook. The proposed events in Northwich and Warrington were not attended by any other people. These sentences were affirmed on appeal by the Court of Appeal. Giving the judgment of the court, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Lord Judge, sitting with Sir John Thomas and Lord Justice Leveson, stated that there is "an overwhelming obligation on sentencing courts to do what they can to ensure the protection of the public", that "the imposition of severe sentences, intended to provide both punishment and deterrence, must follow" and that "[t]hose who deliberately participate in disturbances of this magnitude, causing injury and damage and fear to even the most stout-hearted of citizens, and who individually commit further crimes during the course of the riots are committing aggravated crimes". The appeals were dismissed.
On 25 April 2012, the Court of Appeal (Lord Judge CJ, Openshaw & Irwin JJ) increased the sentence imposed by the Crown Court at Inner London on Adam Ahmadzai from four years detention to seven years detention for offences of violent disorder, robbery, burglary and criminal damage committed during the riots on 8 August 2011, after a reference from Attorney General, Dominic Grieve QC. The Lord Chief Justice stated that the offences were of the "greatest possible seriousness".
A woman who had not taken part in the riots received five months for receiving a pair of stolen shorts. The sentence was later reduced on appeal. Manchester police used Twitter to celebrate the five-month sentence; they later apologised and removed the tweet. A teenager was freed when prosecutors found evidence he had been wrongly charged with arson. While in prison, his own flat was burned down. The detaining of under-18s without criminal records was criticised by UNICEF in October 2011 for possibly breaching the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. By August 2012, 1292 rioters had been handed custodial sentences totalling 1,800 years at 16.8 months on an average.
The Tricycle Theatre in Kilburn presented a piece of new writing, The Riots by Gillian Slovo, which looked into the events over those days in August and the thoughts and opinions of a range of people directly involved and politicians. It transferred to the Bernie Grant Arts Centre in Tottenham, about 400 m from where the Mark Duggan protest took place, on 5 January 2012, and was due to run until 15 January. The piece attempts to show a non-biased look into the events, allowing audience members to hear different views into why it happened and what could have and should now be done. The piece includes community leaders Stafford Scott and Martin Sylvester Brown, police constables on duty that night and a former resident of the Carpet-Right building, the burned remains now providing a highly poignant reminder of the events. They are combined with the views of Diane Abbott, Iain Duncan Smith, Michael Gove and Pastor Nims Obunge. It was received well by all critics, with 4 stars from all major press including The Guardian.
Suggested contributory factors
The causes of the 2011 England riots both immediate and long-term have been the subject of media and academic debate. Several speculations have emerged as to what the likely contributory factors might be for the riots; from socio-economic causes focusing on unemployment and spending cuts, as well as social media, gang culture and criminal opportunism. The House of Commons Home Affairs select committee will begin examining the police response to the riots in late 2011. The leader of the Opposition, Ed Miliband, called for a public inquiry into the wider causes of the riots and has stated that his party would set up such an inquiry if the coalition fails to do so. The UK was shaken by worst riots in decades.
A wide-ranging LSE study called Reading the Riots concluded that the major contributory factors were opportunism, perceived social injustice, deprivation, and frustration at the way communities were policed.
A YouGov poll was carried out on 8–9 August 2011 for The Sun asking what those surveyed believed to be the main cause of the riots. In it, 42% of those polled thought "criminal behaviour" to be the main cause, whilst 26% thought "gang culture" was, 8% thought "government cuts" were, 5% thought "unemployment" was, 5% thought "racial tensions" was and 3% thought "poor policing" was. In a ComRes poll for the Sunday Mirror and Independent on Sunday, in which the question was "do you agree or disagree with these statements about the recent riots?", 90% of those polled agreed that the "Police should be allowed use [sic] to water cannon to disperse rioters", 90% agreed that "There is no excuse whatsoever for the violent rioting and looting over the last few days", 61% agreed that "Government ministers failed to return to their desks quickly enough from holidays" and 50% agreed that "The Government's response to the economic crisis (e.g. cuts to services, unemployment, reduced education funding) is helping fuel the rioters".
Researchers who study the causes of political instability suggest that the critical common factor is the density of youths. A nation's extent of political unrest, i.e. its vulnerability to riot, war or regime change, is directly associated with the percentage of 15- to 24-year-olds in its population. They argue that communities with more than 20% of individuals in this age group run the greatest risk of more frequent and more intense political instability. They describe the phenomena as the "youth bulge theory", where the "bulge" refers to the fattening of the population pyramid just before the base of the youngest age groups.
Poor relations with police
The riots in Tottenham after the death of Mark Duggan were initially blamed on poor relations between the police and the black community. Professor Gus John has argued that the tactical use of frequent "stop and search", particularly of young black men, has caused resentment of the police in the black community.
The Guardian's Reading the Riots Survey concluded: "Although rioters expressed a mix of opinions about the disorder, many of those involved said they felt like they were participating in explicitly anti-police riots. They cited "policing" as the most significant cause of the riots, and anger over the police shooting of Mark Duggan, which triggered initial disturbances in Tottenham, was repeatedly mentioned – even outside London."
Rioters themselves cited exclusion as a reason for their actions. One person, asked by a journalist if rioting was really the best way to accomplish their objectives, responded: "Yes, because if we weren’t rioting, you wouldn’t be talking to us."
Camila Batmanghelidjh writing in The Independent blames social exclusion and social deprivation. Various journalists have identified poverty and the growing gap between rich and poor as causative factors.
In a House of Commons debate on the riots Home Secretary Theresa May stated that the riots were symptomatic of a "wider malaise" including worklessness, illiteracy, and drug abuse but also stated that "Everybody, no matter what their background or circumstances, has the freedom to choose between right and wrong". Former Prime Minister Tony Blair, writing in The Observer, stated that the riots were not caused by a broken society, but due to a group of young, alienated, disaffected youth who are outside the social mainstream and who live in a culture at odds with any canons of proper behaviour; he added that this is found in virtually every developed nation.
A journalist on Al Jazeera suggested a similarity to the disenfranchisement behind the Arab Spring revolutionary wave of 2011. Links were made to high youth unemployment and general disenfranchisement. A study by The Financial Times published in September 2011 found a strong link between rioting and deprivation.
Christina Odone writing in The Daily Telegraph links the riots to a lack of male role models and argues that "Like the overwhelming majority of youth offenders behind bars, these gang members have one thing in common: no father at home." This has been linked further with England's having the "worst record in family breakdown in Europe".
The spending cuts of the coalition government in the United Kingdom have also been cited as a cause. Ken Livingstone, the Labour Candidate for Mayor of London in 2012 has argued that "The economic stagnation and cuts being imposed by the Tory government inevitably create social division." Nick Clegg, the Deputy Prime Minister and leader of the Liberal Democrats political party, made it clear that the government's planned cuts to police budgets will go ahead.
The local government budget had been cut in the past year so Haringey Council, which includes Tottenham and Tottenham Hale, decided to close eight of its 13 youth clubs in 2011, rather than save money through increased efficiency or make cuts in other areas.
Scrapping of the Education Maintenance Allowance, removing of funding for courses where the student already has an equal or lower level qualification and trebling of university tuition fees, combined with high youth unemployment has placed the British youth "between a rock and a hard place" alienating and angering the youth population. Proponents of this argument say that Scottish youth did not riot partly because Scottish students do not have to pay tuition fees.
Unemployment and poverty
David Lammy MP has said that Tottenham has the highest unemployment rate in London and the eighth highest in the United Kingdom. The number of people chasing every one job vacancy in Haringey has been put at 23 and 54 in separate reports, and fears had spread of disorder after youth club closures in recent months.
Rioting for fun
Other academics have pointed to more prosaic causes of the 2011 riots, citing the carnivalesque atmospheres created through the usual uses of urban space. For example, researchers from the University of Birmingham noted that ‘another sound could be heard above the mêlée, that of laughter. Above the bark of police dogs, and behind the masked and hooded faces of the throng, were smiles, laughter, and shrieks of joy.’
In a Newsnight discussion on 12 August, historian David Starkey blamed black gangster culture, saying that it had influenced youths of all races. The BBC received nearly 700 complaints about his statement that the "whites have become black". Cottrell-Boyce, writing in the Youth Justice journal, argued that gangs were constructed as a 'suitable enemy' by politicians and the media, obscuring the wider, structural and economic roots of youth violence.
During the riots, on 9 August 2011, UK Home Secretary Theresa May said: "I think this is about sheer criminality. That is what we have seen on the streets. The violence we've seen, the looting we've seen, the thuggery we've seen – this is sheer criminality, and let's make no bones about it." Paul Hobbs, London correspondent for One News said that looters are not politically motivated and called the riots "recreational violence". A Manchester rioter said to a BBC correspondent: "Every time I go into town I just think how the shops got smashed up in 2011 by all of us, I just laugh about it every time I go back in now."
The BBC reported that the Chief Constable of West Midlands Police had stated that he thought that the motivation for rioters targeting the city centre was not anger, but greed.
Moral decay at the top
Daily Telegraph columnist Peter Oborne suggested that moral decay is just as bad at the top of society as it is at the bottom, with the rich and powerful generating anger among the British population. He cited the MPs' expenses scandal, bankers' bonuses, and the phone hacking scandal as setting poor examples. In The Financial Times cartoonist Ingram Pinn depicted a Union Flag being broken through by a looter in a hoodie carrying a stolen box of Adidas trainers, preceded by two men in suits carrying piles of cash, one saying "MP's Expenses" and another "Banker's Bonus".
Failure of the penal system
Kenneth Clarke, the Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice, writing in The Guardian, described the riots in part as "an outburst of outrageous behaviour by the criminal classes". He drew attention to the statistic that almost three-quarters of the adults who had been charged with offences related to the disorder already had a criminal record. Clarke characterised this as the legacy of "a broken penal system", one that did not have a good record for preventing reoffending. He stated he is proposing radical new measures intended to focus on robust punishment and on delivering reductions in reoffending.
Mainstream media relationship with the communities
A conference held in November 2012 and its subsequent report by Dr Leah Bassel of the University of Leicester, entitled Media and the Riots – A Call For Action, examined the relationship between mainstream media and communities affected by the riots.[vague][further explanation needed]
Jamie Waylett, who played Vincent Crabbe in the Harry Potter film series, was charged and sentenced for his participation in the riots. He was photographed drinking out of a bottle of stolen champagne as well as holding a petrol bomb in Camden on the third day of rioting. He was given a two-year sentence for violence and handling stolen goods.
- Rogers, Simon; Sedghi, Ami; Evans, Lisa (11 August 2011). "UK riots: every verified incident – interactive map". The Guardian. London.
- Payne, Sebastian (9 August 2011). "London riots map: all incidents mapped in London and around the UK". The Daily Telegraph.
- Adams, Richard; Wells, Matt; Jones, Sam; Owen, Paul (9 August 2011). "A young man shot in his car". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Three killed protecting property during Birmingham riots". BBC News. 10 August 2011.
- "Police, pollies in war of words over riots". The Sydney Morning Herald. 13 August 2011.
- Milmo, Cahal (10 August 2011). "The night that rioters ruled and police lost control of the streets of London". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "England riots: YouTube mugging victim 'recovering'". BBC News. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Police staff working rest days to cover riot workload", Public and Commercial Services Union, 12 August 2011.
- "Britain's rioters count cost of unrest as order restored". CNN. 12 August 2011.
- "Live Updates From Sky News Team And Twitter: Riots Spread Across London". BSkyB. Archived from the original on 2011-08-11. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Wilson, Peter (11 August 2011). "Police warning on vigilante justice after English riots". The Australian. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Riots in Tottenham after Mark Duggan shooting protest". BBC News. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- "England's week of riots". BBC News. 15 August 2011.
- "London riots: More than 2,000 people arrested over disorder". 25 August 2011.
- "first riot incident". youtube.com. 8 August 2011.
- Lewis, Paul (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riots: weren't to be violent like they were, then suddenly all hell broke loose". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "Tottenham in flames as protesters riot". The Guardian. London. 6 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- "Man dead and police officer hurt in Tottenham shooting". BBC News. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011.
- Sandra Laville; Paul Lewis; Vikram Dodd; Caroline Davies (7 August 2011). "Doubts emerge over Duggan shooting as London burns". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "Mark Duggan shooting: Bullets results 'within 24 hours'". BBC. 8 August 2011.
- "Soul searching lies ahead as UK riots cool". MSNBC. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "What does the IPCC do?". Independent Police Complaints Commission.
- Gabbatt, Adam (4 August 2011). "London disturbances – Sunday 7 August". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Lewis, Jason (13 August 2011). "The street code of vengeance that sparked the riots". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- "'No evidence' that Mark Duggan shot at police, says IPCC". London Evening Standard. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.[permanent dead link]
- "UK RIOTS: MARK DUGGAN 'HAD A LOADED PISTOL'". Daily Express. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 18 August 2011.
- Jones, Sam; Wells, Matt; Owen, Paul; Quinn, Ben (9 August 2011). "The Independent Police Complaints Commission has just announced that there is no evidence". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Mark Duggan did not fire his weapon at police", The Australian, 10 August 2011.
- "Media misled on Mark Duggan death",[dead link] Press TV, 13 August 2011.
- "Tottenham in flames as riot follows protest". London: Channel 4. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Stephenson, Wesley (25 August 2011). "Tottenham police 'could have stopped riots'". London: BBC. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Bolesworth, Sarah; Barry Neild; Peter Beaumont; Paul Lewis; Sandra Laville (7 August 2011). "Tottenham in flames as riot follows protest". The Observer. London. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "Tottenham police shooting: Dead man was minicab passenger". BBC News. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "Tottenham riots are a disgrace, says MP". Channel 4. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "London riots – one year on: Owen Jones commences a series of special reports", The Independent, 23 July 2012.
- Jackson, Peter (7 August 2011). "London riots: Tensions behind unrest revealed". BBC Television Centre, White City, London: BBC News. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
Rioting has again erupted on the streets of Tottenham almost 26 years after the Broadwater Farm riot. But what lies beneath the latest violent outburst in this chequered corner of north London?
- "Tottenham riots: missteps in the dance of police and a frustrated community" by Hugh Muir, The Guardian, 5 September 2011.
- "England riots: Maps and timeline". BBC News. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "Eight officers hurt as riots erupt", Harrow Observer, 7 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "Just the job to bring riots to capital?". The Scotsman. 18 August 2011.[dead link]
- "Footage released after shots fired at police in Birmingham disorder". West Midlands Police. 20 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2014. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- "UK riots: What turns people into looters?". BBC News. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "London and England riots: CCTV pictures of suspects are released by the police". The Daily Telegraph. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 2015-05-17.
- Popkins, Helen. "Citizen Cameras Capture more Looters than London Cops". Blog. TechnoBlog. Archived from the original on 2012-04-20. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- Benedetti, Winda. "Interactive maps reveal satellite's view of UK riots". Blog. TechnoBlog. Retrieved 27 March 2012.
- Paul Lewis (8 August 2011). "London riots – live blog". The Guardian. UK.
- Josh Halliday (8 August 2011). "London riots: how BlackBerry Messenger played a key role". The Guardian. UK.
- Josh Halliday (8 August 2011). "London riots: BlackBerry to help police probe Messenger looting 'role'". The Guardian. UK.
- Ball, James; Brown, Symeon (7 December 2011). "Why BlackBerry Messenger was rioters' communication method of choice". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- Garside, Juliette (9 August 2011). "UK riots: Mobile phone operators help police to identify looters". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- Jurgenson, N. (2012). "When atoms meet bits: social media, the mobile web and augmented revolution". Future Internet. 4: 83–91.
- Chebib, Nadine Kassem; Sohail, Rabia Minatullah (2011). "The reasons social media contributed to the 2011 Egyptian Revolution". International Journal of Business and Management. 2 (3): 139–162.
- Adams, Lee, William (8 August 2011). "London Riots: Organized via Twitter and Smart phones?". Time.
- Williams, Olivia. "London Riots: Twitter That Caused Them?". The Huffington Post- Canada.
- Tonkin, Emma; Heather D. Pfeiffer; Greg Tourte (13 January 2012). "Twitter, information sharing and the London riots". Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 38 (2). doi:10.1002/bult.2012.1720380212.
- "Shot man dies after London rioting". The Belfast Telegraph. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Croydon Murder Victim Found Shot in Car Named". Sky News. 10 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-11-24. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Suspected looter shot dead in Croydon named as man from Brixton". Your Local Guardian. 11 August 2011.
- Judd, Terri (12 August 2011). "First fatality of the riots was decorator with a baby girl". The Independent. UK. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "Seventh Arrest in Trevor Ellis Murder". The Voice. UK. 15 March 2012.
- Butt, Riazat; Wainwright, Martin (10 August 2011). "Birmingham riots: intense anger after deaths of three young men". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
- Chazan, Guy (11 August 2011). "U.K. Ethnic Tensions Stoked by Riots". 2011-08-11.
- Press Association, "Eight men cleared of murder over Birmingham riot deaths", The Guardian, 19 July 2012.
- "Ealing riot: Richard Mannington Bowes dies after attack". BBC News. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "He paid a terrible price: Fire rages around riot hero" by Anthony Price, The Sun. Retrieved 13 August 2011
- "Riots: Arrest over death of Richard Mannington Bowes" BBC News. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "England riots claim fifth life, police defend tactics" by Sam Reeves, AFP. Retrieved 12 August 2011 Archived 30 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "London riots: Man arrested over murder of Richard Mannington Bowes" Alexandra Topping, The Guardian. 12 August 2011
- Thompson, Jessica; Chakelian, Anoosh (11 August 2011). "Boris pledges millions to help Ealing recover from riots". Ealing Gazette. Archived from the original on 2011-10-07.
- "August Riots: Teen Who Killed Pensioner Named". Sky News. 13 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-03-16.
- Evans, Martin (16 August 2011). "Teenager charged with riot murder". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "'Witness' found over Richard Bowes death". BBC. 15 August 2011.
- "Teenager Remanded Over Ealing Riot Murder". 4rfv.co.uk. 16 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Teen Admits Killing Pensioner During Riots". Sky News. 12 March 2012. Archived from the original on 2012-03-15.
- "Murder charge dropped over death of London riots victim Richard Bowes", The Metro, (13 March 2012)
- "Mother who tore up riot killer son's clothes found guilty". West London Today. Archived from the original on 2012-03-30.
- K. Rawlinson, "Darrell Desuze sentenced for killing pensioner Richard Mannington Bowes during riots", The Independent, 17 April 2012.
- Wardrop, Murray (10 August 2011). "London riots: YouTube crime victim a Malaysian student". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- The Press Association: Two convicted of student attack Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "London riots: 'Mugging' verdicts quashed". BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- Daniel Binns. "CHINGFORD: Injured police 'were hit by fleeing looter's car'". East London and West Essex Guardian Series. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "UK riots: Hundreds of arrests around the country as yobs find new targets". Daily Mirror. UK. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Busiest time in recent memory for Brigade". London-fire.gov.uk. London Fire Brigade. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-08-21.
- Families made homeless by riots will be compensated, The Guardian, Thursday 11 August 2011
- "'Like The Blitz': Riot Eyewitnesses React". Sky News. 7 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-11-24. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Inglis, Lucy (8 August 2011). "The destruction of Tottenham's buildings isn't just a sentimental loss". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Emma Rowley (24 August 2011). "UK retailers lost 30,000 trading hours due to riots". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "UK Insurance Industry welcomes Prime Minister's Compensation Scheme announcement and pledges help to make the scheme work". Association of British Insurers. Archived from the original on 2012-03-01. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Alison Lock. "Insurers say London riot losses "well over £100m"". City A.M. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Llewellyn Smith, Caspar (9 August 2011). "Independent record labels fear ruinous stock loss in London Riots Fire". The Guardian. UK.
- "Labels react to Sony/PIAS warehouse fire". Pitchfork Media. 9 August 2011.
- "Independent record labels detail fire recovery plans". BBC News. 18 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Smirke, Richard (15 August 2011). "BPI establishes fund for indie labels impacted by London riots". Billboard. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Breihan, Tom (17 August 2011). "BPI starts fund for labels hurt by PIAS fire". Pitchfork Media. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "[PIAS] Back in Business For Labels Affected By Fire" (Press release). PIAS. 18 August 2011.
- "Three teenagers arrested over Sony warehouse fire". NME. UK. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Riots hit retail shares 'at worst time'". Financial Times. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- Sawer, Patrick; Lusher, Adam; Leach, Ben (19 August 2011). "UK Riots: Courts struggle to cope with the roll-call of accused". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Walker, Peter (5 September 2011). "UK riots: teenager accused of punching Malaysian student appears in court". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- "Men guilty of stealing from Malaysian student they pretended to help in riots". The Guardian. London. Press Association. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 2 March 2012.
- Lydall, Ross (9 August 2011). "Shock and anger as city awakes to worst scenes since the Blitz". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Coach Service Update". Nationalexpress.com. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "West Ham-Aldershot Carling Cup tie postponed on police advice". BBC Sport. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "London riots hit sports fixtures". BBC Sport. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "Charlton-Reading Carling Cup match called off". BBC Sport. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "London riots continue, Birmingham test in jeopardy". NDTV. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Test set to begin despite riots". ESPNcricinfo. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Ghana versus Nigeria friendly in Watford called off". BBC News. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Four Carling Cup ties postponed". 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2013-10-21. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Tottenham v Everton match postponed after London riots". BBC News. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Spurs v Everton off but Liverpool, Manchester United F.C., QPR and Fulham get go-ahead". Metro. UK. 30 June 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Match back on!". Cheltenham Town F.C. 11 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-02. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- "David Lammy Appeals for Calm after Tottenham Riots". Huffington Post. USA. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Howie, Michael (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riot: burned out shops may contain dead bodies, MP David Lammy warns". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Sparrow, Andrew (7 August 2011). "Politicians conde mn Tottenham riots". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Lammy, David (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riot: The lesson of Broadwater Farm". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- Lammy, David (14 August 2011). "David Lammy: Prejudices of the few eclipsed by civic pride". The Independent. London. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Sam Jones; Paul Lewis; Matthew Taylor; Ben Quinn (8 July 2011). "London riots spread south of Thames". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "Looters cause chaos in Streatham and Brixton". Yourlocalguardian.co.uk. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "UPDATE: Lambeth Council leader "They were looters, not rioters". (from the Streatham Guardian)". Streathamguardian.co.uk. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "UK riots". BBC News. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Police reassure residents they are working to keep county safe". Essex Police. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Police praised for preventing riots in Hillingdon". Uxbridge Gazette. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Siddique, Haroon (9 August 2011). "Theresa May urged to send in water cannon to tackle riots". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Porter, Andrew (12 December 2010). "Police could use water cannon to disperse rioters, Theresa May says". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Whitehead, Tom (9 August 2011). "London riots: Theresa May rejects calls for water cannon". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "London riots: Police patrol streets after violence". BBC News. 7 August 2011.
- "Nick Clegg: Riots 'completely unacceptable'". BBC. 8 August 2011.
- "London violence: 'needless opportunistic theft'". Herald de Paris. 8 August 2011.
- "UK riots: Trouble erupts in English cities". BBC News. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Your Local Guardian. "Riot Fall Out Hits Croydon". Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- David Green (9 August 2011). "Lions led by donkeys: why the police 'had it coming'". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- "England riots: Broken society is top priority – Cameron". BBC News. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Rioters identified on CCTV face eviction say councils". BBC News. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Leader: We will re-build our community". Greenwich Council. 12 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-09-29. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Neild, Barry (10 August 2011). "Libya, Iran revel in mocking Britain over riots". CNN International. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "London brennt, wann folgt endlich Berlin?" ("London is burning, when does Berlin finally follow suit?"), Berliner Morgenpost.
- Millward, David (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riot rekindles memories of unrest in the 1980s". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "Police 'failed miserably' dead reggae star Smiley Culture". Channel 4 News. 16 April 2011.
- Fletcher, Martin. "The sad truth behind London riot". NBC News. Archived from the original on 2011-08-12.
- Vallance, Ted (9 August 2011). "Londoners: Rioting through the ages". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "Be decisive". The Sun. UK. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.[dead link]
- "The criminals who shame our nation". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 9 August 2011.
- Beckford, Martin (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riots: police let gangs run riot and loot". London: The Telegraph, 7 August 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
- "Urban riots: The battle for the streets". The Guardian. UK. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Guardian report on London riots omits the race or ethnicity of rioters – but, still mentions Jews". CiF Watch.
- "The Guardian revises story about UK Riots which singled out Hasidic Jews". CiF Watch.
- "Leading article: The lessons to be drawn from mindless violence". The Independent. UK. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Radio Silence – Mail Online – Peter Hitchens blog". Hitchensblog.mailonsunday.co.uk. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Daniels, Anthony (10 August 2011). "Behind England's riots, a violent and entitled generation of British young people". Daily News. New York. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- J. David Goodman (17 November 2006). "Riots in London and Paris: Plus Ça Change?". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "UK riots parallel France". The New Zealand Herald. 17 March 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Ali, Mahir (13 September 2011). "English Meltdown: Trying to Make Sense of The London Riots". Newsline. Karachi. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
There was plenty of breast-beating back then  too, and Thatcher came up with prescriptions remarkably similar to the ones that Cameron has lately been offering.
- Tom Whitehead; Andrew Hough (8 August 2011). "London riots: send in water cannon to clear streets, Theresa May told". The Daily Telegraph.
- "Kenyans take shelter from London riots". Capital FM News, Kenya. 9 August 2011.[dead link]
- Siddique, Haroon (9 August 2011). "Theresa May urged to send in water cannon to tackle riots". The Guardian. London.
- Gardham, Duncan (10 August 2011). "'Hackney speech woman' revealed to be local jazz singer". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Harper, Tom (9 August 2011). "A million hits for footage of Hackney woman berating looters". London Evening Standard. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "London riots: Woman confronts rioters in Hackney". The Daily Telegraph. UK. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Nash, Emily (10 August 2011). "Riot heroine grandma is named". The Sun. London. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Hattenstone, Simon (14 August 2011). "David Lammy: 'There is a history in Tottenham that involves deaths in police custody'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Arnold, Jennette (16 August 2011). "Reactionary 'Ideas' are not What London Needs". Huffington Post. New York City. Retrieved 5 September 2011.
At a recent meeting with Mayor Johnson [...] I wish he had taken up my offer to come with me to Clarence Rd in Hackney, one of the worst affected areas in the Borough, for a street-reclaiming tea party that had been organised by the rector of Hackney, Fr Rob Wickham and the local community. [...] He also would have met Pauline Pearce.
- Pearson, Allison (10 August 2011). "Raised to rampage". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Jardine, Cassandra (12 August 2011). "Burnt out but not bowed by the mob". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Williams, Zoe (12 August 2011). "UK riots: the stories behind the people who defined the week". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Butler, Adrian (14 August 2011). "UK riots: the heroine of Hackney Pauline Pearce reveals why she took a stand". Sunday Mirror. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Mistry, Mark; Fordham, Craig (9 August 2011). "Voice of reason amid London violence". The Australian. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Manzoor, Sarfraz (3 September 2011). "Fifteen minutes later". The Spectator. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
She is equally so about historian David Starkey's controversial claim that hip-hop culture and in particular a 'particular sort of violent, destructive, nihilistic gangster culture' was to blame for the riots. 'What do you I think of that?' she says. 'Well, in the Queen's English: balderdash. Pigswill. What’s been going on has no link to hip-hop. Instead of guessing in his suit and tie he should put a pair of jeans on and get out there and walk around with the people.’
- Bartholomew, Emma (21 September 2011). "London Mayor Boris Johnson praises 'Hackney heroine' Pauline Pearce". Hackney Gazette. London. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
Mr Johnson presented [Pauline Pearce] with a Team London Award at the annual Peace Awards ceremony at City Hall, where he also thanked other "unsung heroes" of the recent disorder in the capital.
- Jerome Taylor (10 August 2011). "Vigilantes join 16,000 police on capital's streets". The Independent. London.
- Peter Beaumont; Jasmine Coleman; Sandra Laville (10 August 2011). "London riots: 'People are fighting back. It's their neighbourhoods at stake'". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Nile Gardineer, "If British shopkeepers had the right to bear arms, vicious thugs would think twice before looting", The Telegraph, 10 August 2011.
- Pettifor, Tom (11 August 2011). "Birmingham riots: family tributes to three men who died protecting their community from looters". Daily Mirror. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "UK riots: hero's family vow to tell his unborn child he died protecting others". Sunday Mirror. 14 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- "The Pride of Britain Awards – Tariq Jahan". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- Faisal Hanif. "Tariq Jahan's is the patriotic voice of a first-generation Muslim migrant". the Guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- Hannan, Daniel (11 August 2011). "Amid all the bad news, Tariq Jahan made me feel proud to be British". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "Disunited kingdom". Financial Times. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "Wombles Needed: How To Help With The Riot Cleanup". Londonist. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Twitter and Facebook users arrange London riot clean-up". BBC. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Bradshaw, Tim (28 July 2011). "Twitter users unite for riot clean-up". Financial Times. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Locals Fight Back With Brooms And Marigolds". Sky. Archived from the original on 2012-02-11.
- "London riots: The big community clean up in Clapham after night of looting and violence". YouTube. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Hundreds join Manchester clean-up after riots". BBC. 10 August 2011.
- "Riots & Donations (dedicated to the UK)". Cravify. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- Capital Community Foundation. "Sonal Shah is fundraising for Capital Community Foundation". Justgiving.com. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Convicted London rioters should loose [sic] all benefits" from e-petitions. Epetitions.direct.gov.uk. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "E-petition calls for rioters to be sent to Outer Hebrides". The Daily Telegraph. London. 24 September 2011.
- "Police lose control of streets shop owners form local 'protection units'". The London Daily News. 7 August 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
- "Muslim residents protect their communities". MuslimMatters.org. 8 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Martin Beckford; James Hall; Christopher Williams; David Millward (9 August 2011). "London riots: residents fight back". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Graff, Peter (11 August 2011). "Foreigners stay calm and carry on in London riots". Reuters. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- David Hardiman, "Deputy Mayor Kit Malthouse condemns Enfield Defence League vigilantes in Enfield last night", Enfield Independent, 10 August 2011.
- "Fearsome fans take on rioters". The Daily Telegraph. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "UK Riot Vigilantes Attempt To 'Reclaim The Streets'". Huffington Post. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Hundreds of Sikh Londoners take to the streets to keep peace in various towns of London". Sikhsangat.org. Archived from the original on 2011-09-30. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Sangat TV switches to Birmingham riots coverage". BizAsia. 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-08.
- Singh, Tejashdeep (23 July 2011). "Sikhs stood guard to protect Gurudwaras from rioters in Southall". Sikhsiyasat.net. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Southall Sikhs stand against London rioters". BBC. 10 August 2011. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "London riots: Cameron hails Sikhs for protecting gurdwara". Sify News,11 August 2011.
- Hough, Andrew (31 May 2011). "London riots: vigilantes hurl bottles at police in Eltham". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "Police clash with vigilantes in Eltham – Channel 4 News". Channel 4. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Jones, Sam; Meikle, James (10 August 2011). "UK riots: More than 1,000 arrests strain legal system to the limit". The Guardian. UK.
- Williams, David; Kisiel, Ryan; Camber, Rebecca (11 August 2011). "UK riots 2011: Met Police's Tim Godwin warns EDL could hijack vigilante patrols". Daily Mail. UK. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Phillips, Richard Phillips; Frost, Diane; and Singleton, Alex (March 2013). "Researching the Riots", The Geographical Journal, Vol. 179, No. 1:
- "There has been much speculation about the causes and meanings of the riots that swept through English cities in August 2011...
"These disturbances began on 6 August following the police shooting of Mark Duggan, a black resident of Tottenham, North London. Over the following days, they spread within London and to other English cities....
"There were no riots in English cities such as Sheffield and Newcastle, and the streets of Welsh and Scottish cities remained equally calm."
- "There has been much speculation about the causes and meanings of the riots that swept through English cities in August 2011...
- BBC News: "England riots: Who's been prosecuted?", quoting Ministry of Justice statistics from June 2012: 89% are listed as male, 53% were twenty or under, and ethnic statistics are given for each area
- Taylor, Matthew (5 September 2011). "British public 'are more prejudiced against minorities after riots'". The Guardian. London.
- Kerrins, Suzanne (24 September 2011). "Sir Ian Botham: bring in corporal punishment and ban reality TV to save today's youth". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- "'The whites have become black' says David Starkey". BBC. 12 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "A reckoning – The black community wrestles with the causes of the riots". The Economist. 3 September 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
- Statistical bulletin on the public disorder of 6 to 9 August 2011 – February update
- "Statistical bulletin on the public disorder of 6th–9th August 2011 full report" (PDF). Ministry of Justice. 24 October 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-19. Retrieved 26 June 2012.
- "Gangs Had No 'Pivotal Role' In English Riots". Sky News. Archived from the original on 2012-01-12. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "England rioters 'poorer, younger, less educated'". BBC News. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- "YOBS NOT TOO ILL TO LOOT". Daily Star. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
- BBC News: "England riots: Who's been prosecuted?", quoting Ministry of Justice statistics from June 2012
- "London riots: Met Police launch major investigation". BBC News. 7 August 2011.
- Sam Jones; Paul Lewis; Matthew Taylor; Ben Quinn (8 July 2011). "London riots spread south of Thames". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Holehouse, Matthew (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riot: Metropolitan Police calls in reinforcements amid fears of second night of disorder". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 15 November 2011.
- "Disorder: Updates and Advice from Sunday 7 August". Metropolitan Police Service. 7 August 2011.
- Rojas, John Paul (8 August 2011). "London riots: Met admits too few officers deployed". The Daily Telegraph. UK. ISSN 0307-1235. OCLC 49632006. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "Birmingham gangs 'not only to blame for riots'". BBC News. 6 September 2011. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- Sanchez, Raf; Holehouse, Matthew; Willis, Amy (9 August 2011). "London and UK riots: live". The Daily Telegraph. UK. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Laville, Sandra (9 August 2011). "London riots: 450 detectives in hunt for looters". The Guardian. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- "Disorder Suspects Wanted". Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- James Meikle; Sam Jones (10 August 2011). "UK riots: More than 1,000 arrests strain legal system to the limit". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- Johnson, Wesley (30 August 2011). "Riots to cost Met police £34m". The Independent. London. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "London riots arrests reach 2,000, Met Police says". BBC News. 25 August 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "UK riots: magistrates told 'ignore the rule book' and lock up looters". The Telegraph. London. 15 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "PM defends 'tough' riot sentences handed out by courts". BBC. 17 August 2011.
- Michael Settle Uk Political Editor (18 August 2011). "Coalition split on sentences linked to riots". The Herald. Glasgow. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Riot sentences criticised as 'out of proportion' – Channel 4 News". Channel 4. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- James Meikle; Simon Rogers (12 August 2011). "UK riots: Judges warned by Law Society not to hand down 'rushed justice'". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "England riots: Court appearance total rises above 1,500". BBC News. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Bowcott, Owen (16 August 2011). "Facebook riot calls earn men four-year jail terms amid sentencing outcry". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "Four years' jail for Facebook post that incited no one". The Sydney Morning Herald. 17 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Blackshaw, R. v (Rev 1)  EWCA Crim 2312, 18 October 2011.
- BBC News, "London riots: Croydon rioter's jail term extended", BBC News, (25 April 2012)
- J. Colley, "Croydon riot ringleader Adam Khan Ahmadzai's sentence increased", The Independent, 25 April 2012.
- "Riots: Ursula Nevin freed after handling stolen shorts". BBC. 19 August 2011. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- David Batty (13 August 2011). "Manchester police say sorry over tweet on woman who accepted looted clothes". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- Neal Keeling (20 August 2011). "Police got the wrong man: Salford teen charged with Miss Selfridge arson during Manchester riots is cleared". Menmedia.co.uk. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "GM Police publish details of riot suspect: his flat gets burnt down - Liberal Conspiracy". Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- Malik, Shiv (9 October 2011). "Unicef criticises Britain for jailing children over riots". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 13 October 2011.
The UN children's fund said official figures showing that 45% of all under 18s detained on charges of rioting and looting had no previous criminal history were "very worrying", and represented a possible breach of the 1989 UN convention on the rights of a child.
- Suroor, Hasan (7 August 2012). "London rioters given jail terms totalling 1,800 years". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- Michael Billington, "The Riots – review". The Guardian, 23 November 2011.
- Lucy Finchett-Maddock, "Seeing Red: Entropy, Property, and Resistance in the Summer Riots 2011", Law and Critique, 12 August 2012; DOI 10.1007/s10978-012-9111-z.
- Joe Glenton and Jo Gough, "Darcus Howe’s timely insurrection", 9 August 2011.
- Richard Seymour, Darcus Howe, and Amy Goodman, "Over 1,000 Arrested in U.K. as Anger over Inequality, Racism Boils Over into 'Insurrection'", Democracy Now!, 10 August 2011.
- Gwynne Dyer, "Class at root of rioting in London", Toronto Sun, 10 August 2011.
- Patrick Wintour, political editor, and James Meikle (12 August 2011). "Ed Miliband promises riots inquiry". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "UK shaken by worst riots in decades (from Hounslow And Brentford Times)". Hounslowandbrentfordtimes.co.uk. 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-04-12. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- Lewis, Paul; Newburn, Tim (1 July 2012). "Introducing phase two of Reading the Riots: police, victims and the courts". The Guardian. London.
- "YouGov/The Sun Survey Results" (PDF). today.yougov.co.uk. 8–9 August 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "London Riots Survey" (PDF). ComRes. Retrieved 29 August 2011.[dead link]
- "On riots and youth bulges". Significance Magazine. Archived from the original on 2013-01-01.
- Jackson, Peter (7 August 2011). "London riots: Tensions behind unrest revealed". BBC. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Seymour, Richard (10 August 2011). "Over 1,000 Arrested in U.K. as Anger over Inequality, Racism Boils Over into Insurrection". DemocracyNow.com. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Guy Jackson (12 August 2011). "AFP: Depraved or deprived? UK split on riot causes". AFP. Archived from the original on 18 February 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Chakrabortty, Aditya (10 August 2011). "UK riots: political classes see what they want to see". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Lewis, Paul; Newburn, Tim; Taylor, Matthew; Ball, James (5 December 2011). "Rioters say anger with police fuelled summer unrest". The Guardian. London.
- "Camila Batmanghelidjh: Caring costs – but so do riots – Commentators, Opinion". The Independent. UK. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Topping, Alexandra (8 August 2011). "Looting 'fuelled by social exclusion'". The Guardian. London.
- Ross, Monique (10 August 2011). "Blame for riots turns to UK social system". Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
- Easton, Mark (11 August 2011). "English riots: The return of the underclass". BBC News. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- "BBC – Democracy Live – In full: MPs debate England riots". BBC News. 11 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Blair, Tony (20 August 2011). "Riots Not Caused By Broken Society". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- Max Hastings (9 August 2011). "UK riots 2011: Liberal dogma has spawned a generation of brutalised youths". Daily Mail. UK. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- Ryan, Yasmin (11 August 2011). "From the Arab Spring to Liverpool?". Aljazeera. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- Sally Gainsbury; Natasha Culzac (4 September 2011). "Rioting link to deprivation revealed". Financial Times. Retrieved 5 September 2011.(registration required)
- Odone, Cristina (9 August 2011). "London riots: Absent fathers have a lot to answer for". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Rioters Are NOT 'Scum'! They Are The Fatherless". 10 August 2011.
- Hemming, Jon; Ambrogi, Stefano (8 August 2011). "Riots spread on third night of violence". Reuters. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Croft, Adrian (8 August 2011). "Spending cuts, police blamed for London riot". The Vancouver Sun.[dead link]
- "More than 200 thugs arrested in London riots". MSN.
- David Lammy (7 August 2011). "Tottenham riot: The lesson of Broadwater Farm". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- Somaiya, Ravi (7 August 2011). "London Sees Twin Perils Converging to Fuel Riot". The New York Times.
- "Ken Livingstone statement on Tottenham riots". LabourList.org. 7 August 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-03-28. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- James Meikle (11 August 2011). "Nick Clegg: police funding cuts will not change despite riots". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Rolling back the state only fans the flames". The Belfast Telegraph. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
- "Hackney riots: 'The message when youth clubs close is that no one cares'", The Observer. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Lloyd, Saci (18 August 2011). "Young people have no right to riot, but they have a right to be angry". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- Macwhirter, Iain (18 August 2011). "A society that is slipping into Dickensian darkness". The Herald. Glasgow. Archived from the original on 2013-09-30. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- David Lammy. "Response to the Comprehensive Spending Review". Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- Goy, Alex (26 June 2011). "The toughest places to get a job in the UK: 6. Haringey". Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Alexandra Topping; Cameron Robertson (31 July 2011). "Haringey youth club closures: 'There'll be riots' (video)". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Hannah Richardson (22 October 2010). "Youth service cuts 'could lead to social unrest'". BBC News. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Riddell, Mary (8 August 2011). "London riots: the underclass lashes out". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Economics behind Britain's riots?". Washington. United Press International. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Conway, Ed (10 August 2011). "Can Economic Factors Explain The Riots?". Sky News. Archived from the original on 2012-01-19. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Apps, Peter (10 August 2011). "London riots point to much wider risks of youth unrest". London. Reuters. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- Power, Nina (8 August 2011). "There is a context to London's riots that can't be ignored". The Guardian. London.
- "Panic on the streets of Birmingham? Struggles over space and belonging in the Revanchist City", in Justice Matters, Vol. 87, No. 1 (2012).
- "Hundreds complain about David Starkey's race comments". BBC News. 16 August 2011.
- Cottrell-Boyce, Joseph (December 2013). "Ending Gang and Youth Violence: A Critique". Youth Justice. 13 (3): 193– 206. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "Rioting spirals out of control". London Evening Standard. 8 August 2011.
- "UK riots: 16,000 police on London streets". TVNZ. 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- "Rioters revel in thrill of seizing Manchester streets". BBC News - Newsnight. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- "How rioting spread around England". BBC News. 9 August 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011.
- Oborne, Peter (11 August 2011). "The moral decay of our society is as bad at the top as the bottom". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 20 August 2011.
- "Broken Britain Riots", 16 August 2011.
- Kenneth Clarke (5 September 2011). "Punish the feral rioters, but address our social deficit too". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- Roy Greenslade, , "What the media did wrong in the riots – and how to put it right", Greenslade Blog, The Guardian, 31 July 2012.
- Marc Wadsworth, "Media Coverage Of 2011 Riots 'Was Disgraceful'", The Voice, 10 June 2012.
- "Special report about media and the riots", The-Latest.com.
- "London riots: Harry Potter actor Jamie Waylett jailed". BBC News. Retrieved 20 April 2015.
- François, N. 2013: Decolonisation of the self, hAUSnART, 3: 56–73
|Images of the Tottenham riot on 6 August 2011 (BBC)|
|Map of the Tottenham riot on 6 August 2011 (Google Maps)|
|Tottenham Riots: Torched houses, cars in London violence aftermath (YouTube)|
|Damage at Leyton Mills Currys last night (TwitPic)|
- Media related to 2011 riots in England at Wikimedia Commons
- Documentary on riots on Al Jazeera's People and Power
- Timeline and map of violence from the BBC
- Coverage at the Daily Telegraph
- Coverage at the Guardian
- Coverage at the Independent
- Videos of the riot cleanup
- U.K. Citizen Isobel Wiles' Commentary from abroad
- Tottenham MP David Lammy speaking on the aftermath of the riots
- The View from Hackney
- Official inquiry website