2011 Libyan rape allegations
The 2011 Libyan rape allegations refer to allegations that arose in April 2011 that Gaddafi's forces in Libya were committing mass rape during the 2011 Libyan civil war. In 2014, the new Libyan government has said that compensation should be paid for the victims of rape during the war.
Allegations arose in 2011 that Viagra and other impotency drugs were being distributed by Gaddafi to sustain the rapes. The charges have been denied by Libyan diplomats as propaganda. In June 2011, the International Criminal Court began an investigation into the rape allegations seeking to add the rapes to Gaddafi's list of war crimes charges. Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and Doctors Without Borders failed to find first-hand evidence that mass rapes were occurring, and the lack of evidence for these claims was confirmed by the UN's investigator, M. Cherif Bassiouni.
United States secretary of state, Hillary Clinton, has noted that "rape, physical intimidation, sexual harassment, and even so-called 'virginity tests' have taken place in countries throughout the region." Secretary Clinton has also stated that "It is an affront to all people who are yearning to live in a society free from violence with respect for basic human rights. We urge all governments to conduct immediate, transparent investigations into these allegations, and to hold accountable those found responsible."
Ironically, in 2016 there were reports that African women were being raped by the same Libyan rebels who overthrew Gadhafi. This is part of a larger picture of abuse of black Africans in Libya that is emerging in the wake of the rebel victory, born of allegations that Gadhafi often hired sub-Saharan Africans to fight for him. 
In the 1970s and 1980s there were reports of Muammar Gaddafi making sexual advances toward female reporters and members of his entourage. After the civil war, more serious charges came to light. Annick Cojean, a journalist for Le Monde, wrote in her book, Gaddafi's Harem that Gaddafi had raped, tortured, performed urolagnia, and imprisoned hundreds or thousands of women, usually very young. Another source—Libyan psychologist Seham Sergewa—reported that several of his female bodyguards claim to have been raped by Gaddafi and senior officials. After the civil war, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, prosecutor for the International Criminal Court, said there was evidence that Gaddafi told soldiers to rape women who had spoken out against his regime. In 2011 Amnesty questioned this and other claims used to justify Nato's war in Libya.
- "Libya Gaddafi rape victims to be compensated". BBC. 20 Feb 2014.
- MacAskill, Ewen (29 April 2011). "Gaddafi 'supplies troops with Viagra to encourage mass rape', claims diplomat". London: Guardian.
- Rice, Xan; Norton-Taylor, Richard; Pilkington, Ed; Stephen, Chris (9 June 2011). "Gaddafi faces new ICC charges for using rape as weapon in conflict". London: Guardian.
- "Gaddafi ordered mass rape as a weapon, International Criminal Court claims". London: The Telegraph. 9 Jun 2011.
- Cockburn, Patrick (June 24, 2011). "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war". London: The Independent.
- Krause-Jackson, Flavia; Alexander, Caroline (Jul 6, 2011). "Rape as Weapon of War Is UN Focus". Bloomberg.
- "Libya rape claims 'hysteria' - investigator". Herald Sun. June 10, 2011.
- "ICC to investigate reports of Viagra-fueled gang-rapes in Libya". CNN. May 17, 2011.
- Libya troops using rape as a weapon. CNN. May 17, 2011.
- "Clinton accuses Gaddafi of using rape as a tool". hindustantimes. June 17, 2011.
- "Clinton Condemns Sexual Violence In the Mideast". VOA. 2011-07-15. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Harris 1986, pp. 53–54; Blundy & Lycett 1987, pp. 22–23.
- Leyla Sanai (25 October 2013). "Book review: Gaddafi's Harem, By Annick Cojean, trans. Marjolijn de Jager". London: The Independent UK. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
- Tom Leonard (24 September 2009). "Muammar Gaddafi delivers 100 minute speech to UN general assembly". New York: The Telegraph. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Patrick Cockburn (June 25, 2011). "Amnesty questions Libyan mass rape". NZ Herald / The Independent. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
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