2011 Norway attacks
|2011 Norway attacks|
31 minutes after the explosion in Oslo
|Location||Oslo and Utøya, Norway|
|Date||22 July 2011
Oslo: 15:25 CEST
Utøya: 17:22–18:34 CEST (UTC+02:00)
|Car bomb, mass shooting, terrorism|
Oslo: At least 209
|Perpetrator||Anders Behring Breivik
|Motive||Far-right extremism and preventing 'Islamization' of Norway|
The 2011 Norway attacks were two sequential lone wolf terrorist attacks by Anders Behring Breivik against the government, the civilian population, and a Workers' Youth League (AUF)-run summer camp in Norway on 22 July 2011. The attacks claimed a total of 77 lives.
The first attack was a car bomb explosion in Oslo within Regjeringskvartalet, the executive government quarter of Norway, at 15:25:22 (CEST). The bomb was made from a mixture of fertiliser and fuel oil and placed in the back of a van. The van was placed next to the tower block housing the office of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg. The explosion killed eight people and injured at least 209 people, twelve of them seriously.
The second attack occurred less than two hours later at a summer camp on the island of Utøya in Tyrifjorden, Buskerud. The camp was organized by the AUF, the youth division of the ruling Norwegian Labour Party (AP). Breivik, dressed in a homemade police uniform and showing false identification, took a ferry to the island and opened fire at the participants, killing 68 of them outright, and injuring at least 110 people, 55 of them seriously; the 69th victim died in a hospital two days after the massacre. Among the dead were personal friends of Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and the stepbrother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit.
It was the deadliest attack in Norway since World War II, and a survey found that one in four Norwegians knew "someone affected by the attacks". The European Union, NATO and several countries around the world expressed their support for Norway and condemned the attacks. On 13 August 2012, Norway's prime minister received the Gjørv Report which concluded that Norway's police could have prevented the bombing of central Oslo and caught the gunman faster at Utøya, and that more security and emergency measures to prevent further attacks and "mitigate adverse effects" should have been implemented on 22 July.
The Norwegian Police arrested Anders Behring Breivik, a 32-year-old Norwegian right-wing extremist, on Utøya island and charged him with both attacks. The trial against him took place between 16 April and 22 June 2012 in Oslo District Court, where Breivik admitted to having carried out the actions he was accused of, but denied criminal guilt and claimed the defense of necessity (jus necessitatis). On 24 August 2012, Breivik was convicted as charged and sentenced to 21 years of preventive detention in prison, at the expiration of which the sentence can be extended indefinitely, in five year increments at a time, as long as the prisoner is deemed a threat to society.
- 1 Preparation for the attacks
- 2 Oslo bombing
- 3 Utøya massacre
- 4 Casualties
- 5 Perpetrator
- 6 Reactions
- 7 Legal proceedings
- 8 After-effects
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
Preparation for the attacks
Breivik claims to have begun the planning of terrorist acts in 2002, at the age of 23. He had participated for years in debates on Internet forums and spoken against Islam and immigration. He was preparing for the attacks from at least as early as 2009, though he concealed his violent intentions.
Failed attempt to buy weapons in Prague
Breivik spent six days in Prague in late August and early September 2010. He chose the Czech Republic because the country has some of the most relaxed laws regarding guns and drugs in Europe. Following his Internet inquiry, Breivik noted that "Prague is known for maybe being the most important transit site point for illicit drugs and weapons in Europe". Despite the fact that Prague has one of the lowest crime rates among European capitals, Breivik expressed reservations about his personal safety, writing that (before his trip there) he believed Prague to be a dangerous place with "many brutal and cynical criminals".
He hollowed out the rear seats of his Hyundai Atos in order to have enough space for the firearms he hoped to buy. After two days, he got a prospectus for a mineral extraction business printed, which was supposed to give him an alibi in case someone suspected him of preparing a terrorist attack. He wanted to buy an AK-47-type rifle (this firearm is, however, not very common in the country, unlike the Vz. 58), a Glock pistol, hand-grenades and a rocket-propelled grenade, stating that getting the latter two would be a "bonus".
Breivik had several fake police badges printed to wear with a police uniform, which he had acquired illegally on the Internet, and which he later wore during the attack. Contrary to his expectations, he was unable to get any firearms in the Czech Republic, commenting that it was the "first major setback in [his] operation". In the end, he concluded that Prague was "far from an ideal city to buy guns", nothing like "what the BBC reported", and that he had felt "safer in Prague than in Oslo".
Arming in Norway and through the Internet
Originally, Breivik intended to try to obtain weapons in Germany or Serbia if his mission in Prague failed. The Czech disappointment led him to procure his weapons through legal channels. He decided to obtain a semi-automatic rifle and a Glock pistol legally in Norway, noting that he had a "clean criminal record, hunting license, and two guns (a Benelli Nova 12 gauge pump-action shotgun and a .308 bolt-action rifle) already for seven years", and that obtaining the guns legally should therefore not be a problem.
Upon returning to Norway, Breivik obtained a legal permit for a .223-caliber Ruger Mini-14 semi-automatic carbine, ostensibly for the purpose of hunting deer. He bought it in late 2010 for €1,400 ($2000). He wanted to purchase a 7.62×39mm Ruger Mini-30 semi-automatic carbine, but did however for unknown reasons buy the Mini-14.
Getting a permit for the pistol proved more difficult, as he had to demonstrate regular attendance at a sport shooting club. He also bought ten 30-round magazines for the rifle from a United States supplier, and six magazines for the pistol (including four 30-round magazines) in Norway. From November 2010 to January 2011 he went through 15 training sessions at the Oslo Pistol Club, and by mid-January his application to purchase a Glock pistol was approved.
Breivik claimed in his manifesto that he bought 300 g. of sodium nitrate from a Polish shop for €10 in December 2010, in order to make a bomb fuse. In March 2011, he legally bought 100 kg of chemicals from a small Internet-based Wrocław company. The Polish ABW interviewed the company owner on 24 July 2011. Breivik's Polish purchases initially led to his being placed on the watch list of the Norwegian intelligence, which did not act because they did not believe his actions were relevant to their terror concerns.
On 18 May 2009 Behring Breivik created a sole proprietorship called Breivik Geofarm, a company established under a fictitious purpose (the cultivation of vegetables, melons, roots and tubers). The real purpose was to gain access to chemicals and materials, especially fertilizer that could be used for the production of explosives without arousing suspicion.
The place of business was given as Åmot in Hedmark. On 4 May 2011 Breivik purchased six tonnes (13,000 lb) of fertilizer through Geofarm at Felleskjøpet, three tonnes (6,600 lb) of ammonium nitrate and three tonnes of calcium ammonium nitrate. According to neighbours, all the fertilizer was stored in his barn. After conducting a reconstruction of the bomb with equivalent amount of fertilizer on the farm in Åmot, police and bomb experts concluded that the bomb had been 950 kilograms, about the same size as the one used in the 2002 Bali bombings. Afterwards there was significant debate in Norway about how an amateur could acquire such substantial amounts of fertilizer and in addition manufacture and place such a lethal weapon in the middle of Regjeringskvartalet all by himself. The conclusion by Felleskjøpet was that there is no legislation to keep agricultural businesses from buying as much fertilizer as they like, and that there was nothing suspicious about Breivik's purchase. This was confirmed by the director of the Norwegian Police Security Service, Janne Kristiansen, who stated "not even the Stasi could have prevented this attack".
The company listed at least two Swedish employees at the social networking site Facebook, but it is uncertain whether these people existed.
In April 2011 he reported moving from Oslo to Vålstua farm in the municipality of Åmot, about 9 kilometres (6 mi) south of the community centre Rena, on the east side of Glomma. His agricultural company was run from the farm, and gave him access to ingredients for explosives.
His 950-kilogram (2,090 lb) car bomb exploded in central Oslo on 22 July 2011 where it killed eight people. He had between 1,000 and 1,500 kilograms (2,200 and 3,300 lb) additional material that was left on the farm and could be used for construction of a third bomb.
Beside visiting firing ranges and countries with relaxed gun laws to sharpen his skill, Breivik's manifesto says that he made use of the video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 as a training aid while using World of Warcraft as a cover for his extended period of isolation. He also said that he honed his shooting skills using an in-game holographic sight similar to the one he used during the attacks.
On 22 July 2011 at 3:25:22 pm (CEST) a bomb detonated in Regjeringskvartalet, central Oslo. The bomb was placed in a white Volkswagen Crafter and parked in front of the H block, housing the Office of the Prime Minister, Ministry of Justice and the Police, and several other governmental buildings, such as the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (R4), Ministry of Finance (G block), Ministry of Education and Research (Y block) and the Supreme Court of Norway (behind the G block).
The Crafter was registered by surveillance cameras as entering Grubbegata from Grensen at 3:13:23 pm. The van stopped at 3:13:43 pm, 200 metres (660 ft) before the H block. It stood still with the hazard warning lamps on for 1 minute and 54 seconds. The driver then drove the last 200 metres and parked the van in front of the main entrance of the main government building. The van was parked at 3:16:30 pm. The front door of the van opened 16 seconds later and after another 16 seconds the driver stepped out of the van. He stood outside the van for 7 seconds before he quickly walked away towards Hammersborg torg, where he had another car parked.
A receptionist who was killed in the bombing tried calling the security guards about the suspicious van parked outside just before the blast.
The driver was dressed like a police officer and had a gun in his hand. A police helmet with a face shield was covering his face. Breivik was not positively identified.
The explosion started fires in the H block (H-blokka) and R4, and the shock wave blew out the windows on all floors as well as in the VG house and other buildings on the other side of the square. The streets in the area were filled with glass and debris. A cloud of white smoke was reported as a fire continued to burn at the Department of Oil and Energy. The blast was heard at least 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) away.
At 3:26 pm the police received the first message about the explosion, and at 3:28 pm the first police patrol reported that it had arrived at the scene. At the same time, news agency NTB was told that the Prime Minister was unhurt and safe.
A witness called police at 3:34 pm to report a person in a police uniform holding a pistol in his hand, entering an unmarked vehicle. Information—including license plate number of the vehicle and description of the suspect—was written on a yellow note, and hand delivered to the police operations central where it lay for twenty minutes before the witness was phoned back. The license plate number was not transmitted on the police radio until two hours later.
The blast was caught on many security cameras.
Impact on transportation
Immediately after the explosion, the area surrounding the damaged buildings was cordoned off and evacuated. People were asked to remain calm and leave the city center if possible, but there was no general evacuation. The Oslo Metro remained operational, and most of the Oslo tram network was also running, although sporadically, except for the line through Grensen (the street between Prof. Aschehoug's plass and Stortorvet). Buses also continued to run, although at least one articulated bus on the No.37 line, which stops outside the Ministry of Finance, was commandeered to evacuate the walking wounded.
The Gardermoen Line between Lillestrøm and Oslo Airport was shut down after a suspicious package was found close to the tracks. The same happened at the offices of TV 2 which were evacuated after a suspicious package was found outside the building.
Approximately one and a half hours after the Oslo explosion, Breivik, dressed in a police uniform and presenting himself as "Martin Nilsen" from the Oslo Police Department, boarded the ferry MS Thorbjørn at Utøykaia in Tyrifjorden, a lake some 40 kilometres (25 mi) northwest of Oslo, to the island of Utøya, the location of the Norwegian Labour Party's AUF youth camp, which is organised there every summer and was attended by approximately 600 teenagers.
When Breivik arrived on the island, he presented himself as a police officer who had come over for a routine check following the bombing in Oslo. He was met by Monica Bøsei, the camp leader and island hostess. Bøsei probably became suspicious and contacted Trond Berntsen, the security officer on the island, before Breivik killed them both. He then signalled and asked people to gather around him before pulling weapons and ammunition from a bag and indiscriminately firing his weapons, killing and wounding numerous people. He first shot people on the island and later started shooting at people who were trying to escape by swimming across the lake. Survivors on the island described a scene of terror. In one example, 21-year-old survivor Dana Barzingi described how several victims wounded by Breivik pretended to be dead to survive, but he later came back and shot them again. He did relent in his executions on some occasions: first, when an 11-year-old boy who had just lost his father (Trond Berntsen) during the shooting, stood up against him and said he was too young to die; and later, when a 22-year-old male begged for his life.
Some witnesses on the island were reported to have hidden in the undergrowth, and in lavatories, communicating by text message to avoid giving their positions away to the gunman. The mass shooting reportedly lasted for around an hour and a half, ending when a police special task force arrived and the gunman surrendered, despite having ammunition left, at 18:35. It is also reported that the shooter used hollow-point or frangible bullets which increase tissue damage. Breivik repeatedly shouted "You are going to die today, Marxists!"
The island's manager, Monica Bøsei, was one of the victims. Her husband and one of her two daughters were also present, but escaped with their lives. The youngest victim, Sharidyn Svebakk-Bøhn of Drammen, was 14 years old.
Local residents in a flotilla of motorboats and fishing dinghies sailed out to rescue the survivors who were pulled out shivering and bleeding from the water and picked up from hiding places in the bushes and behind rocks around the island's shoreline. Some survived by pretending to be dead. Several campers, especially those who knew the island well, swam to the island's rocky west side and hid in the caves which are only accessible from the water. Others were able to hide away on the secluded Kjærlighetsstien ("love path"). Forty-seven of the campers sought refuge in Skolestua ("the School House") together with personnel from the Norwegian People's Aid. Although Breivik shot two bullets through the door, he did not get through the locked door, and the people inside this building survived.
Two ethnic Chechen teenagers Movsar Dzhamayev, 17, and Rustam Daudov, 16, who were at the island said later that they were reminded of the war in their native Chechnya. "I have seen people being shot before in my country when I was small and had flashbacks," Dzhamayev said. But after speaking to his father by cell phone, he pulled himself together. "My dad said, 'Attack the perpetrator and do it properly,'" he said. With a third unidentified friend, the teens armed themselves with stones and returned to the scene only to witness Breivik killing another teenager. "We stood three meters from him and wanted to beat him, but then he shot one of our friends in the head. So we just threw the stones and ran for our lives," Daudov said.
The teenagers said that they had decided that it was too difficult to stop the gunman. They discovered a cave-like opening in a rock where they managed to hide 23 children from Breivik. Dzhamayev, who kept guard outside, also dragged three youngsters from the lake who were close to drowning.
Former prime minister Gro Harlem Brundtland, whom Breivik said he hated and, in a pun on the (more or less ironic) epithet Landsmoderen ("mother of the nation"), referred to in his writings as landsmorderen ("murderer of the nation"), had been on the island earlier in the day to give a speech to the camp. After the attack Breivik stated that he originally wanted to target her specifically; but because of delays related to the renovation of Oslo Central railway station, she was already gone when the shooting started.
Rescue and emergency response
The first shot was fired at 17:22. The emergency medical services were informed about the shooting two minutes later. One minute after that the police in Oslo were informed. They immediately tried to reach Utøya as quickly as possible, but did not have a helicopter that could take them straight to the island. By 17:30, the anti-terror police in Oslo (the Emergency Response Unit) were on the way to Utøya by automobile.
One of the first to arrive on the scene was Marcel Gleffe, a German resident of Ski staying at Utvika Camping on the mainland. Recognizing gunshots, he piloted his boat to the island and began throwing life-jackets to young people in the water, rescuing as many as he could in four or five trips, after which the police asked him to stop. The Daily Telegraph credited him with saving up to 30 lives. Another forty were saved by Hege Dalen and Toril Hansen, a married couple holidaying in the area. Dalen was helping from land while Hansen and a neighbor camper made several trips to rescue people in the water. Several dozen more were rescued by Kasper Ilaug, who made three trips to the island. Ilaug, a local resident, received a telephone call that "something terrible" was happening on Utøya and requesting help. He initially thought the call was a prank, but acted anyway. Altogether, some 150 who swam away from the island were pulled out of the fjord by campers on the opposite shore.
The anti-terror police reached the meeting point at 18:09, but had to wait a few minutes for a boat to take them across. They reached Utøya at 18:25. When confronted by the heavily armed police on the island, the gunman initially hesitated for a few seconds. When an officer yelled "surrender or be shot" he laid down his weapons.
Anders Breivik called the 112 emergency phone number at least twice to surrender, at 18:01 and 18:26, and continued killing people in between. The police say Breivik hung up both times; they tried to call him back but did not succeed.
When the police arrived at the scene, they were met by survivors begging the officers to throw away their weapons, as they were afraid that the men in uniforms would again open fire on them.
Shortage of transport capacity
The Norwegian police do not have helicopters suitable for transporting groups of police for an airdrop. The one they have is useful only for surveillance and the helicopter crew was on vacation. The only helicopters available to the Oslo-based unit were military ones parked 60 kilometres (37 mi) south of the capital at Moss Airport in Rygge, and thus the special unit had to reach the location by car.
When the local police arrived at Utøykaia, less than 30 minutes after the first shot was fired, they could not find a suitable boat to reach the island. They were then ordered to observe and report.
AUF's own ferry, MS Thorbjørn, was used by Breivik to go to Utøya. Shortly after the first shot was fired, nine people were leaving the island on the ferry, among them the AUF leader Eskil Pedersen. They feared there might be more terrorists in the area and navigated the ferry 2.7 kilometres (1.7 mi) to the north. Hence the ferry was not available to the police when they arrived at Utøykaia, the normal ferry landing on the mainland.
The police therefore had to use their own rigid-hulled inflatable boat (RHIB). The day of the event, this boat was located in Hønefoss, and had to be transported to the lake and launched before it could be used. When the anti-terror police boarded the RHIB it took on some water and after a few hundred meters, the engine stopped, probably due to water in the fuel. Two minutes later they took over a civilian boat that was sent to assist them. The episode was captured on video. A minute or two after the video ends, a faster civilian boat arrived to help. Four police officers from the anti-terror police boarded the boat. Not to waste any more time the civilian couple took the police to Utøya.
Some have criticized the police for not using a helicopter, for not immediately getting into small boats, and for endangering the couple who drove the civilian boat.
Arrest of innocent survivor
On arriving in Utøya, the police arrested, in addition to Breivik, Anzor Djoukaev, an innocent 17-year-old survivor who represented the Akershus branch of AUF. The youth was reportedly stripped naked and locked up in a jail cell, located only meters away from the cell housing the self-confessed killer. The victim, who as a child had witnessed mass murders in Chechnya, was suspected of being an accomplice because his haircut was different from that shown on his identity document, and because he did not react to the carnage with the same tears and hysteria as most of the other survivors. He was kept in custody for seventeen hours. Barrister Harald Stabell criticized the police for failing to contact the youth's family, who feared he was killed, and for interrogating the victim without a lawyer present.
The attacks were the deadliest in Norway since World War II, and a survey found that one in four Norwegians knew "someone affected by the attacks". It was also the deadliest terrorist attack in western Europe since the 2004 Madrid train bombings which killed 191 people. This changed on the 13th November 2015, where multiple bombings and shootings took place in Paris, France.
Eight people were killed in the explosion; the blast, shock wave and debris immediately killed six people, while two others died quickly afterwards from their wounds. Of the 325 people estimated to have been in the government buildings, around them and in the surrounding area, at least 209 people received physical injuries from the blast and debris. While most were relatively minor and could be treated at the local casualty clinic, 12 people received more serious injuries. Ten were sent to Ullevål University Hospital (OUS, Ullevål), four with moderate to serious and six with critical injuries, and two to Aker University Hospital (OUS, Aker). A doctor at one of the Oslo University Hospitals (OUS) said the hospital staff were treating head, chest and abdominal wounds.
|Oslo, ages of
Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg was at his official residence near the Royal Palace, preparing the speech he was scheduled to give at Utøya the next day. Norway's finance minister, Sigbjørn Johnsen, was on holiday in Denmark at the time.
Fewer people than usual were in the area because the bombing took place during July, the usual vacation month for Norwegians, and since it was Friday afternoon, most government employees had gone home for the weekend.
The scope of what happened at the island was initially very confusing, and the first official figures given was that at least 10 people had been killed. However, as the evening progressed several eyewitness reports put this number in doubt, and at approximately 03:50 (CEST) on 23 July, NRK1 and TV2, the two primary Norwegian television networks, broadcast a live press conference from the "Sentrum politistasjon" in Oslo where Norway's National Police Commissioner Øystein Mæland stated the number of fatalities at Utøya to have reached "at least 80" with the count expected to increase.
On 25 July, a police spokesperson revealed that the death toll of the victims on Utøya had been revised downwards to 68 after the casualties had been counted on their return to the mainland. They added that the number of people missing was still high and that the number of casualties could be as high as 86. On 29 July police announced that one of the severely wounded victims from Utøya had died in a hospital, bringing the death toll from the island massacre to 69.
On 26 July, the Norwegian police began releasing the names and dates of birth of the victims on their website. By 29 July, the names of all 77 victims (8 from the bomb attack, 69 from Utøya) had been published, the last, a shooting victim, having been found on the 28th.
|Utøya, age of
|Average age: 20|
Of the 69 people that died after the attack on the island, 57 were killed by one or more shots through the head. In total, 67 people were killed by gunshots, 1 died falling from a cliff trying to escape, and 1 drowned trying to swim away from the island. In total, Breivik fired at least 186 shots, and still had a "considerable amount of ammunition" left.
In the aftermath, of the 564 people on the island at the time, 69 people died and at least 110 people had received various physical injuries. An estimated 50 people were treated at the locally set up casualty clinic, and were treated for relatively minor injuries such as cuts, bruises and hypothermia after fleeing and swimming from the island. It was cloudy and rainy on Utøya that day, air temperature was varying between 14–15 °C (57–59 °F), water temperature around the island was 14 °C and the shortest distance to the mainland was around 600 meters. Sixty people were transported to surrounding hospitals, 55 with serious to critical injuries. The chief surgeon who treated the wounds at one of the hospitals said he had never seen similar wounds during his 23 years of practice, and explained that the bullets were extremely fragmented in their path through the body. Thirty-three people had been directly hit by one or more bullets and survived, but one person who was shot died two days later in hospital from the bullet wounds to the head and back.
The 564 people on the island at the time were from all over Norway as well as some visitors from foreign countries. The people who died were from 18 of Norway's 19 counties, and also from Georgia. Wounded people were from the entire country, including Svalbard, and together with the casualties from Oslo, an average of a quarter of Norway's population knew a victim affected by the attacks, according to a survey done. Several of the dead and wounded, or their parents, were personal friends of high-ranking government ministers. Trond Berntsen, an off-duty, unarmed police officer and step-brother of Norway's crown princess Mette-Marit, was the first to be shot dead.
Public broadcaster NRK and several other Norwegian media outlets identified the suspected attacker as Anders Behring Breivik. He was arrested on Utøya for the shootings and also linked to the Oslo bombing. He has been charged with terrorism for both attacks. According to his attorney, Breivik has acknowledged that he is responsible for both the bomb and the shooting during interrogation but denies culpability, as he asserts that his actions were "atrocious but necessary". At his initial arraignment on 25 July, Breivik was remanded into custody for eight weeks, the first half to be in solitary confinement. Breivik wanted to have an open hearing, and attend it wearing a uniform of his own design, but both requests were denied by the presiding judge.
Following his arrest, Breivik underwent examination by court-appointed forensic psychiatrists, who diagnosed him with paranoid schizophrenia and concluded he had been psychotic at the time of the attacks and was criminally insane. Although criticised in newspaper debates, the submitted report was approved with no remarks by the Norwegian Board of Forensic Medicine after an extended panel of experts had reviewed it.
According to his defense attorney, Breivik initially expressed surprise and felt insulted by the conclusions in the report. He later stated that "this provides new opportunities". Following the criticism of the psychiatric report, the court in January 2012 approved for the conduct of a second psychiatric examination. The report from this examination declared Breivik to be sane in April 2012. Ultimately, the verdict and ruling of the district court's five-judge panel agreed that Breivik was sane.
Political and religious views
Breivik is linked to a 1,518-page compendium entitled 2083: A European Declaration of Independence bearing the name "Andrew Berwick". The file was e-mailed to 1,003 addresses about 90 minutes before the bomb blast in Oslo. Analysts described him as having Islamophobic views and a hatred of Islam, and as someone who considered himself as a knight dedicated to stemming the tide of Muslim immigration into Europe.
The introductory chapter of the manifesto defining "Cultural Marxism" is a copy of Political Correctness: A Short History of an Ideology by the Free Congress Foundation. Major parts of the compendium are attributed to the pseudonymous Norwegian blogger Fjordman. The text also copies sections of the Unabomber manifesto, without giving credit, while substituting the words "cultural Marxists" for "leftists" and "muslims" for "black people". The New York Times described American influences in the writings, noting that the compendium mentions the anti-Islamist American Robert Spencer 64 times and cites Spencer's works at great length. The work of Bat Ye'or is cited dozens of times. Neoconservative blogger Pamela Geller, Neo-pagan writer Koenraad Elst and Daniel Pipes are also mentioned as sources of inspiration. The manifesto further contains quotes from Middle-eastern expert Bernard Lewis, Edmund Burke, Mahatma Gandhi, Thomas Jefferson and George Orwell, as well as from Jeremy Clarkson's Sunday Times column and Melanie Phillips' Daily Mail column. The publication speaks in admiration of Ayaan Hirsi Ali, Bruce Bawer, Srđa Trifković, and Henryk M. Broder. The compendium advocates a restoration of patriarchy, which it claims would save European culture.
The compendium contains his militant far-right ideology and xenophobic worldview, which espouses an array of political concepts; including support for varying degrees of cultural conservatism, right-wing populism, ultranationalism, Islamophobia, "far-right Zionism", and Serbian paramilitarism. It regards Islam and "cultural Marxism" as the enemy and argues for the annihilation of "Eurabia" and multiculturalism, to preserve a Christian Europe. He further urged Europeans to restore the historic crusades against Islam as in the Middle Ages. A video Breivik released on YouTube 6 hours before the attack has been described as promoting violence towards Muslims and Marxists who reside in Europe.
Among other things, in the manifesto he identified the Beneš Decrees, which facilitated the expulsion of Germans from Czechoslovakia after the Second World War, as an example for committing that act on European Muslims. In his manifesto he also urges the Hindus to drive Muslims out of India. He demands the gradual deportation of all Muslims from Europe from 2011 to 2083 through repatriation. He blames feminism for allowing the erosion of the fabric of European society.
Breivik's writings mention the English Defence League, claiming that he had contact with senior members of the EDL, and that a Norwegian version of the group, was 'in the process of gaining strength'. He wrote that the EDL were 'naïve fools' because in his words the EDL 'harshly condemns any and all revolutionary conservative movements that employ terror as a tool'. EDL leader Tommy Robinson denounced Breivik and the attack on 26 July 2011 and denied any links with the Norwegian.
After being apprehended, Breivik was characterized by police officials as being a right-wing extremist. Breivik is described by the newspaper Verdens Gang as considering himself a conservative nationalist. According to The Australian, Breivik was highly critical of Muslim immigration into Christian societies, is pro-Israel and an admirer of the Tea Party movement in the United States. Deputy police chief Roger Andresen initially told reporters that "We have no more information than ... what has been found on [his] own websites, which is that it goes towards the right and that it is, so to speak, Christian fundamentalist." Subsequently, others have disputed Andresen's characterization of Breivik as a Christian fundamentalist. Furthermore, Breivik stated that "myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God." According to the International Business Times, in his manifesto, he "did not see himself as religious", but he did identify as a cultural Christian and wrote about the differences between cultural and religious Christians, but stressed that both were Christians, and shared the same identity and goals. After his imprisonment, Breivik stated he had never personally identified as a Christian, and called his religion Odinism, stating that he "pray and sacrifice" to Odin. He also identified himself as a fascist and a national socialist, and stating that he previously exploited counterjihadist rhetoric in order to protect "ethno-nationalists".
He has written many posts on the far-right website document.no. He attended meetings of "Documents venner" (Friends of Document), affiliated with the Document.no website. He is a former member of the Progress Party (FrP) and its youth wing FpU. According to the current FpU leader Ove Vanebo, Breivik was active early in the 2000s, but he left the party as his viewpoints became more extreme.
In his online YouTube video, he expressed admiration of past European leaders who waged war against Islam and Muslims, naming Charles Martel, Richard the Lionheart, El Cid, Vlad the Impaler, Jacques de Molay, Tsar Nicholas and John III Sobieski. A recently created social media website bearing Breivik's name and picture but of unknown authorship refers to him as an admirer of Winston Churchill and Max Manus, and also of controversial Dutch politician Geert Wilders, whose political party, the Party for Freedom, he describes as "the only true party of conservatives". The music that is played in the video comes off the soundtrack to the video game Age of Conan: Hyborian Adventures.
There was suspicion at the time of the attack that there were accomplices, and the police initially prepared to meet two to five shooters on Utøya. Several youths at Utøya reported to be convinced that there was more than one shooter, with some reports of shots fired from the mainland. A second shooter at Utøya was described by several youths as having thick dark hair, about 1.80 meters tall who did not wear a police uniform, while carrying a pistol and a rifle. During judicial examination, at least two witnesses independently of each other both described two different shooters at Utøya, while a third witness reported to have swum from the island beside a previously unknown dark-haired man. After his arrest Breivik claimed he acted with accomplices, but later changed his statements to him acting alone, giving several demands for him to tell about accomplices. On 24 July 2011, six people were arrested in Oslo suspected of having connections with the attacks; all were released. The police later issued a statement that there was only found evidence of one shooter at Utøya, amid "widespread conspiracy theories" of there having been more than one shooter.
At a press conference the morning after the attacks, Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg and Justice Minister Knut Storberget addressed the country. Stoltenberg called the attack a "national tragedy" and the worst atrocity in Norway since World War II. Stoltenberg further vowed that the attack would not hurt Norwegian democracy, and said the proper answer to the violence was "more democracy, more openness, but not naivety". In his speech at the memorial service on 24 July 2011, he opined what would be a proper reaction: "No one has said it better than the AUF girl who was interviewed by CNN: 'If one man can show so much hate, think how much love we could show, standing together.'"
On 1 August 2011, Norway's parliament, nominally in recess for the summer, reconvened for an extraordinary session to honour the victims of the attack. In a departure from parliamentary procedure, both King Harald V and Crown Prince Haakon were present. The president of Norway's Parliament, Dag Terje Andersen read out loud the names of all 77 victims. The session was open to the public, but due to limited seating, priority was given to relatives of the deceased.
The seven political parties in the parliament agreed to postpone the electoral campaign for local elections, held in September, until mid-August. School debates were cancelled, though the school elections were not.
Initially, Magnus Ranstorp and other terror experts suspected that foreigners were behind the attacks. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, there were wide reports in mainstream media of non-ethnic Norwegians, especially Muslim Norwegians, being subjected to harassment and violence. A report about these racist attacks was published on behalf of the 22. July Commission in 2012.
On 13 August 2012 Norway's prime minister received the Gjørv Report, which concludes that Anders Breivik could have been stopped from carrying out the Utøya massacre. (The report had been ordered by parliament, in August 2011.)
The United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and governments around the world expressed their condemnation of the attacks, condolences, and solidarity with Norway. However, there have also been reports of European politicians giving support to the killings or excusing them as a result of multi-culturalism. Interviewed on a popular radio show, the Italian MEP Francesco Speroni, a leading member of the Lega Nord, the junior partner in Berlusconi's conservative coalition, said: "Breivik's ideas are in defence of western civilisation." Similar views were voiced by Italian MEP Mario Borghezio. Werner Koenigshofer, a member of the National Council of Austria, was expelled from the right-wing Freedom Party of Austria after equating the massacre with the death of millions of fetuses through abortion.
On 25 July 2011, at noon (CEST), each of the Nordic countries held a minute of silence to dignify the victims of the two attacks. Norway's minute of silence stretched to five minutes. In Oslo, a city of approximately 600,000 inhabitants, an estimated 200,000 people attended a "flower march".
The Norwegian media reported criticism against Fox News and its commentator Glenn Beck for their coverage of the attacks. Beck's comparison of the AUF to the Hitler Youth led Frank Aarebrot, a Norwegian professor with political sympathies to the Norwegian Labour Party, to call Beck a "fascist" and "swine".
A number of memorial ceremonies took place following the attacks. On 25 July 2011, around 200,000 people took part in a "rose march" at Rådhusplassen in Oslo. The NRK memorial concert, titled "Mitt lille land" ("My Little Country") and named for the song "Mitt lille land" which "came to symbolize the sorrow many people went through", took place in Oslo Cathedral on 30 July 2011. A national memorial ceremony took place on 21 August 2011. In September 2011, the Norwegian People's Aid and Sony Music released the memorial album Mitt lille land.
Memorials and symbol
In many parts of Norway, 53 identical local sculpture memorials were erected for the deceased victims of the 2011 Norway attacks.
The preserved, damaged display case for newspaper pages
- A newspaper panel, originally located outside the offices of the Verdens Gang newspaper offices on Akersgata, with its glass cracked but not dislocated by the shockwave of the bomb, has been left untouched, still displaying the newspaper of that day. Artist Ahmad Ghosseln instigated the relocation of the panel to a bus-shelter, that has not been in use since the day of the bomb-blast. The plan is to preserve the panel as an imprint of the attack, for posterity.
National memorial: governmental decree and opposition thereof
As of March 2016, the location for a planned national place of memorial has been moved from Utøya to Sørbråten - located 350 meters from Utvika; in September 2014 the Hole municipal council said "no" to a memorial at Sørbråten.
A committee, Kunstutvalget for minnestaden for 22. juli, has chosen a design - by Jonas Dahlberg - for the monument, and Karin Moe has called the planned monument at Sørbråten - "Breivik's Memorial Place". Later, in a Klassekampen article Moe said that "Many of the [local] inhabitants have described (...) the design as a violation, even a rape of nature [that is in place] at Sørbråten. Such is the intensity of how the memorial is being felt, that physical pain is felt merely by imagining having to face the memorial every day. The traumatised neighbors re-live the acts of terror through the brutal cut into the mountain slope (...) a reminder of who acted: Anders Behring Breivik. Here his misdeed is carved in stone. No wonder that fear lies in the reactions. (...) The baffling thing for the locals is this: (...), but we were supposed to be honored - not re-traumatised. Why must this incurable memorial-wound be inflicted on us, so close to [our bodies or our] life". Furthermore, she said that "Long time was needed before the September 11 memorial place on Manhattan was in place. Now an encompassing - in regard to ethics and esthetics - pause for thinking is needed - both for the placement and the final design of the memorial". A later article suggested that "we create the monument as envisioned, but fill the scar with rock and beautify the surface", inspired by kintsugi. A later article said that "What many of us don't understand is why these plans, apparently not well-considered, now are pushed through. (...) Is it [because of] prestige or out of consideration to the artist"?
On 14 April 2016 media said that a "report has indicated that the place of memorial will create great mental strains on the persons living in its close proximity"; in April 2015 the report was completed by a company - Nasjonalt kunnskapssenter om vold og traumatisk stress a/s. A later newspaper article asked "And why should the little island, Sørbråten be punished with the jötunn cut - what wrong has the island done?" On 16 April 2016 media quoted board member Anne-Gry Ruud of neighborhood association, Utstranda Velforening: "I don't think that the work of art honors all who were killed, but symbolizes only pain and open wounds. (...) If this work of art gives any associations, then they are to terror, death, pain and the inadequacy of society. (...) This is not just a small cut on a point - it is an area of 1,2 decare [that will become surrounded by water] (...). I don't think that the [local] inhabitants have a responsibility to provide a location for a memorial at Sørbråten. Especially in the summer we experience a steady flow of tourists on a pilgrimage to Sørbråten. Some take selfies with Utøya in the background. Others stop the inhabitants and ask what they did that day and how we contributed. (...) We have two schoolbuses that drive back and forth every day on the road just above, others pass on their way to the store, leisure activities, work or municipal center (...) 260 inhabitants".
The national convention of the Progress Party decided to say "no" to placing the memorial at Sørbråten.
On 25 April 2016 Hole Municipal Council decided to fund Norwegian kroner 25,000 to Utstranda Velforening, for a proposed lawsuit against the government.
The police initially kept the choice of counsel secret after request from the attorney. Attorney Geir Lippestad elected to act on behalf of Breivik's defense, confirming to the Dagbladet newspaper that Breivik had requested him personally. Lippestad said "I thought carefully about it. Everyone is entitled to a lawyer, even in a case like this, and I decided to accept."
On 25 July 2011, Anders Behring Breivik was arraigned in Oslo District Court. The police feared that Breivik would use the hearing as an opportunity to communicate with possible accomplices. Because of this, the arraignment was held completely closed to the media and all other spectators. Instead, judge Kim Heger held a press conference shortly afterwards where he read the court's decision. The practice of completely closed court hearings is extremely rare in the Norwegian justice system.
It was long debated which criminal charges to use in this unique situation. Many police attorneys wanted high treason or crimes against humanity. The prosecution ended up indicting Breivik on terrorism charges. Breivik admitted to being the gunman at Utøya and the perpetrator behind the Oslo bomb, also admitting all the other actual events. Nonetheless he pleaded not guilty, stating "I do not recognise this justice system". District Attorney Christian Hatlo asked that Breivik be detained for eight weeks without mail or visitation. The judge ruled in favor of the prosecution, stating "the accused is an imminent danger to society and must be confined for the safety of himself and others. It is highly probable that he is guilty of the alleged crimes and imprisonment is necessary to prevent destruction of evidence". In accordance with the prosecution's wishes, Breivik was remanded to eight weeks detention without mail or visitation, four of those in complete isolation, to be renewed no later than 19 September 2011. He was immediately transferred to Ila Landsfengsel, a maximum security prison.
On 13 August 2011 Breivik was taken to Utøya by police to re-create his actions on the day of the massacre. Wearing a bulletproof vest and a leash, Breivik was seen to mimic a shooting action. Neither the media nor the public was alerted to the operation. The police explained that the surprise walk-through was necessary because Breivik will be charged and tried for all 77 murders individually. The police deemed it less offensive to the survivors to do it now rather than during the trial. Despite the many police boats and helicopters, none of the civilians who had come to lay down flowers on the shore this day perceived what was happening just a few hundred metres across the lake from them for a total of eight hours. On the evening of 14 August the police held a press conference about the reconstruction. It was reported that Breivik was not unmoved by his return to Utøya, but that he showed no remorse. Inspector Pål Fredrik Hjort Kraby described Breivik's behavior and indifference on the island as "unreal", as he had over the course of eight hours willingly showed the police exactly how he had carried out all of the 69 murders.
The trial began on 16 April 2012 and lasted until 19 June 2012. 170 media organisations were accredited to cover the proceedings. Anders Behring Breivik acknowledged that he had committed the offences but pleaded not guilty as he believed the killing was needed. The main issue for Breivik was that he was not to be deemed "insane" or "psychotic", because that would lose the meaning of his message.
On 24 August, Breivik was found to be sane by the panel of five judges. He was sentenced to preventative detention (forvaring), a sentence of 21 years in prison which can be repeatedly extended by 5 years as long as he is considered a threat to society. This is the maximum sentence allowed by Norwegian law, and it is the only way to allow for life imprisonment.
Coop Norway, a chain of retail stores in Norway, removed several games from its shelves as a result of the attack. Some of the titles includes games like Homefront, Call of Duty series, Sniper Ghost Warrior, Counter-Strike Source and World of Warcraft. Some games were also temporarily removed from the Norwegian WiiWare catalog, including an on-rails shooter game.
In the days following the attacks, Norway's largest represented political parties noted a significant increase in interest for membership from young people. Both the Norwegian Young Conservatives and the Progress Party's Youth, as well as the Workers' Youth League (AUF) had signed up a significant number of new members after a few days. The mother parties also reported an unusual increase in new member applications, with the Conservative Party and the Progress Party having signed up almost 1,000 new members each by early August, while the Labour Party reported over 6,000 new members at the end of the month.
Far-right groups such as Stop the Islamisation of Norway (SIAN) and the Norwegian Defence League (NDL), as well as the Democrats, had reportedly witnessed a boom in their memberships and interest by mid-August, with the Democrats party having signed up around one hundred new members, and the NDL around three hundred.
In the September local elections almost two months after the attacks, gains were made by the Conservative Party (up 9% to 28%), and to a lesser extent the Labour Party (up 2% to 32%). On the other hand, setbacks were witnessed by the Progress Party, the party Breivik had been a member of, (down 6% to 11%) and the Socialist Left Party (down 2% to 4%).
In the Gjørv Report, received by the prime minister in advance of a press conference on 13 August 2012, it was concluded that more actions could have been taken by authorities, to stop Breivik, to track him, or to interrupt his attacks. It also criticised the police action, in stark contrast to an internal report issued by the police earlier. A few days later, national police chief Øystein Mæland submitted his resignation, citing a lack of clear support for his position from his superiors and saying: "If the [justice] ministry and other political authorities do not clarify this matter unequivocally, it will become impossible for me to continue." His resignation was accepted and announced by Justice Minister Grete Faremo.
Vegard Groeslie Wennesland, a survivor of the incident, ran for parliament on a Labour Party ticket in the Norwegian parliamentary election, 2013 which brought a coalition government of the Conservative party and the right-wing Progress Party to power.
In 2013 former AUF local leader and Labour Party cabinet advisor Ivar Fjeld released the pamphlet Den rødgrønne terrorøya ("The Red-Green Terror Island"), which documented how Utøya over several years had been used to build up support for anti-Israel politics and Palestinian terrorists. In the book he documents among other things that AUF had allowed far-left Red Youth to arrange camps on Utøya, who collected money for and welcomed representatives from the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) on the island. Fjeld claimed that his purpose with the book was to warn the Labour Party about the activities of its increasingly radicalised and Islamised youth organisation.
Czech suspect revealed not to be a copycat
A Czech that was arrested in 2012, was determined not to be a copycat of Breivik: On 10 August 2012, the Czech Police URNA and a local SWAT unit, backed up by over 100 other policemen, arrested 29-year-old Vojtěch Mlýnek in Ostrava, the Czech Republic's third largest city. The police suspected that Mlýnek was preparing a copycat attack inspired by the 2011 Norway attacks. He was stockpiling weapons (including a fully automatic assault rifle and armor-piercing bullets) and had converted an aerial bomb in order to be able to remotely detonate it. Mlýnek had the remote control with him while arrested. He had also obtained uniforms of the Czech police and of the Czech prison service and a police ID.
Mlýnek, who was using the pseudonym Anders Behring Breivik in electronic communication, has had a history of four prior criminal convictions, including a six-month-long suspended sentence for setting off an explosive which demolished an empty wooden cottage.
Mlýnek was initially charged with endangering public and with illegal arming, which carried a penalty from three to eight years in prison. He was first held in a remand prison, but was transferred to an isolation unit of prison hospital in Brno following a psychiatric evaluation. On 3 April 2013, a court in Ostrava found Mlýnek criminally insane. At the same time he was found dangerous to the public and ordered psychiatric detention. The reasons for detention shall be reviewed by the court periodically every two years. According to the police it was revealed that Mlýnek, despite being a Breivik-sympathizer, was in fact not preparing an actual terrorist attack; however, he suffered from paranoia and was stockpiling the weapons and bombs with the aim of self-defense.
Breivik and McVeigh made mistakes. I will be better.
|— Brunon Kwiecień's statement according to investigators.|
On 20 November 2012 the Polish authorities announced the arrest of a 45-year-old lecturer of the Agricultural University of Cracow under suspicion of preparing a similar attack. According to the authorities, Brunon Kwiecień was an admirer of Breivik and was further inspired by the Oklahoma City bombing.
Poland's Internal Security Agency (ABW) first found out about Kwiecień after it launched investigation into Breivik's Polish contacts when it became known that Breivik had ordered some of the chemicals for his bomb from Poland via internet. According to ABW, Kwiecień was preparing an attack against Sejm. He wanted to detonate 4 tonnes (3.9 long tons; 4.4 short tons) of explosives in a car bomb parked at the building during deliberation of the next year's budget, as it is the time when all the members of parliament, the Prime Minister as well as the President are all present in the building.
Kwiecień tried to arm himself already in 1997, however the authorities refused his application for a firearm permit. He later started arming himself illegally, mostly with weapons bought in Belgium. He bought firearms, ammunition, bulletproof vests with ceramic plates and kevlar helmets. He had visited the Sejm and tested whether it is possible to use radio remote controls in the buildings for the purposes of planned detonation of the car bomb. Being a graduate of Warsaw University of Technology program on explosive manufacturing, Kwiecień was conducting illegal trials of explosives from at least 2000. In some cases, he detonated small explosives on Warsaw bridges, making small dents and holes in their construction. Apart from targeting the parliament, Kwiecień was also preparing murders of Monika Olejnik, an influential journalist, and Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz, the mayor of Warsaw.
Kwiecień intensified his preparations after Breivik's conviction. He conducted an experimental explosion of a 250-kilogram (550 lb) bomb in the Polish countryside in the municipality of Przeginia, which he also filmed. He had recruited four other people for his cause, however at least two of them were actually ABW's secret agents.
- "Eksplosjonen i Oslo sentrum 22. juli 2011" [The explosion in Oslo 22 July 2011] (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- "Notat – Redgjørelse Stortinget" (PDF). Politiet. 10 November 2011. Archived from the original on 5 July 2013. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
- "Slik var Behring Breiviks bevegelser på Utøya". Aftenposten. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2012.
- "Norway: Anders Behring Breivik claims 'two more cells'". BBC News. 25 July 2011.
- "Arbeiderpartiet har sveket landet, og prisen fikk de betale fredag" [The Labour Party has betrayed the country, and the price they paid on Friday]. NRK (in Norwegian). 25 July 2011.
- "Skutt på kloss hold" [Shot at close range]. Dagsavisen (in Norwegian). 3 May 2012. Archived from the original on 17 May 2012.
- "Terrorofrene på Utøya og i Oslo". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted ASA. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Navn på alle terrorofre offentliggjort". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). Schibsted ASA. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- "En av de sårede døde på sykehuset" [One of the wounded died in hospital]. Østlendingen (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Dette er Breivik tiltalt for" [Breivik's indictment] (in Norwegian). NRK. 7 March 2012.
- "Oslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service response". Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine. 26 January 2012.
- "Læring for bedre beredskap; Helseinnsatsen etter terrorhendelsene 22. juli 2011" (in Norwegian). 9 March 2012. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013.
- . CNN. 24 August 2012 http://edition.cnn.com/2012/08/24/world/europe/norway-breivik-trial. Missing or empty
- "Suspect in Norway attacks to face second interrogation". CNN. 28 July 2011.
- Wong, Curtis (23 July 2011). "Oslo Norway Bombing: Suspect Anders Behring Breivik Bought Tons Of Fertilizer, Wrote Manifesto". Huffington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
- "Her er restene av bombebilen" [Here is the remains of the car]. NRK (in Norwegian). 29 October 2011.
- "Ble sett av ti kameraer" [Was seen by ten surveillance cameras]. ABC Nyheter (in Norwegian). 16 September 2011.
- "Slik skaffet han politiuniformen" [How he obtained the uniform]. NRK (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011.
- "Slik var Behring Breivik kledd for å drepe" [How Behring Breivik was dressed to kill]. Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 20 November 2011.
- Sanchez, Raf (25 July 2011). "Norway killings: Princess's brother Trond Berntsen among dead". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Prime minister: Norway still 'an open society' despite 'the horror'". CNN. 25 July 2011.
- "Tre timer som forandret Norge" [Three hours that changed Norway]. Stavanger Aftenblad (in Norwegian). 28 December 2011.
- "1 av 4 kjenner rammede" [1 of 4 know a victim]. Klassekampen (in Norwegian). 19 August 2011.
- "Norway police 'could have stopped Breivik sooner'". BBC News Europe. 13 August 2012. Retrieved 1 September 2012.
- "Man held after Norway attacks right-wing extremist: report". Reuters. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Rayner, Gordon (27 July 2011). "Norway shootings: Anders Behring Breivik surrendered with his hands above his head". The Telegraph (London).
- "Norway suspect Anders Behring Breivik 'admits attacks'". BBC. 24 July 2011.
- "Norwegians value respecting killer's human rights". CNN. 17 April 2011.
- Clive Williams (26 July 2011). "Deadly, cruel lesson from Norway". The Australian. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Schwirtz, Michael; Saltmarsh, Matthew (24 July 2011). "Oslo Suspect Cultivated Parallel Life to Disguise 'Martyrdom Operation'". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Behring Breivik, Anders. "2083: A European Declaration of Independence" (PDF). The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 11 April 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Behring Breivik, Anders. "2083: A European Declaration of Independence". Internet Archive. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Norský vrah sháněl zbraně i u motorkářů v Praze" (in Czech). Týden. 24 July 2011. (Google Translate link)
- "CzechTourism: Praha je bezpečnější než Vídeň" (in Czech). ČT24. 15 June 2011. (Google Translate link)
- "Zbraně jel Breivik nakoupit do "nebezpečné Prahy"" (in Czech). novinky.cz. 24 July 2011. (Google Translate link)
- "Breivikovi chyběly kontakty, jinak by v Praze zbraně sehnal". novinky.cz. 26 July 2011. (Google translate link)
- "Oslo killer sought weapons from Prague's underworld". Czech Position. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011.
- "Suspect focused on buying specific weapons". Financial Times. 24 July 2011.
- "Skaffet seg våpen på lovlig vis". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian) (Norsk Telegrambyrå). 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- "Norway gunman claims two more terror cells exist – Channel 4 News". Channel 4. Retrieved 18 April 2012.
- Zoellner, Marek (26 July 2011). "ABW: Breivik kupował we Wrocławiu chemikalia, ale legalnie" (in Polish). pl:Gazeta Wrocławska/PAP. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011. (Google Translate link)
- "Tajné služby Breivika sledovaly od března, podle otce se měl raději zastřelit" (in Czech). novinky.cz. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011. (Google Translate link)
- "Norwegian 'MI5' Had Massacre Suspect on List". Sky News. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.[dead link]
- "Breivik Geofarm – 994089269 – Firmapresentasjon". Purehelp.no. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Fra oppføring i Brønnøysundregisteret". W2.brreg.no. 18 May 2009. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "Breivik kjøpte seks tonn kunstgjødsel i mai – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Politiet: – Bomben i Regjeringskvartalet var 950 kg – Aftenposten". Aftenposten.no. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "Ingen krav til de som kjøper kunstgjødsel – Lov og rett – E24". E24.no. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- NTB (25 July 2011). "PST: – Selv ikke Stasi kunne ha avslørt Breivik". DN.no. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Egil Sande (29 July 2011). "Svensk politi jakter mystiske "Breivik-ansatte"". Nettavisen. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- Sindre Granly Meldalen, Torgeir P. Krokfjord (23 July 2011). "Står igjen tre tonn gjødsel på gården". Dagbladet. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
Da den siktede 32-åringen kom til Vålstua Gård på Åsta i april i år, startet han ikke opp med gårdsproduksjon, men valgte å forpakte bort rundt 100 mål hvor det ble produsert gress.
- Harald S. Klungtveit, Peder Ottosen, Gunnar Thorenfeldt, Jonas Pettersen (23 July 2011). "Anders (32) tatt etter massakrene". Dagbladet. Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- ""Unikt" at bomba bare drepte åtte personer". Dagbladet. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- Tormod Strand (17 August 2011). "Fant enda en stor, klargjort bombe på gården til Behring Breivik". NRK. Retrieved 17 August 2011.
- "Oslo Terrorist Used Modern Warfare 2 as "Training-Simulation", World of Warcraft as Cover". 24 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Norwegian Mass Murderer Defends Gaming Habits". Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Her er krateret" [Here is the crater] (in Norwegian). Dagbladet. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- "At least 92 killed in shootings and bomb blast in Norway". NO: VG. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.[dead link]
- Ward, Andrew (22 July 2011). "Youth camp shooting after Oslo bomb". Financial Times (Stockholm). Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Her flykter Breivik fra bombebilen – Norge – NRK Nyheter". NRK. 15 September 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "Slik plasserte Breivik terrorbomben i regjeringskvartalet – Norge – NRK Nyheter". NRK. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "Ble sett av ti kameraer". ABC NYHETER. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
- "– Vaktene så ikke Breivik flykte fra bombebilen – Norge – NRK Nyheter". NRK. 16 September 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "Breivik forberedte terror i ni år" [Breivik preparing terror for nine years] (in Norwegian). 24 July 2011. Archived from the original on 20 August 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Mala, Elisa; Goodman, J. David (23 July 2011). "Big Blast Hits Government Buildings in Central Oslo". The New York Times.
- "Explosion rocks Oslo | Events". Blogs. Reuters. 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B8KlLagNRbw Breivik blast CCTV in Norway
- Syrstad, Tor Gaute (22 July 2011). "Oslo-trikken: – Det er normal drift, ingen grunn til bekymring" (in Norwegian). TV2. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- "Oslo bomb – latest updates". News (UK: BBC). 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Bomb blast rocks downtown Oslo". RT. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Oslo-trikken: – Det er normal drift, ingen grunn til bekymring". TV 2 (in Norwegian) (NO). 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "All trains shut down after suspicious package". Dagbladet (NO). 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Lofstad, Ralf; Haraldsen, Stian; Badi, Diana (22 July 2011). "Disse områdene er evakuert". Dagbladet (in Norwegian) (NO). Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Oslo: Bomb blast near Norway prime minister's office". UK: BBC News. 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Breivik: – Mislyktes med bomben mot høyblokken". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 18 November 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Norwegian massacre gunman was a right-wing extremist who hated Muslims, 23 July 2011". Daily Mail (UK). 24 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Police: 91 youth campers dead in mass shooting, bombing in Norway". United States: CNN. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Sommerleir på Utøya" [Summer Camp at Utøya] (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 27 June 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Norway Camp Shooting: 'As Many As 30 Dead'". Sky News. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011 Archived 1 January 1970 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Slik er hovedhuset på Utøya" (in Norwegian). TV 2. 3 October 2011. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- "Flere unge skutt og drept på Utøya". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Survivors In Norway Describe Scenes Of Terror by NPR, 23 July 2011
- Brenna, Jarle (22 July 2011). "Vi er under angrep!". VG Nett (in Norwegian) (NO). Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "LIVE: Doden bij bomexplosie in Oslo – schietpartij op jongerenkamp" (in Dutch). NL: NRC.
- "Nine, perhaps 10, killed in Norway shooting". Reuters. 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Translate". Google. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- "Twin terror attacks shock Norway". News (UK: BBC). 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Terroriserte Utøya i halvannen time" [Terrorized Utøya in half-hour] (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Doctor: Breivik used a special ammunition". VG (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 25 July 2011.
- "Never seen gunshot wounds like this before". Dagbladet (in Norwegian).
- "Norway attacks, 29 July 2011". BBC. 2 August 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Mother of Two shot dead trying to stop Norway gunman". London Evening Standard. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 4 September 2012.
- "Fikk vite at datteren var den siste som ble drept". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 8 March 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Townsend, Mark; McVeigh, Tracy (23 July 2011). "Utøya, the island paradise turned into hell by Anders Behring Breivik". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Haugen, Erlend Langeland (28 July 2011). "Berget livet i kjærlighetsgrottene" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Bjerkestrand, Frode (26 July 2011). "- Skolestuen berget mange liv" (in Norwegian). Bergens Tidende. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Mersland, Frank; Roald Ankersen (23 July 2011). "- Trodde vi var eneste overlevende" (in Norwegian). Fædrelandsvennen. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Nikolaus von Twickel (16 August 2011). "Chechen War Prepared Teens for Norway Terror". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Suspected mass murder called Gro 'murder of the nation'". Google. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- "Would kill Gro Harlem Brundtland". Google. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- "Norway shooting: killer 'confirms Gro Harlem Brundtland was main target'". The Daily Telegraph. 25 July 2011.
- "Trodde bare vi slapp unna". Tidens Krav. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
- "Dere har reddet liv". Vestre Viken HF. 29 July 2011. Archived from the original on 27 December 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- "Hege (17) fikk beredskapstroppen raskere til Utøya". TV 2. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- "En halv time, er en halv time for mye". Dagbladet. 28 December 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.
- "Norway shooting: German tourist hailed a hero after saving 30 lives". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 26 July 2011.
- "Her er Utøya-heltene sine historier". VG (NO). 9 October 2011. Archived from the original on 11 December 2011. Retrieved 12 December 2011.
- Watkins, Tom (23 July 2011). "Norwegian islander ferries children to safety". CNN. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- Morris, Chris (26 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Utoeya rescuer describes shock of survivors". BBC News. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "Breivik er overrasket over at han lyktes – VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Norway. "Police reveal Breivik called twice, broke communication". Theforeigner.no. Retrieved 21 August 2011.
- "One Norway survivor describes how he played dead as a gunman passed him". News (United States: CNN). 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Townsend, Mark (21 August 2011). "Survivors of Norway shootings return to island of Utøya". The Guardian (London).
- "96 personer såret i terrorangrepene – TV 2 Nyhetene". Tv2.no. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- The TV crews saw what was happening before the police. novinky.cz 26 July 2011. Retrieved 25 Nov 2011.
- "The wrong helicopter and a sinking boat: Why it took police so long to reach Norwegian island massacre". News (UK). 24 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- I ordered the boat to Storøya ABC Nyheter. 29 October 2011. Retrieved 25 Nov 2011.
- "A video of the crossing" (in Norwegian Bokmål). Ringblad.no. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- "Where Were You". YouTube. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Police statements differ ABC Nyheter. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 25 Nov 2011.
- Jan Andersson, Lisa Karlsson, Oskyldig 17-åring greps med massmördaren (Swedish), Sveriges Radio, 12 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- News report from AFP: Survivor held for 17 hours after attack, 13 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011.
- Marianne Vikås et al., Utøya-offer kastet på glattcelle (Norwegian), Verdens Gang, 12 August 2011. Retrieved 13 August 2011. Archived 1 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Torgeir P. Krokfjord, Utøya-offer (17) ble mistenkt og avhørt uten advokat (Norwegian), Dagbladet, 12 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011.
- Lopez, German (15 January 2015). "Charting 13 years of terrorist attacks in Europe is really revealing". Vox. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- "Anders Behring Breivik: the indictment". The Guardian (UK). 14 April 2012.
- "17 dead in Oslo bombing, shootings; Norwegian held – On Deadline". USA Today. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "22.7.2011 – Norge rammet av terror" Archived 18 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Stoltenberg skrev tale til Utøya da bomben smalt" [Stoltenberg was writing Utøya speech when the bomb exploded] (in Norwegian). Dagsavisen.
- "Sigbjørn Johnsen til forsvar for euroen" [Sigbjørn Johnsen in defense of the Euro] (in Norwegian). NO: Aftenposten. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Norway on summer vacation". The Research Council of Norway. 1 July 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Eyewitness: Norway Utoeya shootings". BBC. 23 July 2011.
- "Politiet: Minst 80 drepte på Utøya – Norge". Nyheter (in Norwegian). NO: NRK. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Norway Skynews Live blog". Sky News. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Norwegian Police End Search as Last Shooting Victim Found". International Business Times. 28 July 2011. Archived from the original on 26 September 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
- "57 henrettet med hodeskudd på Utøya" [57 executed with shots through head]. NRK (in Norwegian). 7 March 2012.
- "Breivik avfyrte minst 186 skudd på Utøya". ABC Nyheter (in Norwegian). 13 October 2011.
- "Foreløpig navneliste etter terroren mot Norge 22. juli". NRK (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011.
- "Svalbard hardt rammet på Utøya". NRK (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011.
- "Anders Behring Breivik tiltalt for terror og overlagt drap". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 7 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2015.
- "Anders (32) i Oslo ble pågrepet etter bombe og massedrap". Nyhetene. NO: TV 2. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Named: The blond Norwegian, 32, arrested over 'holiday island massacre' and linked to Oslo bomb blasts, which killed 7 people and injured many more". Daily Mail (UK). 22 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- "Pågrepet 32-åring kalte seg selv nasjonalistisk". Nett (in Norwegian). NO: VG. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
- Hansen, Birthe Steen (23 July 2011). "Defence: – In his mind it was necessary". Nettavisen / TV2. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Tisdal, Townsend (25 July 2011). "Defiant from the dock, Breivik boasts more will die". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Erlanger, Steven (25 July 2011). "Norway Suspect Denies Guilt and Suggests He Did Not Act Alone". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Huseby, Torgeir; Synne Sørheim (29 November 2011). "Forensic psychiatric statement Breivik, Anders Behring (summary)" (PDF) (in Norwegian). TV2. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- "Norway split on Breivik's likely fate in mental ward, as mass-killer himself 'insulted' by ruling". Agence France-Presse. 30 November 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- Den rettsmedisinske kommisjon; Andreas Hamnes, Agneta Nilsson, Gunnar Johannessen, Jannike E. Snoek, Kirsten Rasmussen, Knut Waterloo, Karl Heinrik Melle (20 December 2011). "BREIVIK, ANDERS BEHRING. Rettspsykiatrisk erklæring" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo Tingrett. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- "Breivik sees opportunities". The Foreigner. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2011.
- "Norway's mass killer Breivik 'declared sane'". BBC News. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012.
- "Norway Mass Killer Gets the Maximum: 21 Years". New York Times. August 24, 2012.
- Rayner, Gordon (24 July 2011). "Norway killer Anders Behring Breivik called Gordon Brown and Prince Charles 'traitors'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 11 April 2012.
- Matthew Taylor (26 July 2011). "Breivik sent 'manifesto' to 250 UK contacts hours before Norway killings". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- ADAM GELLER AP National Writer (30 July 2011). "Norway gunman's tale diverges sharply from reality". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2011.
- The Guardian: After Anders Breivik's conviction, Norway must confront Islamophobia
- "AFP: Norway remembers 77 victims a month after massacre". Google. 21 August 2011. Archived from the original on 7 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Starla Muhammad (19 August 2011). "Tragedy in Norway Borne Out of Seeds of Racism and Intolerance in UK, EU". New America Media. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Godfrey, Hannah (19 August 2011). "Utøya island shooting victims return to scene of Breivik's killing spree". The Guardian (London).
- William S. Lind, ed. (November 2004). "Political Correctness:" A Short History of an Ideology. Free Congress Foundation.
- "Scholars Respond to Breivik Manifesto" (Press release). National Association of Scholars. 28 July 2011.
- Anne-Catherine Simon, Christoph Saiger und Helmar Dumbs (29 July 2011). "Die Welt, wie Anders B. Breivik sie sieht". Die Presse (in German).
- "Dette er terroristens store politiske forbilde – nyheter". Dagbladet.no. 18 August 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Massedrapsmannen kopierte "Unabomberen" ord for ord". Nrk.no. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Scott Shane (25 July 2011). "Killings in Norway spotlight anti-Muslim thought in U.S.". The New York Times.
- Smith, Craig S. (20 February 2005). "Europe's Jews Seek Solace on the Right". The New York Times.
- Archer, Toby (25 July 2011). "Breivik's Swamp". Foreign Policy. Archived from the original on 10 September 2011.
- Shane, Scott (24 July 2011). "Killings in Norway Spotlight Anti-Muslim Thought in U.S.". NYT.
- "If Only He Had Read The Brussels Journal". TBJ. 27 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Chahine, Marwan (25 July 2011). ""2083, Une déclaration européenne d'indépendance" ou le petit manuel du néo-croisé". Libération.
- Lee, Sarah (25 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Writer quoted by gunman hits back". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Bigotry a stepping stone to extreme action Newsroom, 26 July 2011 Archived 4 December 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- De var Breiviks helter (They were Breivik's heroes), 26 July 2011, Dagbladet
- Balzter, Sebastian; von Altenbockum, Jasper (26 July 2011). "Der Attentäter im Internet. Im blinden Hass gegen Hass". Frankfurter Allgemeine (in German). Archived from the original on 27 July 2011.
- "Norway Killer's Hatred of Women". TDB. Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Anders Breivik's chilling anti-feminism". The Guardian (London). 27 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "Norwegian mass murderer Breivik comments on Croat-Serb relations in his manifesto". Croatian Times. 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
- Hartman, Ben (24 July 2011). "Norway attack suspect had anti-Muslim, pro-Israel views". The Jerusalem Post.
- Mala, Elisa; Goodman, J David (22 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Norwegian Massacre Gunman was a Right-Wing Extremist who hated Muslims". Daily Mail (London). 24 July 2011.
- Beaumont, Peter (23 July 2011). "Anders Behring Breivik: profile of a mass murderer". The Guardian (UK). Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Saunders, Debra J (26 July 2011). "Norwegian Crime and Punishment". San Francisco Chronicle.
... the anti-multiculturalism, anti-Muslim and anti-Marxist message of his 1,500-page manifesto
- "Breivik's anti-Muslim crusade". 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.[dead link]
- 24 July 2011 (24 July 2011). "Video: Norway shootings: Anders Behring Breivik's YouTube video posted hours before killings". The Daily Telegraph (London). Archived from the original on 29 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Šťastný, Jiří (24 July 2011). "Praha je příliš bezpečná, zbraně tu neseženu, píše v manifestu Breivik". Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech) (Czech Republic). Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Ben, By (25 July 2011). "Norway massacre: Breivik manifesto attempts to woo India's Hindu nationalists – Yahoo!!! News". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Norway Gunman Anders Behring Breivik Released Manifesto on the Web – Video and 1,500 page document, The Last Refuge, 23 July 2011.
- "Anders Breivik's chilling anti-feminism | Comment is free". The Guardian (London). 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- BigJay. "Official Statement – Anders Brievik". English Defence League.
- Mark Hennessy (26 July 2011). "Claim gunman linked to UK group". The Irish Times.
- Hall, Richard (25 July 2011). "Outcry over role of English Defense League". Independent (London). Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Townsend, Mark (23 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Utøya gunman boasted of links to UK far right". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Terroristen ville bruke atomvåpen" [The terrorist would use nuclear weapons] (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Williams, Clive (26 July 2011). "Deadly, cruel lesson from Norway". The Australian. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Norway police say 84 killed in Utoeya shooting". Reuters. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Erlanger, Steven and Scott Shane (24 July 2011). "Oslo Suspect Wrote of Fear of Islam and Plan for War". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Brown, Andrew (24 July 2011). "Anders Breivik is not Christian but anti-Islam". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
Norway mass murderer Anders Breivik's internet writings show him to be anti-Muslim and anti-Marxist, not a fundamentalist Christian.
- Introvigne, Massimo (July 2011). "The Identity Ideology of Anders Breivik. Not a Christian Fundamentalist". Turin: CESNUR. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
At first, the media called Anders Behring Breivik a Christian fundamentalist, some of them even a Roman Catholic. This shows the cavalier use of the word 'fundamentalist' prevailing today in several quarters.
- "Anders Breivik Manifesto: Shooter/Bomber Downplayed Religion, Secular Influence Key". International Business Times. 26 July 2011. Archived from the original on 12 April 2012. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
Anders Behring Breivik placed himself potentially outside of religious Christianity in a 1,500-page manifesto he has reportedly admitted to writing. "A majority of so-called agnostics and atheists in Europe are cultural conservative Christians without even knowing it," he wrote. "If you have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God then you are a religious Christian. Myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God. We do however believe in Christianity as a cultural, social, identity and moral platform. This makes us Christian," he wrote.
- Menzie, Nicola (26 July 2011). "Norway massacre suspect manifesto rejects personal relationship with Jesus". Christianity Today. Retrieved 28 July 2011.
He writes on page 1307 of his online manifesto: "If you have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God then you are a religious Christian. Myself and many more like me do not necessarily have a personal relationship with Jesus Christ and God.
- Anders Breivik Manifesto: Shooter/Bomber Downplayed Religion, Secular Influence Key. (25 July 2011). International Business Times. Retrieved from http://www.ibtimes.com/articles/186020/20110725/anders-breivik-manifesto-shooter-bomber-downplayed-religion-secular-influence-key.htm. Retrieved 25 July 2011
- "Breivik mener Jesus er "patetisk" [Breivik thinks Jesus is "pathetic"]". Dagen (in Norwegian). 19 November 2015.
- "Breivik: Jeg er ikke kristen [Breivik- I am not a Christian]". Vårt Land (in Norwegian). 15 November 2015.
- Daniel Vergara (10 January 2014). "Breivik vill deportera "illojala judar" [Breivik wants to deport "disloyal Jews"]". Expo (in Swedish).
- Will Englund; Michael Birnbaum (23 July 2011). "Suspect in Norway attacks admits involvement, denies responsibility". The Washington Post. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- "32-åringen skal tilhøre høyreekstremt miljø – Norge". Nyheter. NO: NRK. 27 January 2010. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Torheim, Ørjan. "Som en liten gutt: Slik beskrives terrorsiktede Anders Behring Breivik (32) av bergensmann som traff ham" (in Norwegian). BT.
- Fondenes, Eivind; Kathleen Buer (23 July 2011). "Terrorsiktede var tidligere medlem av Fremskrittspartiet". Nyhetene (in Norwegian) (TV 2). Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Atentante in Norvegia: Atacatorul il admira pe Vlad Tepes" [Attacks in Norway : The attacker admired Vlad Tepes] (in Romanian). 24 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- Poza, Pedro (23 July 2011). "El presunto autor, un noruego nacionalista vinculado a la extrema derecha". El Mundo (in Spanish) (ES). Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Papadakis, Mary (24 July 2011). "Norway's new face of terror". AU: Sunday Herald Sun.
- "Dader bloedbad bewondert Geert Wilders". News (in Dutch) (BE: HLN). 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Kristensen, Eivind (19 April 2012). "– Breivik krenker både meg og musikken" [– Breivik violates both me and the music]. Fædrelandsvennen (in Norwegian). Retrieved 26 April 2012.
- "Eyewitness to VG: (...)". VG. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011.
- "Politiet frykter gjerningsmann kan være på frifot" (in Norwegian). NO: VG. 23 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Frykter at gjerningsmann kan være på frifot" (in Norwegian). NO: Aftenposten. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "– Det var vanskelig å forstå at en mann kunne ha forvoldt så mye skade" (in Norwegian). TV 2. 25 May 2012.
- "Vitner beskrev flere terrorister etter at Breivik var pågrepet". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 28 August 2011.
- "Politiet: Det var bare én skytter". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). 16 February 2012.
- "Øyenvitne til VG: - Det første han gjorde var å skyte den søteste jenta han så". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011.
- "- Overlevende så to skyttere". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 23 July 2011.
- "Utøya-vitner sier de så en annen gjerningsmann". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). 3 September 2011.
- "Synes ikke selv at han bør straffes" (in Norwegian). NO: NRK. 24 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- "Breivik til politiet på Utøya: - Vi er brødre". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). 7 September 2011.
- Norwegian police arrest six in Oslo raids BreakingNews.ie, 24 July 2011.
- Grenberg, Karen J. (22 July 2011). "The Norway Attacks: Who is Abu Suleiman Al Nasser?". The New Republic. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
- Mala, Eliza; Goodman, J. David (23 July 2011). "At Least 80 Are Dead in Norway Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Staff Reporters (23 July 2011). "Norway terror attacks: Claim of responsibility fuels suspicions co-ordinated attacks were the work of al-Qaeda". Scotsman.com.
- Murtnes, Sindre (23 July 2011). "Kongen om terrorangrepet: – Våre tanker går til ofrene" (in Norwegian). Verdens Gang. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Gimse, Lars Martin (23 July 2011). "- Vi er alle rystet av ondskapen" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- Batty, David; Godfrey, Hannah (24 July 2011). "Norway attacks: Sunday 24 July rolling coverage: 1.13 pm". The Guardian (UK). Retrieved 24 July 2011.
No one has said it better than the AUF girl who was interviewed by CNN: "If one man can show so much hate, think how much love we could show, standing together."
- "Address by Prime Minister in Oslo Cathedral". Norwegian government. 24 July 2011. Archived from the original on 11 February 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
No one has said it better than the Labour Youth League girl who was interviewed by CNN: If one man can create that much hate, you can only imagine how much love we as a togetherness can create.
- Ervik, Marthe Rosenvinge (23 July 2011). "- I dag er vi alle AUF-ere" (in Norwegian). Fædrelandsvennen. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "- En nasjonal tragedie" (in Norwegian). Conservative Party. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011.
- "- En nasjonal tragedie" (in Norwegian). Progress Party. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011.
- "En ufattelig nasjonal tragedie" (in Norwegian). Christian Democratic Party. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011.
- "Ein trist dag for Noreg" (in Norwegian). Center Party.
- "En ufattelig tragedie" (in Norwegian). Socialist Left Party. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015.
- "Våre tanker er hos ofrene og de pårørende" (in Norwegian). Liberal Party.
- "En stor tragedie har rammet Norge" (in Norwegian). Red.
- "Minnesamling mandag 1. august kl. 12" (in Norwegian). Stortinget. 26 July 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011.
- "Video recording of the 1 August 2011 Storting session" (in Norwegian). Stortinget. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 1 August 2011. (begins at 10:32, King's entrance at 19:14, first speech at 20:06)
- Sandvik, Siv; Malm, Anders (25 July 2011). "- Har ikke samvittighet til å presse AUF-ere til å stille opp" (in Norwegian). NRK. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011.
- Sandvik, Siv; Anders Malm (25 July 2011). "Partiene utsetter valgkampen til midten av august" (in Norwegian). NRK. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "NrK: Tror Al-Qaida står bak". M.nrk.no. 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Verdens Gang: Kadra: – Muslimer ble jaget nedover gatene". Vg.no. 30 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Dagsavisen: "Nå ligger dere jævla tynt an"". Dagsavisen.no. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Henrik Arneberg Tips meg. "Nettavisen: – Dra tilbake dit du kommer fra". Nettavisen.no. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Verdens Gang: Oppfordret hijabkledde jenter om å holde seg innendørs". Vg.no. 31 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "NrK Muslimer ble hetset etter terroren". Nrk.no. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Henrik Arneberg Tips meg. "Nettavisen: -Innvandrere dratt ut av pub". Nettavisen.no. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- Dagens Næringsliv, 23 July 2011, "Ulvespor" by Morten Møst, Christel Marie Stabæk, Line Tiller and Vegard Tenold Aase
- Dagens Næringsliv (30 July 2011) and Aftenposten (31 July 2011), Wasim Zahid: Et lettelsens sukk
- Espen Løkeland-Stai, Sturla Smari Hanssen (21 March 2012). "Dagsavisen: "Kom dere tilbake dit dere kommer fra"". Dagsavisen.no. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- Norway police chief quits over Breivik report
- John Hooper in Rome (27 July 2011). "Ex-Berlusconi minister defends Anders Behring Breivik". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Italy MEP backs ideas of Norway killer Breivik". BBC. 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- "FPÖ kicks out MP for Norway killing theories". Austrian Independent. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- Olof Svensson, Josefin Karlsson (25 July 2011). "Hela Norden hedrade offren med tyst minut". Aftonbladet (in Swedish). Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "More than 200,000 mourn in downtown Oslo". Verdens Gang (in Norwegian). 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "150 000 hedrade terrorns offer" (in Swedish). 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- "Mass rallies for Norway victims". BBC. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
- Nordmenn provosert av Fox News' terrordekning, Aftenposten 26 July 2011 Archived 29 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Norway shooting: Glenn Beck compares dead teenagers to Hitler youth, The Telegraph, 25 July 2011
- Johansen, Per Kristian (25 August 2008). "Frank Aarebrot" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 25 January 2010.
- Glenn Beck sammenligner AUF med Hitlerjugend, Bergens Tidende, 26 July 2011
- Townsend, Mark (25 July 2011). "Norway shootings: July 25 as it happened". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- VG – Rekordstor interesse for platen «Mitt Lille Land» Archived 18 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Morén, Anette (2 April 2016). "Snu nå, skrinlegg Sørbråten". Klassekampen. p. 37.
- No shame in turning around!
- Karin Moe (2016-03-31). "Minnesåret 22. juli". Klassekampen. p. 23.
- 15/9-14: Motstand i Hole kommunestyre mot det nasjonale minnestedet på Sørbråten sender saken tilbake til staten
- Meyer, Alexander (2016-04-01). "Kintsugiteknikk på Sørbråten". Klassekampen. p. 19.
- The Utøya Memorial: The time it takes - the doubts we have
- Mayor wanted to support the neighbors Utøya fight against the government. - I am disappointed
- Psykososiale konsekvenser av nasjonalt minnesmerke i Hole kommune [Psych. social consequences of a national monument in the municipality of Hole]
- Johannes Block Hellum (16 April 2016). "Minnesmerket". Klassekampen. p. 56.
- Jonas Brække (16 April 2016). "Tror seier er mulig". Klassekampen. p. 5.
- Mayor: - It is a symbolic support
- "Vil ikke opplyse navnet til Breiviks forsvarer" (in Norwegian). NO: Adresseavisen/NTB. 23 July 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2011.
- "Politiet ber om lukkede dører". nrk.no. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Kjennelse – Lukking av dører" (PDF). domstolen.no. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 November 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- "Anders Behring Breivik varetektsfengsles i åtte uker". Vgtv.no. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 25 January 2012.
- "Breivik risikerer 30 års fengsel – Lov og rett – E24". E24.no. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Krevde politiet skulle hente uniformen før rettsmøtet – VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. 25 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Terrorsiktet fengslet i åtte uker – Lov og rett – E24". E24.no. 25 July 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Her skal Breivik sitte i isolasjon – VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. 27 July 2011. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Back to the scene of his slaughter: Norwegian massacre gunman Breivik in macabre reconstruction as police take him back to island where he killed 69". Daily Mail (London). 15 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2011.
- "Massedrapsmannen tilbake på Utøya lørdag – VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. Archived from the original on 1 September 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Politiet om Breivik på Utøya: – Viste ikke uttrykk for anger – VG Nett om Terrorangrepet 22. juli". Vg.no. Archived from the original on 9 September 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2011.
- "Terrorrettssaken starter 16. april" [The court trial begins 16 April]. NRK (in Norwegian). 14 November 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012.
- Skogrand, Merete; Steen, Thea (14 March 2012). "Kristopher Schau skal dekke Breivik-rettssaken" [Kristopher Schau skal to cover Breivik trial]. Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 14 March 2012.
- Anders Behring Breivik: Norway court finds him sane
- "Norway Retail Giant Dropping Many Titles/Toys in Response to Oslo Attacks". Retrieved 31 July 2011.
- Aalborg, Berit Strøyer; Nordby, Kristin Jonassen; Hoel, Yasmin Sunde (26 July 2011). "Ungdomspartiene merker stor pågang etter tragedien". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 26 July 2011.
- Berge, Jørgen (9 August 2011). "900 til Erna – 767 til Siv". Nettavisen (in Norwegian). Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Heszlein-Lossius, Hanne (31 August 2011). "6200 nye i Ap etter Utøya". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian). Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Medlems-boom for høyreekstreme". TV 2 (in Norwegian). 18 August 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2011.
- Meland, Astrid; Brustad, Line (25 August 2011). "- Blir årets hendelse". Dagbladet (in Norwegian). Retrieved 3 September 2011.
- "Norway local elections: Breivik's old party suffers". BBC. 13 September 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2011.
- "Report blasts police response to Norway massacre". The Globe and Mail (Toronto). 13 August 2012. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
- "Norway police chief quits over Breivik report". BBC News Europe. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 25 August 2012.
- "Norway election: Terror survivors run for parliament". BBC News. 8 September 2013.
- Valestrand, Terje (29 January 2013). "Tidligere AUF-leder skriver bok om "terroristreiret" Utøya". Bergens Tidende (in Norwegian).
- Kristina Furnes, Nils-Ove Støbakk (29 January 2013). "- AUFs Palestina-aktivisme åpnet for terror på Utøya". Dagen (in Norwegian).
- "Breivikův sympatizant hromadil v bytě zbraně jako nepříčetný, léčí se" [Breivik's sympathizer was hoarding guns in a flat due to insanity, he is undergoing a treatment]. Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech). 2 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2013.
- "Ostravák chystal teroristický útok. Jeho vzorem je Breivik [Man from Ostrava was preparing terrorist attack. He was admirer of Breivik.]" (in Czech). nova.cz. 18 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Ostravská policie obvinila "českého Breivika". Chystal se odpálit bombu [The police has charged "Czech Breivik". He was preparing to set of a bomb.]". Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech). 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Pyrotechnici v Ostravě při prohlídce bytu našli munici a zbraně [Bomb disposal experts found ammunition and guns while searching a flat in Ostrava.]" (in Czech). denik.cz. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Na výbušninách ujíždí, ale terorista není, míní známí "českého Breivika"" [He is crazy for explosives, but not an terrorist, the acquaintances of the "Czech Breivik" believe]. Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech). 20 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- "Policie dopadla českého Breivika, zajistila funkční nálož a zbraně [Police caught Czech Breivik and seized functional bomb and firearms.]" (in Czech). denik.cz. 10 August 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2012.
- "Ostravský Breivik může ohrozit své okolí, bude v izolaci [Breivik from Ostrava poses danger, he will be held in isolation]" (in Czech). nova.cz. 20 August 2012. Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- ""Breivik popełnił błędy, ja będę lepszy". Jak ABW wpadła na trop Brunona K. [Breivik made mistakes, I will be better – How ABW caught Brunon K.]" (in Czech). tvn24.pl. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "Chemik zafascynowany Breivikiem [A chemist fascinated by Breivik]". Rzeczpospolita (in Polish). 21 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "Mimicking Breivik in Poland". Stratfor. 29 November 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
- "Polsko zmařilo atentát na Sejm. Vědec chtěl odpálit 4 tuny výbušnin [Poland foiled an attack against the Sejm. A scientist wanted to detonate 4 tonnes of explosives]". Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech). 20 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "Niedoszły zamachowiec wpadł przez Breivika [Failed attacker was caught thanks to Breivik]" (in Polish). wprost.pl. 20 November 2012. Retrieved 24 November 2012.
- "Brunon K. uczył się o ładunkach, eksperymentował na mostach [Brunon K. studied explosives, experimented on bridges]". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). 20 November 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012.
- "Monika Olejnik i Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz na celowniku Brunona K. [Monika Olejnik and Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz also targeted by Brunon K.]". Gazeta Wyborcza (in Polish). 28 November 2012. Retrieved 28 November 2012.
- Borchgrevink, Aage Storm, and Guy Puzey. A Norwegian Tragedy: Anders Behring Breivik and the Massacre on Utøya. 2013. ISBN 9780745672205 (translated from the Norwegian)
- Seierstad, Åsne, and Sarah Death. One of us: the story of Anders Breivik and the massacre in Norway. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2015. ISBN 9780374277895 (translated from the Norwegian)
- Turrettini, Unni, and Kathleen M. Puckett. The Mystery of the Lone Wolf Killer: Anders Behring Breivik and the Threat of Terror in Plain Sight. New York: Pegasus Crime, 2015. ISBN 9781605989105
- Stor eksplosjon i Oslo sentrum, Aftenposten, News report in Norwegian, with pictures.
- Allvarligt bombattentat skakar Oslo, Sveriges Radio, News report in Swedish, with pictures.
- 2011 Norway attacks collected news and commentary at The Guardian
- Norway – Breivik Attacks, July 2011 collected news and commentary at The New York Times
- Victims from the atacks in Oslo and at Utøya (Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation)
- Oslo Terrorist Attacks – Terrorism with a different face, in a different place
- Rapport fra 22. juli-kommisjonen (Official report)