2011 Tour de France
|2011 UCI World Tour, race 17 of 27|
|Route of the 2011 Tour de France|
|Distance||3,630 km (2,256 mi)|
|Winning time||86h 12′ 22″|
|Winner||Cadel Evans (AUS)||(BMC Racing Team)|
|Second||Andy Schleck (LUX)||(Leopard Trek)|
|Third||Fränk Schleck (LUX)||(Leopard Trek)|
|Points||Mark Cavendish (GBR)||(HTC–Highroad)|
|Mountains||Samuel Sánchez (ESP)||(Euskaltel–Euskadi)|
|Youth||Pierre Rolland (FRA)||(Team Europcar)|
The 2011 Tour de France was the 98th edition of the race. It started on 2 July at the Passage du Gois and ended on the Champs-Élysées in Paris on 24 July. The cyclists competed in 21 stages over 23 days, covering a distance of 3,630 kilometres (2,260 mi). The route entered Italy for part of two stages. The emphasis of the route was on the Alps, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the mountain range first being visited in the Tour.
Cadel Evans of the BMC Racing Team won the general classification, having gained the lead in a time trial on the penultimate day. He became the first Australian to win the race, and at 34, the oldest post-World War II winner. The de facto winner of the previous edition, Andy Schleck of Leopard Trek, was second, with his brother and teammate Fränk Schleck third. HTC–Highroad's Mark Cavendish was the first British winner of the points classification, Samuel Sánchez (Euskaltel–Euskadi) won the mountains classification and Pierre Rolland of Team Europcar won the young rider classification. The team classification was won by Garmin–Cervélo and the overall super-combativity award was given to Jérémy Roy (FDJ).
- 1 Teams
- 2 Pre-race favourites
- 3 Route and stages
- 4 Race overview
- 5 Classification leadership
- 6 Final standings
- 7 UCI World Tour rankings
- 8 Notes and references
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Twenty-two teams participated in the 2011 edition of the Tour de France. All eighteen UCI ProTeams were entitled, and obliged, to enter the race. On 19 January 2011, the organiser of the Tour, Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), announced the four second-tier UCI Professional Continental teams given wildcard invitations, all of which were French-based. One team, the Spanish-based Geox–TMC, which included the third-placed rider in the 2010 Tour, Denis Menchov, and the 2008 Tour winner, Carlos Sastre, was overlooked. The presentation of the teams – where the members of each team's roster are introduced in front of the media and local dignitaries – took place in front of audience of 7,000 inside the Roman amphitheatre at the Puy du Fou theme park in Les Epesses, Vendée, on 30 June, two days before the opening stage.
The number of riders allowed per squad was nine, resulting in a start list total of 198 riders. Of these, 49 were riding the Tour de France for the first time. The total number of riders that finished the race was 169. The riders came from 30 countries; France, Spain, Italy, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands and United States all had 12 or more riders in the race. Riders from ten countries won stages during the race; British riders won the largest number of stages, with five. The average age of riders in the race was 29.38 years, ranging from the 21-year-old Anthony Delaplace (Saur–Sojasun) to the 39-year-old Jens Voigt (Leopard Trek). Of the total average ages, FDJ was the youngest team and Team RadioShack the oldest.
The teams entering the race were:
UCI Professional Continental teams
In the lead up to the Tour, Alberto Contador (Saxo Bank–SunGard) was widely considered as the top pre-race favourite for the general classification. His closest rivals were thought to be Andy Schleck (Leopard Trek) and Cadel Evans (BMC Racing Team), and the riders considered outsiders were Bradley Wiggins (Team Sky), Ivan Basso (Liquigas–Cannondale), Robert Gesink (Rabobank), Samuel Sanchez (Euskaltel–Euskadi), Chris Horner (Team RadioShack), Fränk Schleck (Leopard Trek) and Jurgen Van Den Broeck (Omega Pharma–Lotto).
In September 2010, Contador, winner of the 2008 and 2009 Tours, announced that he had tested positive for the banned clenbuterol from a sample taken during his now-disqualified 2010 Tour victory. He was suspended from racing during an investigation until February 2011. When cleared to race he competed in and won the general classifications of the Vuelta a Murcia, Volta a Catalunya and Giro d'Italia before the Tour. With overall victory in the Tour he was aiming to complete the Giro-Tour double, last achieved by Marco Pantani in the 1998 Tour. Schleck had placed second to Contador in the previous two Tours and won the young rider classification in the previous three. In the lead up to the Tour his best results were third in the one-day race Liège–Bastogne–Liège and the mountains classification of the Tour de Suisse. Evans, podium finisher in the 2007 and 2008 Tours, had a successful season before the Tour, winning the general classifications of both the Tour de Romandie and Tirreno–Adriatico, as well as second place in the Critérium du Dauphiné.
The sprinters considered favourites for the points classification and wins on the flat or hilly bunch sprint finishes were Mark Cavendish (HTC–Highroad), Philippe Gilbert (Omega Pharma–Lotto) and Garmin–Cervélo riders Tyler Farrar and Thor Hushovd.
Route and stages
On 26 January 2010, the race director, Christian Prudhomme, announced that the department of Vendée would host the 2011 edition's opening race stages (known as the Grand Départ). It was the fifth time Vendée had hosted the Grand Départ, which consisted of two stages. The entire route was announced by the ASO on 19 October 2010 at the official presentation at the Palais des Congrès in Paris. The route was was thought to suit a climbing specialists, with Prudhomme saying "We wanted a balanced route. We tried to keep the suspense for the Alps but also to have a big battle as early as the Pyrenees,". To celebrated the centenary of the introduction of the Alps into the Tour, it featured two of it's most famous climbs, the Col du Galibier and Alpe d'Huez, with the Galibier climbed twice.
The first of the two stages held in Vendée started in Passage du Gois and finished in Mont des Alouettes, whilst stage two was held in Les Essarts. The Tour left Vendée in Olonne-sur-Mer and headed north to Redon for the finish of the third stage. The following two stages took place in the region of Brittany. Stage six left the region to the finish in Lisieux. Stages seven and eight took the race through the middle of the country from Le Mans to the Super Besse resort in the elevated region Massif Central, which hosted stage nine. The following two stages headed south through the lower slopes, and stage twelve took the race into the Pyrenees. The mountain range hosted the next two stages. The fifteenth stage took place between Limoux and Montpellier. Stage sixteen took the route into the Alps. The next two stages took the race into Italy, with Pinerolo hosting between them. Stage nineteen was the last in the Alps, before the twentieth, which was held in the foothills around Grenoble. A long transfer took the Tour to it's conclusion in Paris with the Champs-Élysées stage.
There were 21 stages in the race, covering a total distance of 3,630 km (2,256 mi), 12 km (7.5 mi) shorter than the 2010 Tour. For only the second time since the 1967 Tour, the race started with a mass-start stage instead of a prologue, the last occasion being in 2008. The longest mass-start stage was the seventh at 218 km (135 mi), and stage 21 was the shortest at 95 km (59 mi). The race featured only 65.5 km (40.7 mi) of time trialling, with stage two's team time trial and stage twenty's individual time trial. Of the remaining stages, ten were officially classified as flat, three as medium mountain and six as high mountain. There were four summit finishes: stage 12, to Luz Ardiden; stage 14, to Plateau de Beille; stage 18, to Col du Galibier-Serre Chevalier; and stage 19, to Alpe d'Huez. It was the first time a stage had finished on the 2,645-metre (8,678 ft)-high Galibier. It was the highest summit finish in Tour history, beating the finish of the 2,413 metres (7,917 ft)-high Col du Granon during the 1986 Tour. The highest point of the race was the 2,744 m (9,003 ft)-high Col Agnel mountain pass on stage 18. There were fifteen new stage start or finish locations. The rest days were after stage 9, at the Le Lioran mountain resort, and after 15, in the department of Drôme.
|1||2 July||Passage du Gois to Mont des Alouettes||191.5 km (119 mi)||Flat stage||Philippe Gilbert (BEL)|
|2||3 July||Les Essarts||23.0 km (14 mi)||Team time trial||Garmin–Cervélo|
|3||4 July||Olonne-sur-Mer to Redon||198.0 km (123 mi)||Flat stage||Tyler Farrar (USA)|
|4||5 July||Lorient to Mûr-de-Bretagne||172.5 km (107 mi)||Flat stage||Cadel Evans (AUS)|
|5||6 July||Carhaix to Cap Fréhel||164.5 km (102 mi)||Flat stage||Mark Cavendish (GBR)|
|6||7 July||Dinan to Lisieux||226.5 km (141 mi)||Flat stage||Edvald Boasson Hagen (NOR)|
|7||8 July||Le Mans to Châteauroux||218.0 km (135 mi)||Flat stage||Mark Cavendish (GBR)|
|8||9 July||Aigurande to Super Besse||189.0 km (117 mi)||Medium mountain stage||Rui Costa (POR)|
|9||10 July||Issoire to Saint-Flour||208.0 km (129 mi)||Medium mountain stage||Luis León Sánchez (ESP)|
|11 July||Le Lioran||Rest day|
|10||12 July||Aurillac to Carmaux||158.0 km (98 mi)||Flat stage||André Greipel (GER)|
|11||13 July||Blaye-les-Mines to Lavaur||167.5 km (104 mi)||Flat stage||Mark Cavendish (GBR)|
|12||14 July||Cugnaux to Luz Ardiden||211.0 km (131 mi)||High mountain stage||Samuel Sánchez (ESP)|
|13||15 July||Pau to Lourdes||152.5 km (95 mi)||High mountain stage||Thor Hushovd (NOR)|
|14||16 July||Saint-Gaudens to Plateau de Beille||168.5 km (105 mi)||High mountain stage||Jelle Vanendert (BEL)|
|15||17 July||Limoux to Montpellier||192.5 km (120 mi)||Flat stage||Mark Cavendish (GBR)|
|18 July||Drôme||Rest day|
|16||19 July||Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux to Gap||162.5 km (101 mi)||Medium mountain stage||Thor Hushovd (NOR)|
|17||20 July||Gap to Pinerolo (Italy)||179.0 km (111 mi)||High mountain stage||Edvald Boasson Hagen (NOR)|
|18||21 July||Pinerolo (Italy) to Col du Galibier-Serre Chevalier||200.5 km (125 mi)||High mountain stage||Andy Schleck (LUX)|
|19||22 July||Modane to Alpe d'Huez||109.5 km (68 mi)||High mountain stage||Pierre Rolland (FRA)|
|20||23 July||Grenoble||42.5 km (26 mi)||Individual time trial||Tony Martin (GER)|
|21||24 July||Créteil to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||95.0 km (59 mi)||Flat stage||Mark Cavendish (GBR)|
|Total||3,630 km (2,256 mi)|
Classics specialist Philippe Gilbert took the first yellow jersey, winning the opening stage in the Vendée, but on the second day Garmin–Cervélo were the fastest on the team time trial, allowing Thor Hushovd to take the race leadership, which he retained for seven days. The first week and a half was notable for the number of crashes involving high-profile riders, with Andreas Klöden, Bradley Wiggins, Alexander Vinokourov, Janez Brajkovič, Chris Horner and Jurgen Van den Broeck all having to withdraw injured, while Robert Gesink, Alberto Contador, Samuel Sánchez and Levi Leipheimer all lost considerable amounts of time and condition due to falls. There was controversy when Nicki Sørensen was struck by a motorbike carrying a photographer, and Johnny Hoogerland and Juan Antonio Flecha were injured after an incident with a television car. A breakaway on stage nine saw Thomas Voeckler gain the overall lead, which he kept, contrary to expectation, through the Pyrenean and all but one of the Alpine stages, and for ten racing days in total.
The key time differences between the riders who eventually took the top three places in the general classification, Cadel Evans of BMC Racing Team, Luxembourger Andy Schleck, and his older brother and Leopard Trek teammate Fränk, occurred on stage 16, when Evans gained 21 seconds on Fränk Schleck and 1'09" on Andy on the descent to Gap in wet conditions; stage 18, when a 60 km breakaway by Andy Schleck gave him an advantage of more than two minutes at the highest stage finish in tour history at the Col du Galibier; and on the penultimate day, when Evans came second in a time trial and beat the Luxembourgish pair by more than two and a half minutes to secure victory. Both Andy Schleck and Evans wore the yellow jersey for only one day each: Schleck for the time trial, and Evans on the final, largely ceremonial, stage in Paris.
The stages that were suited to sprint finishes were dominated by Manx sprinter Mark Cavendish, who won five stages, including a record third successive victory on the final stage on the Avenue des Champs-Élysées in Paris. In doing so, he won the points category, ahead of José Joaquín Rojas and Philippe Gilbert, becoming the first British rider to claim the maillot vert.
The mountains category was won by Spaniard Samuel Sánchez, who had a win and two second places on the four mountain-top finishes. Andy Schleck finished second in that category, with Belgian Jelle Vanendert third.
Pierre Rolland won the young riders category, largely by virtue of positions he attained in supporting his team leader, Voeckler, during the time he held the yellow jersey, but he also earned a stage win on the prestigious climb to Alpe d'Huez.
During the Tour's first rest day, it was announced that Alexandre Kolobnev's (Team Katusha) urine sample taken after the fifth stage had tested positive for the diuretic medication hydrochlorothiazide. Although it was listed by the World Anti-Doping Agency as prohibited, cycling's governing body, Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), only released a statement advising his team "take the necessary steps to enable the Tour de France to continue in serenity...". He withdrew from the race immediately. On 1 March 2012, CAS decided that Kolobnev would only receive a warning for this, and no suspension, because his use of the drug was justified by 'medical reasons unrelated to performance'.
On 6 February 2012, CAS removed Alberto Contador's results due to his positive test for clenbuterol at the 2010 Tour. The UCI subsequently revised the final general classification, with riders ranked between 6 and 21 upgraded, and the 21st position left unattributed.
On 18 October 2012, the UCI announced that a disciplinary procedure against Carlos Barredo (Rabobank) was taken following anomalies in his biological passport. He retired from cycling in December 2012. In July 2014, his results were disqualified from races in which he participated between 26 October 2007 and 24 September 2011, with his 35th position on the 2011 Tour's general classification left vacant.
There were four main individual classifications contested in the 2012 Tour de France, as well as a team competition. The most important was the general classification, which was calculated by adding each rider's finishing times on each stage. There were no time bonuses given at the end of stages for this edition of the Tour. If a crash had happened within the final 3 km (1.9 mi) of a stage, not including time trials and summit finishes, the riders involved would have received the same time as the group they were in when the crash occurred. The rider with the lowest cumulative time was the winner of the general classification and was considered the overall winner of the Tour. The rider leading the classification wore a yellow jersey.
|Medium mountain stage||30||25||22||19||17||15||13||11||9||7||6||5||4||3||2|
|High mountain stage||20||17||15||13||11||10||9||8||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
|Individual time trial||20||17||15||13||11||10||9||8||7||6||5||4||3||2||1|
The second classification was the points classification. Riders received points for finishing among the highest placed in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints during the stage. The points available for each stage finish were determined by the stage's type. In the 2010 Tour, stages classified flat had three intermediate sprint points worth 6, 4, and 2 points to the first three riders across the line. For 2011, flat stages had just one intermediate sprint which was worth 20 points to the rider in first position, and the first 15 score points. The intention was to have riders needing to sprint twice during the day to score well. Points awarded at the finish of flat stages also increased, from 35 points for the winner to 45. Medium mountain stages awarded 30 points to the winner, high mountain stages and the individual time trial gave 20 points. No points were awarded for the team time trial on stage two. The leader was identified by a green jersey.
The third classification was the mountains classification. Points were awarded to the riders that reached the summit of the most difficult climbs first. The climbs were categorised as fourth-, third-, second-, first-category and hors catégorie (English: beyond category), with the more difficult climbs rated lower. In the 2010 Tour, any hors catégorie, first-, or second-category climb awarded double points if it was the last of the stage. In 2011, only the summit stage finishes awarded double points, specifically stages 12, 14, 18 and 19. Pre-race analysis speculated that the winner would be more likely, under this system, to be a general classification contender than in years past. This speculation proved accurate, as Samuel Sánchez, who finished sixth in the general classification, won the mountains classification, and the top three finishers in the general classification were in the top five of the mountains classification. The leader wore a white jersey with red polka dots.
The final individual classification was the young rider classification. This was calculated the same way as the general classification, but the classification was restricted to riders who were born on or after 1 January 1988. The leader wore a white jersey.
The final classification was a team classification. This was calculated using the finishing times of the best three riders per team on each stage, excluding the team time trial; the leading team was the team with the lowest cumulative time. The number of stage victories and placings per team determined the outcome of a tie. The riders in the team that lead this classification were identified with yellow number bibs on the back of their jerseys.
In addition, there was a combativity award given after each stage to the rider considered, by a jury, to have "made the greatest effort and who has demonstrated the best qualities of sportsmanship". No combativity awards were given for the time trials and the final stage. The winner wore a red number bib the following stage. At the conclusion of the Tour, Jérémy Roy (FDJ) won the overall super-combativity award, again, decided by a jury.
A total of €3,412,546 was awarded in cash prizes in the race. The overall winner of the general classification received €450,000, with the second and third placed riders got €200,000 and €100,000 respectively. All finishers of the race were awarded with money. The holders of the classifications benefited on each stage they led; the final winners of the points and mountains were given €25,000, while the best young rider and most combative rider got €20,000. Team prizes were available, with €10,000 for the winner of team time trial and €50,000 for the winners of the team classification. There were also two special awards each with a prize of €5000, the Souvenir Henri Desgrange, given to first rider to pass the summit of the highest climb in the Tour, the Col du Galibier in stage eighteen, and the Souvenir Jacques Goddet, given to the first rider to pass Goddet's memorial at the summit of the Col du Tourmalet in stage twelve. Andy Schleck won the Henri Desgrange and Roy won the Jacques Goddet.
- In stage two, Cadel Evans, who was second in the points classification, wore the green jersey, as Philippe Gilbert held the general classification as well as the points classification and the mountains classification. Thor Hushovd, who was third in both the general and points classifications, wore the polka dot jersey.
- In stage three, as Philippe Gilbert held the points classification as well as the mountains classification, Cadel Evans, who was second on the only climb yielding points to that stage, wore the polka dot jersey.
- After stage nine, both Juan Antonio Flecha and Johnny Hoogerland were awarded the red number bib for stage ten. They received the combativity award after stage nine for finishing the stage despite a collision with a television car. Flecha refused to accept the award on the podium after the stage; Hoogerland, having already been up there to receive the polka dot jersey, did take the award.
|Denotes the winner of the general classification||Denotes the winner of the points classification|
|Denotes the winner of the mountains classification||Denotes the winner of the young rider classification|
|Denotes the winner of the team classification||Denotes the winner of the super-combativity award|
|1||Cadel Evans (AUS)||BMC Racing Team||86h 12′ 22″|
|2||Andy Schleck (LUX)||Leopard Trek||+ 1′ 34″|
|3||Fränk Schleck (LUX)||Leopard Trek||+ 2′ 30″|
|4||Thomas Voeckler (FRA)||Team Europcar||+ 3′ 20″|
|5||Samuel Sánchez (ESP)||Euskaltel–Euskadi||+ 4′ 55″|
|6||Damiano Cunego (ITA)||Lampre–ISD||+ 6′ 05″|
|7||Ivan Basso (ITA)||Liquigas–Cannondale||+ 7′ 23″|
|8||Tom Danielson (USA)||Garmin–Cervélo||+ 8′ 15″|
|9||Jean-Christophe Péraud (FRA)||Ag2r–La Mondiale||+ 10′ 11″|
|10||Pierre Rolland (FRA)||Team Europcar||+ 10′ 43″|
|1||Mark Cavendish (GBR)||HTC–Highroad||334|
|2||José Joaquín Rojas (ESP)||Movistar Team||272|
|3||Philippe Gilbert (BEL)||Omega Pharma–Lotto||236|
|4||Cadel Evans (AUS)||BMC Racing Team||208|
|5||Thor Hushovd (NOR)||Garmin–Cervélo||195|
|6||Edvald Boasson Hagen (NOR)||Team Sky||192|
|7||André Greipel (GER)||Omega Pharma–Lotto||160|
|8||Tyler Farrar (USA)||Garmin–Cervélo||127|
|9||Samuel Sánchez (ESP)||Euskaltel–Euskadi||105|
|10||Jérémy Roy (FRA)||FDJ||104|
|1||Samuel Sánchez (ESP)||Euskaltel–Euskadi||108|
|2||Andy Schleck (LUX)||Leopard Trek||98|
|3||Jelle Vanendert (BEL)||Omega Pharma–Lotto||74|
|4||Cadel Evans (AUS)||BMC Racing Team||58|
|5||Fränk Schleck (LUX)||Leopard Trek||56|
|6||Jérémy Roy (FRA)||FDJ||45|
|7||Pierre Rolland (FRA)||Team Europcar||44|
|8||Maxim Iglinskiy (KAZ)||Astana||40|
|9||Johnny Hoogerland (NED)||Vacansoleil–DCM||40|
|10||Sylvain Chavanel (FRA)||Quick-Step||38|
Young rider classification
|1||Pierre Rolland (FRA)||Team Europcar||86h 23′ 05″|
|2||Rein Taaramäe (EST)||Cofidis||+ 46″|
|3||Jérôme Coppel (FRA)||Saur–Sojasun||+ 7′ 53″|
|4||Arnold Jeannesson (FRA)||FDJ||+ 10′ 37″|
|5||Rob Ruijgh (NED)||Vacansoleil–DCM||+ 22′ 21″|
|6||Rigoberto Urán (COL)||Team Sky||+ 32′ 05″|
|7||Geraint Thomas (GBR)||Team Sky||+ 50′ 05″|
|8||Robert Gesink (NED)||Rabobank||+ 54′ 26″|
|9||Cyril Gautier (FRA)||Team Europcar||+ 1h 17′ 00″|
|10||Andrey Zeits (KAZ)||Astana||+ 1h 21′ 05″|
|1||Garmin–Cervélo||258h 18′ 49″|
|2||Leopard Trek||+ 11′ 04″|
|3||Ag2r–La Mondiale||+ 11′ 20″|
|4||Team Europcar||+ 41′ 53″|
|5||Euskaltel–Euskadi||+ 52′ 00″|
|6||Team Sky||+ 58′ 24″|
|7||Team Katusha||+ 1h 09′ 39″|
|8||Saxo Bank–SunGard||+ 1h 16′ 12″|
|9||FDJ||+ 1h 30′ 16″|
|10||Cofidis||+ 1h 47′ 29″|
UCI World Tour rankings
The race was the seventeenth of the twenty-seven events in the UCI World Tour, with riders from the ProTeams competing individually for points that contributed towards the rankings. Points were awarded to the top twenty finishers in the general classification and to the top five finishers in each stage. The 260 points accrued by Cadel Evans moved him from fourth position to second in the individual ranking. Leopard Trek took the lead of the team ranking, ahead of BMC Racing Team in second. Spain remained as leaders of the nations ranking, with Italy second.
|1||4||Cadel Evans (AUS)||BMC Racing Team||574|
|3||1||Philippe Gilbert (BEL)||Omega Pharma–Lotto||402|
|4||3||Michele Scarponi (ITA)||Lampre–ISD||348|
|5||13||Samuel Sánchez (ESP)||Euskaltel–Euskadi||297|
|6||5||Joaquim Rodríguez (ESP)||Team Katusha||288|
|7||19||Fränk Schleck (LUX)||Leopard Trek||262|
|8||36||Andy Schleck (LUX)||Leopard Trek||252|
|9||6||Fabian Cancellara (SUI)||Leopard Trek||250|
|10||7||Alexander Vinokourov (KAZ)||Astana||230|
Notes and references
- On 6 February 2012, the Court of Arbitration for Sport removed Alberto Contador's results from the 2011 Tour for testing positive for clenbuterol in 2010. Contador had originally finished in fifth place, 3' 57" in arrears to Evans. Subsequently, riders ranked between 6 and 21 in the general classification were upgraded by cycling's governing body, Union Cycliste Internationale, with the 21st then left unattributed. In the points classification, Contador was tenth with 105 points, and in the mountains classification Contador was sixth with 51 points.
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- Bacon 2014, p. 244.
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