2011 in paleontology

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2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
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2014

Paleontology or palaeontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because humans have encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2011.

Nematoda[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Formicodiplogaster[2]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Diplogasteridae Nematode, parasite of Azteca genus ants
Type species Formicodiplogaster myrmenema

Lobopods[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Diania cactiformis[3]

Valid

Liu et al.

Lower Cambrian

Maotianshan shale

 China

A lobopodian.

Mureropodia apae

Valid

Gamez Vintaned, Linan, & Zhuravlev

Early Cambrian

Murero

 Spain

A lobopodian.

Siberion lenaicus

Valid

Dzik

Early Cambrian

Sinsk Formation

 Russia

A lobopodian.

Vetulicolians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ooedigera peeli[4]

gen. nov

valid

Zinther, et al.

Early Cambrian

Sirius Passet

 Greenland

earliest known vetulicolian described

Artist's reconstruction

Molluscs[edit]

Arthropods[edit]

Fishes[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Newly named lepospondyls[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Kirktonecta[5]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Clack

Viséan

East Kirkton Quarry

A microsaur.

Tambaroter[6]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Permian

Tambach Formation

An ostodolepid.

Newly named temnospondyls[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acheloma dunni[7]

Species

Valid

  • Polley
  • Reisz

Early Permian

A trematopid.

Calmasuchus[8]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Fortuny
  • Galobart
  • De Santisteban

early-middle Anisian

Catalan basin

A capitosaurian.

Rotaryus[9]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Permian

Tambach Formation

A trematopid.

Rubeostratilia[10]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Bourget
  • Anderson

Early Permian

An amphibamid.

Rubeostratilia texensis.

Newly named lissamphibians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Urupia[11]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Skutschas
  • Krasnolutskii

Bathonian

Itat Formation

A basal stem salamander.

Basal reptiles[edit]

Newly named captorhinids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gansurhinus[12]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Permian

A moradisaurine captorinid.

Newly named basal diapsids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Orovenator[13]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Sakmarian

The oldest and most basal neodiapsid.

Newly named ichthyosaurs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Sveltonectes[14]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Barremian

An ophthalmosaurid.

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named saurosphargids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Sinosaurosphargis[15]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Anisian

Guanling Formation

An incertae sedis.

Newly named sauropterygians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abyssosaurus[16]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Berezin

Late Hauterivian

An aristonectid.

Diandongosaurus[17]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Shang
  • Wu
  • Li

Middle Anisian

Guanling Formation

A relative of nothosauroids.[18]

Dianopachysaurus[19]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Anisian

Guanling Formation

A keichousaurid pachypleurosaur.

Hauffiosaurus tomistomimus[20]

Species

Valid

Early Toarcian

Whitby Limestone Formation

A second species of Hauffiosaurus.

Marmornectes[21]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ketchum
  • Benson

Callovian

Oxford Clay Formation

A pliosaurid.

Westphaliasaurus[22]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Schwermann
  • Sander

Pliensbachian

Höxter district

A plesiosaurid plesiosaur.

Zarafasaura[23]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Maastrichtian

An elasmosaurid plesiosaur.

Newly named lizards[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Brasiliguana[24]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Nava
  • Martinelli

Turonian/Santonian

Adamantina Formation

An iguanian lizard.

Cryptolacerta[25]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Lutetian

Messel pit

An amphisbaenian lizard.

Latoplatecarpus[26]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Konishi
  • Caldwell

Campanian

Pierre Shale Formation
Demopolis Chalk Formation

A plioplatecarpine mosasaur. Its type species is Latoplatecarpus willistoni; "Plioplatecarpus" nichollsae (Cuthbertson et al.., 2007) is a second species of Latoplatecarpus.

Oreithyia[27][28]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Smith

Eocene (Chadronian)

A member of Corytophanidae. The type species is Oreithyia oaklandi.

Plesioplatecarpus[26]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Konishi
  • Caldwell

Middle Coniacian to middle Santonian.

Niobrara Chalk
Eutaw Formation

A plioplatecarpine mosasaur, a new genus for "Clidastes" planifrons (Cope, 1874).

Queironius[27]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Smith

Eocene (Chadronian)

A relative of the desert iguana. The type species is Queironius praelapsus.

Sauropithecoides[27]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

  • Smith

Eocene (Chadronian)

A member of Polychrotidae; a new genus for "Polychrus" charisticus Smith (2006).

Newly named snakes[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Madtsoia pisdurensis[29]

Species

Valid

  • Mohabey
  • Head
  • Wilson

Late Cretaceous

A madtsoiid snake.

Turtles[edit]

Newly named turtles[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Albertwoodemys[30]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Oligocene

Jebel Qatrani Formation

A podocnemidid.

Brontochelys[30]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Early Miocene

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Shweboemys" gaffneyi.

Cordichelys[30]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Late Eocene

Qasr el-Sagha beds

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Podocnemis" antiqua.

Gilmoremys[31]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Lyson

Maastrichtian

Lance Formation
Hell Creek Formation

A softshell turtle, new genus for "Aspideretes" lancensis (Gilmore, 1928).

Graptemys kerneri[32]

Sp. nov

Valid

  • Ehret & Bourque

Late Pleistocene

An emydid, a species of Graptemys.

Hispaniachelys[33]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Oxfordian

Lorente Formation

A paracryptodire or a basal testudine.

Hoplochelys clark[34]

Species

Valid

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

A kinosternoid, a species of Hoplochelys.

Lapparentemys[30]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Paleocene

Santa Lucía Formation

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Roxochelys" vilavilensis.

Latentemys[30]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Uncertain, possibly Miocene.

Uncertain, possibly Moghara Formation.

A podocnemidid.

Lemurchelys[30]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Early Miocene

Moghara Formation

A podocnemidid.

Mogharemys[30]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Miocene

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Sternothaerus" blanckenhorni.

Oliveremys[35]

Gen. et comb. nov.

Valid

  • Vitek

Eocene

Washakie Formation

A trionychid, a new genus for "Trionyx" uintaensis.

Patagoniaemys[36]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Sterli
  • De la Fuente

Campanian - Maastrichtian

La Colonia Formation

A stem turtle.

Peiropemys[30]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Late Cretaceous

Marília Formation

A podocnemidid.

Pricemys[30]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Late Cretaceous

Marília Formation

A podocnemidid.

Prochelidella cerrobarcinae[37]

Species

Valid

Aptian/Albian

Cerro Barcino Formation

The oldest known chelid, a species of Prochelidella.

Selenemys[38]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Pérez-García
  • Ortega

Upper Kimmeridgian

Lusitanian Basin

A pleurosternid.

Sokatra[39]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Krause

Maastrichtian

Maevarano Formation

A pleurodiran.

Trionyx ikoviensis[40]

Species

Valid

Middle Eocene

A species of Trionyx sensu lato.

Wilburemys[41]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

Late Miocene-Pliocene (Hemphillian-Blancan)

Ellensburg Formation

A member of Emydidae belonging to the subfamily Emydinae. The type species is Wilburemys yakimensis.

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Archeopelta[42]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Desojo
  • Ezcurra
  • Schultz

Late Ladinian/Early Carnian

Santa Maria Formation

A member of Archosauriformes of uncertain phylogenetic placement. Originally classified as a doswelliid, but subsequently argued to be an erpetosuchid archosaur.[43]

Augustaburiania[44]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Sennikov

Early Triassic

Don River Basin

The earliest tanystropheid.

Kyrgyzsaurus[45]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Alifanov
  • Kurochkin

Late Ladinian/Early Carnian

Madygen Formation

The earliest drepanosaurid.

Protanystropheus[44]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Sennikov

Middle - Late Triassic

A tanystropheid, a new genus for "Tanystropheus" antiquus (von Huene, 1905).

Archosaurs[edit]

Synapsids[edit]

Newly named non-mammalian synapsids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Annatherapsidus postum[46]

Sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian.

Basilodon[47]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" woodwardi.

Bridetherium[48]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Clemens

Early Jurassic

A morganucodontan.

Candelariodon[49]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Triassic

Santa Maria Formation

A carnivorous cynodont.

Cryptovenator[50]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Late Gzhelian

Remigiusberg Formation

A sphenacodontid pelycosaur. The type species is Cryptovenator hirschbergeri.

Euptychognathus[47]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" bathyrhynchus.

Euromycter[51]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

Upper Sakmarian - Lower Lopingian

Grès Rouge Group

A large caseid. A new genus for "Casea" rutena.

Gorochovetzia[46]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian.

Keyseria[47]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" benjamini.

Muchia[46]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian.

Paceyodon[48]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Clemens

Early Jurassic

A morganucodontan.

Peramodon[47]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" amalitzkii

Perplexisaurus lepusculus[46]

Species

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Middle Permian

A therocephalian.

Purlovia[46]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian with a short skull.

Ruthenosaurus[51]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Upper Sakmarian - Lower Lopingian

Grès Rouge Group

A large caseid. The type species is Ruthenosaurus russellorum

Syops[47]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" vanhoepeni.

Tiarajudens[52]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Capitanian

Rio do Rasto Formation

A basal, saber-toothed herbivorous anomodont. The type species is Tiarajudens eccentricus.

Mammals[edit]

Plants[edit]

Angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Palmoxylon lametaei[53]

Species

Valid

  • Dutta
  • Ambwani
  • Estrada-Ruiz

Maastrichtian

Lameta Formation

Leefructus[54]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

A basal eudicot

Gymnosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Qataniaria[55]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Krassilov
  • Schrank

Albian

Hatira Formation

Cariria[56]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Kunzmann, Mohr, Wilde & Bernardes-de-Oliveira

Aptian

Crato Formation

Pteridophytes[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Equisetum thermale[57]

sp. nov

Valid

Channing, Zamuner, Edwards, & Guido

Callovian - Tithonian

La Matilde Formation

 Argentina

oldest crown group Equisetum species

Footnotes[edit]

Complete author list[edit]

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Henrici, Martens, Berman, Sumida.
  2. ^ Berman, Henrici, Martens, Sumida, Anderson
  3. ^ Reisz, Liu, Li, Müller.
  4. ^ Fischer, Masure, Arkhangelsky, Godefroit.
  5. ^ Li, Rieppel, Wu, Zhao, Wang.
  6. ^ Liu, Rieppel, Jiang, Aitchison, Motani, Zhang, Zhou, Sun.
  7. ^ Benson, Ketchum, Noè, Gómez-Pérez.
  8. ^ Vincent, Bardet, Suberbiola, Bouya, Amaghzaz, Meslouh.
  9. ^ Müller, Hipsley, Head, Kardjilov, Hilger, Wuttke, Reisz.
  10. ^ Gaffney, Meylan, Wood, Simons and Campos
  11. ^ Slater, Reolid, Wood, Schouten and Benton
  12. ^ Knauss, Joyce, Lyson and Pearson
  13. ^ de la Fuente, Umazano, Sterli and Carballido
  14. ^ Danilov, Zvonok, Syromyatnikova and Udovichenko
  15. ^ De Oliveira, Schultz, Soares, Rodrigues.
  16. ^ Fröbisch, Schoch, Müller, Schindler, Schweiss.
  17. ^ a b Reisz, Maddin, Fröbisch, Falconnet.
  18. ^ Cisneros, Abdala, Rubidge, Dentzien-Dias, Bueno.
  19. ^ Sun, Dilcher, Wang, Chen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Poinar, G.; Heiss, E. (2011). "New Termitaphididae and Aradidae (Hemiptera) in Mexican and Dominican amber" (PDF). Palaeodiversity. 4: 51–62. 
  3. ^ Liu, J.; Steiner, M.; Dunlop, J. A.; Keupp, H.; Shu, D.; Ou, Q.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. (2011). "An armoured Cambrian lobopodian from China with arthropod-like appendages". Nature. 470 (7335): 526–530. Bibcode:2011Natur.470..526L. doi:10.1038/nature09704. PMID 21350485. 
  4. ^ Vinther, J.; Smith, M. P.; Harper, D. A. T. (2011). "Vetulicolians from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, North Greenland, and the polarity of morphological characters in basal deuterostomes". Palaeontology. 54 (3): 711–719. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01034.x. 
  5. ^ Clack, Jennifer A. (2011). "A new microsaur from the early Carboniferous (Viséan) of East Kirkton, Scotland, showing soft tissue evidence". Special Papers in Palaeontology. 86: 1–11. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01073.x. 
  6. ^ Henrici, A.C.; Martens, T.; Berman, D.S.; Sumida, S.S. (2011). "An ostodolepid 'microsaur' (Lepospondyli) from the Lower Permian Tambach Formation of central Germany". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (5): 997–1004. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.596601. 
  7. ^ Polley, Brendan P.; Reisz, Robert R. (2011). "A new Lower Permian trematopid (Temnospondyli: Dissorophoidea) from Richards Spur, Oklahoma". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 161 (4): 789–815. doi:10.1111/j.1096-3642.2010.00668.x. 
  8. ^ Fortuny, Josep; Galobart, Àngel; De Santisteban, Carles (2011). "A new capitosaur from the Middle Triassic of Spain and the relationships within the Capitosauria" (PDF). Acta Palaeontologica Polonica. 56 (3): 553–66. doi:10.4202/app.2010.0025. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-05-22. 
  9. ^ David S. Berman, Amy C. Henrici, Thomas Martens, Stuart S. Sumida and Jason S. Anderson (2011). "Rotaryus gothae, a New Trematopid (Temnospondyli: Dissorophoidea) from the Lower Permian of Central Germany". Annals of Carnegie Museum. 80 (1): 49–65. doi:10.2992/007.080.0106. 
  10. ^ Bourget, Hélène; Anderson, Jason S. (2011). "A new amphibamid (Temnospondyli: Dissorophoidea) from the Early Permian of Texas". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (1): 32–49. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.539652. 
  11. ^ P.P. Skutschas; S.A. Krasnolutskii (2011). "A new genus and species of basal salamanders from the Middle Jurassic of western Siberia, Russia" (PDF). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 315 (2): 167–175. 
  12. ^ Robert R. Reisz; Jun Liu; Jin-Ling Li; Johannes Müller (2011). "A new captorhinid reptile, Gansurhinus qingtoushanensis, gen. et sp. nov., from the Permian of China". Naturwissenschaften. 98 (5): 435–441. Bibcode:2011NW.....98..435R. doi:10.1007/s00114-011-0793-0. PMID 21484260. 
  13. ^ Robert R. Reisz; Sean P. Modesto; Diane M. Scott (2011). "A new Early Permian reptile and its significance in early diapsid evolution". Proceedings of the Royal Society B. 278 (1725): 3731–3737. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0439. PMC 3203498Freely accessible. PMID 21525061. 
  14. ^ Fischer, V.; Masure, E.; Arkhangelsky, M.S.; Godefroit, P. (2011). "A new Barremian (Early Cretaceous) ichthyosaur from western Russia". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (5): 1010–1025. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.595464. 
  15. ^ Li, Chun; Olivier Rieppel; Xiao-Chun Wu; Li-Jun Zhao; Li-Ting Wang (2011). "A new Triassic marine reptile from southwestern China". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (2): 303–312. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.550368. 
  16. ^ A. Yu. Berezin (2011). "A new plesiosaur of the family Aristonectidae from the early cretaceous of the center of the Russian platform". Paleontological Journal. 45 (6): 648–660. doi:10.1134/S0031030111060037. 
  17. ^ Shang Qing-Hua; Wu Xiao-Chun; Li Chun (2011). "A new eosauropterygian from Middle Triassic of eastern Yunnan Province, southwestern China" (PDF). Vertebrata PalAsiatica. 49 (2): 155–171. doi:10.19615/j.cnki.1000-3118.2011.02.002. 
  18. ^ Tamaki Sato; Yen-Nien Cheng; Xiao-Chun Wu; Hsi-Yin Shan (2013). "Diandongosaurus acutidentatus Shang, Wu & Li, 2011 (Diapsida: Sauropterygia) and the relationships of Chinese eosauropterygians". Geological Magazine. in press: 121–133. doi:10.1017/S0016756813000356. 
  19. ^ Jun Liu; Olivier Rieppel; Da-Yong Jiang; Jonathan C. Aitchison; Ryosuke Motani; Qi-Yue Zhang; Chang-Yong Zhou; Yuan-Yuan Sun (2011). "A new pachypleurosaur (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the lower Middle Triassic of southwestern China and the phylogenetic relationships of Chinese pachypleurosaurs". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (2): 292–302. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.550363. 
  20. ^ Roger B. J. Benson; Hilary F. Ketchum; Leslie F. Noè; Marcela Gómez-Pérez (2011). "New information on Hauffiosaurus (Reptilia, Plesiosauria) based on a new species from the Alum Shale Member (Lower Toarcian: Lower Jurassic) of Yorkshire, UK". Palaeontology. 54 (3): 547–571. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01044.x. 
  21. ^ Hilary F. Ketchum and Roger B. J. Benson (2011). "A new pliosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Oxford Clay Formation (Middle Jurassic, Callovian) of England: evidence for a gracile, longirostrine grade of Early-Middle Jurassic pliosaurids". Special Papers in Palaeontology. 86: 109–129. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01083.x. 
  22. ^ Leonie Schwermann; Martin Sander (2011). "Osteologie und Phylogenie von Westphaliasaurus simonsensii: Ein neuer Plesiosauride (Sauropterygia) aus dem Unteren Jura (Pliensbachium) von Sommersell (Kreis Höxter), Nordrhein-Westfalen, Deutschland [=Osteology and Phylogeny of Westphaliasaurus simonsensii, a new plesiosaurid (Sauropterygia) from the Lower Jurassic (Pliensbachian) of Sommersell (Höxter district), North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany]". Geologie und Paläontologie in Westfalen. 79 (1): 56 pp. ISBN 978-3-940726-14-8. 
  23. ^ Peggy Vincent; Nathalie Bardet; Xabier Pereda Suberbiola; Baâdi Bouya; Mbarek Amaghzaz; Saïd Meslouh (2011). "Zarafasaura oceanis, a new elasmosaurid (Reptilia: Sauropterygia) from the Maastrichtian Phosphates of Morocco and the palaeobiogeography of latest Cretaceous plesiosaurs". Gondwana Research. 19 (4): 1062–1073. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2010.10.005. 
  24. ^ Nava, William R.; Agustín G. Martinelli (2011). "A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group), São Paulo State, Brazil" (PDF). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 83 (1): 291–299. doi:10.1590/S0001-37652011000100017. ISSN 0001-3765. 
  25. ^ Müller, Johannes; Christy A. Hipsley; Jason J. Head; Nikolay Kardjilov; André Hilger; Michael Wuttke; Robert R. Reisz (2011). "Eocene lizard from Germany reveals amphisbaenian origins". Nature. 473 (7347): 364–367. Bibcode:2011Natur.473..364M. doi:10.1038/nature09919. PMID 21593869. 
  26. ^ a b Konishi, Takuya; Michael W. Caldwell (2011). "Two new plioplatecarpine (Squamata, Mosasauridae) genera from the Upper Cretaceous of North America, and a global phylogenetic analysis of plioplatecarpines". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. 31 (4): 754–783. doi:10.1080/02724634.2011.579023. 
  27. ^ a b c Krister T. Smith (2011). "The Evolution of Mid-Latitude Faunas During the Eocene: Late Eocene Lizards of the Medicine Pole Hills Reconsidered". Bulletin of the Peabody Museum of Natural History. 52 (1): 3–105. doi:10.3374/014.052.0101. 
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