2011 in paleontology

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2009
2010
2011
2012
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Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised feces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred or were published in the year 2011.

Nematoda[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Formicodiplogaster[2]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Poinar

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Diplogasteridae Nematode, parasite of Azteca genus ants
Type species Formicodiplogaster myrmenema

Lobopods[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Diania cactiformis[3]

Valid

Liu et al.

Lower Cambrian

Maotianshan shale

 China

A lobopodian.

Mureropodia apae

Valid

Gamez Vintaned, Linan, & Zhuravlev

Early Cambrian

Murero

 Spain

A lobopodian.

Siberion lenaicus

Valid

Dzik

Early Cambrian

Sinsk Formation

 Russia

A lobopodian.

Vetulicolians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Ooedigera peeli[4]

gen. nov

valid

Zinther, et al.

Early Cambrian

Sirius Passet

 Greenland

earliest known vetulicolian described

Artist's reconstruction

Molluscs[edit]

Arthropods[edit]

Arachnids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Nephila jurassica[5][6]

sp nov

jr synonym

Selden, Shih & Ren

Middle Jurassic

Jiulongshan Formation

 China

largest fossil spider described.
syn of Mongolarachne jurassica[6]

Insects[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Agulla protomaculata[7]

sp nov

valid

Engel

Lutetian

Green River Formation

 USA

Only snakefly from the Green River Formation

Anonychomyrma geinitzi[8]

Comb nov

valid

Mayr

Lutetian

Baltic amber

 Europe

Fossil Dolichoderin ant

Arostropsis[9]

Gen et sp nov

valid

Yunakov & Kirejtshuk

Eocene

Baltic amber

 Europe

Monotypic broad-nosed weevil genus, one species A. groehni

Astreptolabis[10]

Subfam, Gen et sp nov

valid

Engel

Albian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

Monotypic earwig subfamily, one species A. ethirosomatia

Baltimartyria rasnitsyni[11]

sp nov

valid

Mey

Lutetian

Baltic amber

 Europe

the second species in Baltimartyria

Deinodryinus velteni[12]

sp nov

Valid

Guglielmino & Olmi

Lutetian

Baltic amber

 Europe

A dryinid wasp.

Diochus electrus[13]

sp nov

valid

Chatzimanolis & Engel

Lutetian

Baltic amber

 Europe

first valid Staphylininae species from the fossil record

Dryinus rasnitsyni[14]

sp nov

valid

Olmi & Guglielmino

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

second fossil Dryinus lamellatus group species

Iberoraphidia[15]

sp nov

valid

Jepsen, Ansorge, & Jarzembowski

Lower Barremian

Serra del Montsec

 Spain

A mesoraphidiid snakefly, one species Iberoraphidia dividua

Lebanoraphidia[16]

sp nov

valid

Bechly & Wolf-Schwenninger

Upper Neocomian

Jezzine

 Lebanon

A mesoraphidiid snakefly, one species Lebanoraphidia nana

Leptolingia calonervis[17]

sp.

Valid

Shi, Liu, & Ren

Middle Jurassic

Jiulongshan Formation

 China

Leptolingia imminuta[18]

sp.

Valid

Liu, Shi, & Ren

Middle Jurassic

Daohugou Beds

 China

the smallest species known in the family Grammolingiidae

Litholingia ptesa[17]

sp.

Valid

Shi, Yang, & Ren

Middle Jurassic

Jiulongshan Formation

 China

Mickoleitia longimanus[19]

ord., fam., gen. et sp.

valid

Staniczek, Bechly, & Godunko

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A new genus in the new family Mickoleitiidae and a new insect order Coxoplectoptera.

Myanmymar[20]

gen et sp nov

valid

Huber

Albian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

oldest mymarid described

Nanotermes[21]

Gen et sp. nov

vaild

Engel & Grimaldi

Ypresian

Cambay amber

 India

A Termitid termite

Ordralfabetix[22]

gen et sp.

valid

Szwedo

Ypresian

Oise amber

 France

Second fossil lophopid planthopper from Europe

Parastylotermes krishnai[21]

Sp. nov

vaild

Engel & Grimaldi

Ypresian

Cambay amber

 India

A Stylotermitid termite

Platyperla marquati[23]

Species

Valid

Gallego et al.

Late Triassic

Potrerillos Formation

 Argentina

A platyperlid stonefly, a species of Platyperla.

Plumalexius[24]

fam, gen et sp.

vaild

Brothers

Turonian

New Jersey amber

 USA

sister genus to Plumariidae

Pristomyrmex rasnitsyni[25]

sp nov

valid

Dlussky & Radchenko

Late Eocene

Scandinavian amber

 Denmark

A fossil ant

Prostylotermes[21]

Gen et sp. nov

vaild

Engel & Grimaldi

Ypresian

Cambay amber

 India

A Stylotermitid termite

Renphasma[26]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Nel & Delfosse

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A stick insect

Termitaradus dominicanus[20]

Sp nov

vaild

Poinar

Burdigalian?

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

A termitaphidid termite bug

Titanomyrma lubei[27]

Gen. et sp.

valid

Archibald, Johnson, Mathewes, & Greenwood

Early Eocene

Green River Formation USA
Messel shales, Germany
Eckfeld Maar, Germany

 USA
 Germany

new genus for the largest known ants

Tytthodiplatys[10]

Gen et sp. nov

Valid

Engel

Albian

Burmese amber

 Myanmar

Oldest member of the family Diplatyidae

Undulopsychopsis[28]

Gen et sp. nov

Valid

Peng, Makarkin, Wang, & Ren

Lower Barremian to Upper Aptian

Yixian Formation

 China

A psychopsid silky lacewing, only species U. alexi

Zophotermes[21]

Gen et sp. nov

vaild

Engel & Singh

Ypresian

Cambay amber

 India

A Rhinotermitid termite

Fishes[edit]

Amphibians[edit]

Newly named lepospondyls[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Kirktonecta[29]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Clack

Viséan

East Kirkton Quarry

A microsaur.

Tambaroter[30]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Permian

Tambach Formation

An ostodolepid.

Newly named temnospondyls[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Acheloma dunni[31]

Species

Valid

  • Polley
  • Reisz

Early Permian

A trematopid.

Calmasuchus[32]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Fortuny
  • Galobart
  • De Santisteban

early-middle Anisian

Catalonian basin

A capitosaurian.

Rotaryus[33]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Permian

Tambach Formation

A trematopid.

Rubeostratilia[34]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Bourget
  • Anderson

Early Permian

An amphibamid.

Rubeostratilia texensis.

Newly named lissamphibians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Urupia[35]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Skutschas
  • Krasnolutskii

Bathonian

Itat Formation

A basal stem salamander.

Anapsids[edit]

Newly named basal anapsids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gansurhinus[36]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Permian

A moradisaurine captorinid.

Newly named turtles[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Albertwoodemys[37]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Oligocene

Jebel Qatrani Formation

A podocnemidid.

Brontochelys[37]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Early Miocene

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Shweboemys" gaffneyi.

Cordichelys[37]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Late Eocene

Qasr el-Sagha beds

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Podocnemis" antiqua.

Gilmoremys[38]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Lyson

Maastrichtian

Lance Formation
Hell Creek Formation

A softshell turtle, new genus for "Aspideretes" lancensis (Gilmore, 1928).

Graptemys kerneri[39]

Sp. nov

Valid

  • Ehret & Bourque

Late Pleistocene

An emydid, a species of Graptemys.

Hispaniachelys[40]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Oxfordian

Lorente Formation

A paracryptodire or a basal testudine.

Hoplochelys clark[41]

Species

Valid

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

A kinosternoid, a species of Hoplochelys.

Lapparentemys[37]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Paleocene

Santa Lucía Formation

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Roxochelys" vilavilensis.

Latentemys[37]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Uncertain, possibly Miocene.

Uncertain, possibly Moghara Formation.

A podocnemidid.

Lemurchelys[37]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Early Miocene

Moghara Formation

A podocnemidid.

Mogharemys[37]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Miocene

A podocnemidid, a new genus for "Sternothaerus" blanckenhorni.

Oliveremys[42]

Gen. et comb. nov.

Valid

  • Vitek

Eocene

Washakie Formation

A trionychid, a new genus for "Trionyx" uintaensis.

Patagoniaemys[43]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Sterli
  • De la Fuente

Campanian - Maastrichtian

La Colonia Formation

A stem turtle.

Peiropemys[37]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Late Cretaceous

Marília Formation

A podocnemidid.

Pricemys[37]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Meylan
  • et al.

Late Cretaceous

Marília Formation

A podocnemidid.

Prochelidella cerrobarcinae[44]

Species

Valid

  • de la Fuente
  • Umazano
  • et al.[CAL 7]

Aptian/Albian

Cerro Barcino Formation

The oldest known chelid, a species of Prochelidella.

Selenemys[45]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Pérez-García
  • Ortega

Upper Kimmeridgian

Lusitanian Basin

A pleurosternid.

Sokatra[46]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Gaffney
  • Krause

Maastrichtian

Maevarano Formation

A pleurodiran.

Trionyx ikoviensis[47]

Species

Valid

Middle Eocene

A species of Trionyx sensu lato.

Wilburemys[48]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Martin
  • Mallory

Late Miocene (Hemphillian)

A relative of emydids. The type species is Wilburemys yakimensis.

Diapsids[edit]

Newly named basal diapsids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Orovenator[49]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Sakmarian

The oldest and most basal neodiapsid.

Newly named ichthyosaurs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Sveltonectes[50]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Barremian

An ophthalmosaurid.

Lepidosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named saurosphargids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Sinosaurosphargis[51]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Anisian

Guanling Formation

An incertae sedis.

Newly named sauropterygians[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Abyssosaurus[52]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Berezin

Late Hauterivian

An aristonectid.

Diandongosaurus[53]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Shang
  • Wu
  • Li

Middle Anisian

Guanling Formation

A relative of nothosauroids.[54]

Dianopachysaurus[55]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Anisian

Guanling Formation

A keichousaurid pachypleurosaur.

Hauffiosaurus tomistomimus[56]

Species

Valid

Early Toarcian

Whitby Limestone Formation

A second species of Hauffiosaurus.

Marmornectes[57]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ketchum
  • Benson

Callovian

Oxford Clay Formation

A pliosaurid.

Westphaliasaurus[58]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Schwermann
  • Sander

Pliensbachian

Höxter district

A plesiosaurid plesiosaur.

Zarafasaura[59]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Maastrichtian

An elasmosaurid plesiosaur.

Newly named lizards[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Brasiliguana[60]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Nava
  • Martinelli

Turonian/Santonian

Adamantina Formation

An iguanian lizard.

Cryptolacerta[61]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Lutetian

Messel pit

An amphisbaenian lizard.

Latoplatecarpus[62]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Konishi
  • Caldwell

Campanian

Pierre Shale Formation
Demopolis Chalk Formation

A plioplatecarpine mosasaur. Its type species is Latoplatecarpus willistoni; "Plioplatecarpus" nichollsae (Cuthbertson et al.., 2007) is a second species of Latoplatecarpus.

Oreithyia[63][64]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Smith

Eocene (Chadronian)

A member of Corytophanidae. The type species is Oreithyia oaklandi.

Plesioplatecarpus[62]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Konishi
  • Caldwell

Middle Coniacian to middle Santonian.

Niobrara Chalk
Eutaw Formation

A plioplatecarpine mosasaur, a new genus for "Clidastes" planifrons (Cope, 1874).

Queironius[63]

Gen. et sp. nov

Valid

  • Smith

Eocene (Chadronian)

A relative of the desert iguana. The type species is Queironius praelapsus.

Sauropithecoides[63]

Gen. et comb. nov

Valid

  • Smith

Eocene (Chadronian)

A member of Polychrotidae; a new genus for "Polychrus" charisticus Smith (2006).

Newly named snakes[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Madtsoia pisdurensis[65]

Species

Valid

  • Mohabey
  • Head
  • Wilson

Late Cretaceous

A madtsoiid snake.

Archosauromorphs[edit]

Newly named basal archosauromorphs[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Archeopelta[66]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Desojo
  • Ezcurra
  • Schultz

Late Ladinian/Early Carnian

Santa Maria Formation

A doswelliid.

Augustaburiania[67]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Sennikov

Early Triassic

Don River Basin

The earliest tanystropheid.

Kyrgyzsaurus[68]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Alifanov
  • Kurochkin

Late Ladinian/Early Carnian

Madygen Formation

The earliest drepanosaurid.

Protanystropheus[67]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Sennikov

Middle - Late Triassic

A tanystropheid, a new genus for "Tanystropheus" antiquus (von Huene, 1905).

Archosaurs[edit]

Synapsids[edit]

Newly named non-mammalian synapsids[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Annatherapsidus postum[69]

Sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian.

Basilodon[70]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" woodwardi.

Bridetherium[71]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Clemens

Early Jurassic

A morganucodontan.

Candelariodon[72]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Middle Triassic

Santa Maria Formation

A carnivorous cynodont.

Cryptovenator[73]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Late Gzhelian

Remigiusberg Formation

A sphenacodontid pelycosaur. The type species is Cryptovenator hirschbergeri.

Euptychognathus[70]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" bathyrhynchus.

Euromycter[74]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

Upper Sakmarian - Lower Lopingian

Grès Rouge Group

A large caseid. A new genus for "Casea" rutena.

Gorochovetzia[69]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian.

Keyseria[70]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" benjamini.

Muchia[69]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian.

Paceyodon[71]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Clemens

Early Jurassic

A morganucodontan.

Peramodon[70]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" amalitzkii

Perplexisaurus lepusculus[69]

Species

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Middle Permian

A therocephalian.

Purlovia[69]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Ivakhnenko

Late Permian

A therocephalian with a short skull.

Ruthenosaurus[74]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Upper Sakmarian - Lower Lopingian

Grès Rouge Group

A large caseid. The type species is Ruthenosaurus russellorum

Syops[70]

Gen. et comb.

Valid

  • Kammerer
  • Angielczyk
  • Fröbisch

Late Permian

A dicynodont. A new genus for "Dicynodon" vanhoepeni.

Tiarajudens[75]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Capitanian

Rio do Rasto Formation

A basal, saber-toothed herbivorous anomodont. The type species is Tiarajudens eccentricus.

Mammals[edit]

Plants[edit]

Angiosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Palmoxylon lametaei[76]

Species

Valid

  • Dutta
  • Ambwani
  • Estrada-Ruiz

Maastrichtian

Lameta Formation

Leefructus[77]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

A basal eudicot

Gymnosperms[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Qataniaria[78]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

  • Krassilov
  • Schrank

Albian

Hatira Formation

Cariria[79]

Gen. et sp.

Valid

Kunzmann, Mohr, Wilde & Bernardes-de-Oliveira

Aptian

Crato Formation

Pteridophytes[edit]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Equisetum thermale[80]

sp. nov

Valid

Channing, Zamuner, Edwards, & Guido

Callovian - Tithonian

La Matilde Formation

 Argentina

oldest crown group Equisetum species

Footnotes[edit]

Complete author list[edit]

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Henrici, Martens, Berman, Sumida.
  2. ^ Berman, Henrici, Martens, Sumida, Anderson
  3. ^ a b Reisz, Liu, Li, Müller.
  4. ^ Gaffney, Meylan, Wood, Simons and Campos
  5. ^ Slater, Reolid, Wood, Schouten and Benton
  6. ^ Knauss, Joyce, Lyson and Pearson
  7. ^ de la Fuente, Umazano, Sterli and Carballido
  8. ^ Danilov, Zvonok, Syromyatnikova and Udovichenko
  9. ^ Fischer, Masure, Arkhangelsky, Godefroit.
  10. ^ Liu, Rieppel, Jiang, Aitchison, Motani, Zhang, Zhou, Sun.
  11. ^ a b Benson, Ketchum, Noè, Gómez-Pérez.
  12. ^ Müller, Hipsley, Head, Kardjilov, Hilger, Wuttke, Reisz.
  13. ^ De Oliveira, Schultz, Soares, Rodrigues.
  14. ^ Fröbisch, Schoch, Müller, Schindler, Schweiss.
  15. ^ a b Reisz, Maddin, Fröbisch, Falconnet.
  16. ^ Cisneros, Abdala, Rubidge, Dentzien-Dias, Bueno.
  17. ^ Sun, Dilcher, Wang, Chen.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gini-Newman, Garfield; Graham, Elizabeth (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 9780070887398. OCLC 46769716. 
  2. ^ Poinar, G.; Heiss, E. (2011). "New Termitaphididae and Aradidae (Hemiptera) in Mexican and Dominican amber" (PDF). Palaeodiversity 4: 51–62. 
  3. ^ Liu, J.; Steiner, M.; Dunlop, J. A.; Keupp, H.; Shu, D.; Ou, Q.; Han, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhang, X. (2011). "An armoured Cambrian lobopodian from China with arthropod-like appendages". Nature 470 (7335): 526–530. Bibcode:2011Natur.470..526L. doi:10.1038/nature09704. PMID 21350485.  edit
  4. ^ Vinther, J.; Smith, M. P.; Harper, D. A. T. (2011). "Vetulicolians from the Lower Cambrian Sirius Passet Lagerstätte, North Greenland, and the polarity of morphological characters in basal deuterostomes". Palaeontology 54 (3): 711–719. doi:10.1111/j.1475-4983.2011.01034.x.  edit
  5. ^ Selden, P. A.; Shih, C.K.; Ren, D. (2011). "A golden orb-weaver spider (Araneae: Nephilidae: Nephila) from the Middle Jurassic of China". Biology Letters 7 (5): 775–8. doi:10.1098/rsbl.2011.0228. PMC 3169061. PMID 21508021. 
  6. ^ a b Selden, P. A.; Shih, C.K.; Ren, D. (2013). "A giant spider from the Jurassic of China reveals greater diversity of the orbicularian stem group". Naturwissenschaften 100: 1171–1181. doi:10.1007/s00114-013-1121-7. 
  7. ^ Engel, Michael S. (2011). "A new snakefly from the Eocene Green River Formation (Raphidioptera: Raphidiidae)". Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science 114 (1-2): 77–87. doi:10.1660/062.114.0107. 
  8. ^ Heterick, B. E.; Shattuck, S. (2011). "Revision of the ant genus Iridomyrmex (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)". Zootaxa 2845: 169. 
  9. ^ Yunakov, N.N.; Kirejtshuk, A.G. (2011). "New genus and species of broad-nosed weevils from Baltic amber and notes on fossils of the subfamily Entiminae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)". ZooKeys 160: 73–96. doi:10.3897/zookeys.160.2108. PMC 3253632. PMID 22303121. 
  10. ^ a b Engel, M.S. (2011). "New earwigs in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar (Dermaptera, Neodermaptera)". ZooKeys 130: 137–152. doi:10.3897/zookeys.130.1293. 
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