2012–13 Australian region cyclone season

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2012–13 Australian region cyclone season
Season summary map
First system formed 18 December 2012
Last system dissipated 25 June 2013
Strongest storm Narelle – 930 hPa (mbar), 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-minute sustained)
Tropical lows 18
Tropical cyclones 10
Severe tropical cyclones 4
Total fatalities 20 total
Total damage $2.5 billion (2013 USD)
Australian region tropical cyclone seasons
2010–11, 2011–12, 2012–13, 2013–14, 2014–15
Related articles

The 2012–13 Australian region cyclone season was a slightly below average tropical cyclone season event in the ongoing cycle of tropical cyclone formation. It officially started on 1 November 2012, and officially ended on 30 April 2013, despite Cyclone Zane being an active system at the time (it dissipated a day later on 1 May). The regional tropical cyclone operational plan defines a "tropical cyclone year" separately from a "tropical cyclone season"; the "tropical cyclone year" began on 1 July 2012 and ended on 30 June 2013.[1]

The scope of the Australian region is limited to all areas south of the equator, east of 90°E and west of 160°E. This area includes Australia, Papua New Guinea, western parts of the Solomon Islands, East Timor and southern parts of Indonesia. Tropical cyclones in this area are monitored by five Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs): the Australian Bureau of Meteorology in Perth, Darwin, and Brisbane; TCWC Jakarta in Indonesia; and TCWC Port Moresby in Papua New Guinea.[1] The Joint Typhoon Warning Center issues unofficial warnings for the region, designating tropical depressions with the "S" suffix when they form west of 145°E, and the "P" suffix when they form east of 145°E.

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

Tropical cyclone predictions
Region Chance of
above average
Average
number
Actual
activity
Whole 37% 11 10
Western 43% 7 5
North-Western 42% 5 5
Northern 48% 3 2
Eastern 43% 3 4
Southern Pacific 53% 15 5
Western South Pacific 35% 8 4
Eastern South Pacific 55% 11 3
Source:BOM's Seasonal Outlooks for Tropical Cyclones.[2][3]
Region Normal
number
Number
predicted
Actual
activity
GCACIC Whole 12 - 15 12 10/11
GCACIC Western 9 - 10 9 6
GCACIC Eastern 5 - 6 4 5
NIWA 10 9 - 10 8
Sources:[4][5][6]

During each tropical cyclone year, Australia's Bureau of Meteorology National Climate Centre (BoM), the Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre, New Zealand's National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and partners issue seasonal forecasts for the Australian region and its various subregions. Since a tropical cyclone can move through a region, the actual number of tropical cyclones in a region include any that form in or move into a region from another.

Bureau of Meteorology[edit]

In October 2012, ahead of the season starting on 1 November, the BoM issued seasonal forecasts for the whole Australian region, one for each of the subregions Western, North-Western, Northern and Eastern Australia with each one covering the whole tropical cyclone year.[2] For each forecast they took into account, the current neutral ENSO conditions and the near El Nino conditions that had been observed during that summer.[2] For the whole region they predicted that the season would be below average, with a 63% chance that it would be below average and a 37% chance that it would be above average.[2] For the Western region between 90°E and 125°E, the BoM forecast that the area would see activity near to or slightly below the average, with a 43% chance of a below average cyclone activity.[2] For the North-Western subregion between 105°E and 130°E, it was predicted that there was a 58% chance of below average tropical cyclone activity, while TCWC Perth noted that there was a likelihood of two tropical cyclones and one severe tropical cyclone impacting Western Australia.[7] There was no tendency towards an above or below average tropical cyclone season for the Northern Territory which was defined as being between as being 125°E and 142.5°E, while the Eastern region had a 57% chance of having a below average tropical cyclone season.[2]

The BoM also issued seasonal forecasts for the South Pacific region between 142.5°E and 120°W, one for the Western Southern Pacific region between 142.5°E and 165°E and one for the Eastern Southern Pacific region between 165°E and 120°W.[3] They noted that the current neutral ENSO conditions would historically suggest the South Pacific region as a whole would experience near average tropical cyclone activity during the coming season.[3] However, because of the warmer than average sea surface temperatures that were experienced in the central equatorial Pacific during July, August and September 2012, the western Southern Pacific had a 65% chance for average to below average tropical cyclone activity.[3] For the Eastern part of the region the BoM predicted that it had a 55% chance of above average tropical cyclones, while for the overall region, they predicted that the region would experience a near average amount of tropical cyclones with a 53% chance of having an above average number of tropical cyclones.[3]

Others[edit]

During October 2012, the New Zealand National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA) and its partners issued a tropical cyclone outlook, for the South Pacific region between 135°E and 120°W.[4] The outlook predicted that the region would see a near average or slightly above average amount of tropical cyclones with between 9 and 12 systems predicted to develop or move into the region.[4] NIWA also predicted that countries west of the International Date Line, including Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and Fiji were likely to experience an average to slightly above normal risk of a tropical cyclone.[4]

During December 2012, the Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre (GCACIC), issued a seasonal forecast for the whole basin and one each for the regions to the east and west of 135°E.[5] This season the GCACIC predicted that tropical cyclone activity in the entire Australian region and the western Australian region was likely to be near-normal and predicted 12 and 9 tropical cyclone respectively.[5] For the eastern Australian region, the GCAIC predicted that tropical cyclone activity would be below average and only predicted 4 tropical cyclones to develop.[5]

Seasonal summary[edit]

Cyclone Rusty Cyclone Oswald Cyclone Narelle Tropical cyclone scales#Comparisons across basins

Storms[edit]

Tropical Cyclone Mitchell[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 27 December – 1 January
Peak intensity 75 km/h (45 mph) (10-min)  990 mbar (hPa)

On 27 December, a tropical low developed within a monsoon trough about 805 km (500 mi) north-northwest of Karratha.[8] The following day, a significant central dense overcast developed over the low and banding features began forming to the northwest of the center.[9] Development was further aided by an anticyclone situated just to the east, providing dual outflow channels.[10] Later on 28 December, the JTWC classified the system as a tropical storm as the banding features consolidated around the low's center and a scatterometer pass revealed winds of 55 to 65 km/h (35 to 40 mph). Some intensification was expected as the storm tracked generally southward along the edge of a subtropical ridge before moving over cooler waters.[11] On 29 December, TCWC Perth classified the system as Tropical Cyclone Mitchell, the first named storm in the western region for the season. The storm ultimately attained peak winds of 75 km/h (45 mph) and a pressure of 990 mb (hPa; 29.23 inHg) before weakening below tropical cyclone strength on 30 December. The system persisted for two more days off the coast of Western Australia before dissipating well to the west of Perth on 1 January 2013.[8]

Tropical Cyclone Freda[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 29 December (Entered basin) – 29 December (Exited basin)
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  976 mbar (hPa)

On 26 December, the Fiji Meteorological Service began monitoring a tropical depression that formed roughly 295 km (185 mi) northeast of the Solomon Islands.[12] Although outside the Bureau of Meteorology's area of responsibility, special bulletins were issued on the system due to its proximity to the Solomon Islands.[13] Tracking along the northwestern edge of a subtropical ridge, the system moved generally southwestward and intensified. Following a significant increase in overall organization on 28 December, the system was upgraded to a tropical cyclone and given the name Freda.[14] After turning more southwesterly, the system crossed 160°E on 29 December and entered the Australian cyclone region. At this time, Freda was a Category 2 cyclone with winds of 100 km/h (65 mph) and a pressure of 980 mbar (hPa; 28.94 inHg).[15] Shortly after entering the basin, the storm turned south-southeastward and crossed east of 160°E less than six hours later.[16] Over the following 24 hours, the system quickly intensified, ultimately attaining peak winds of 185 km/h (115 mph) on December 30.[17] The cyclone later weakened due to strong wind shear, and struck New Caledonia on 2 January 2013.[18]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Narelle[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 5 January – 15 January
Peak intensity 185 km/h (115 mph) (10-min)  930 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Narelle

On 4 January, a tropical low developed within a monsoon trough over the Timor Sea.[19] Over the following several days, the system gradually tracked westward and intensified, being classified Tropical Cyclone Narelle on 8 January.[20] Turning southward into a region of low wind shear,[21] Narelle intensified into a severe tropical cyclone on 9 January.[20] Over the following two days, the cyclone's structure fluctuated, temporarily featuring an eye, before it maintained its organization and intensified further on 11 January.[22] The storm attained its peak intensity later on 11 January as a Category 4 cyclone with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph).[20] Around the same time, the JTWC assessed Narelle to have been a Category 4-equivalent storm on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane scale with winds of 215 km/h (130 mph).[23] The following day, Narelle passed approximately 330 km (205 mi) northwest of Exmouth as it moved on a south-southwesterly course. The system steadily weakened and ultimately fell below tropical cyclone strength on 15 January well to the west of Geraldton.[20]

Early in the storm's existence, Narelle brought strong winds, heavy rain, and high winds to many areas in Indonesia. More than 10,000 homes were flooded and many others were damaged by thunderstorms.[24][25] A total of 14 people were killed by the storm, and 17 others were listed as missing.[26][27] In Western Australia, scattered strong thunderstorms caused minor damage and produced a possible tornado.[28][29] Moisture from the storm spread into South Australia, producing light rain and bringing relief to areas suffering from a severe drought.[30]

Tropical Cyclone Oswald[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 17 January – 28 January
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  987 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Oswald

On 17 January, an area of low pressure developed over the Gulf of Carpentaria. Situated within a region of low wind shear and high sea surface temperatures, conditions were favorable for gradual development of the system.[31] The following day, TCWC Darwin began monitoring the system as a tropical low.[32] Early on 19 January, the system made landfall southwest of Borroloola.[33] By 20 January, the system completed a clockwise loop before re-emerging into the Gulf of Carpentaria.[34] Once back over water, the system quickly organized and strengthened into a tropical cyclone early on 21 January.[35] Radar imagery from Mornington Island depicted a well-defined low-level circulation with defined banding features wrapping into the center. Situated in a very moist air mass and over the warm waters of the Gulf, some intensification was expected before Oswald struck the Cape York Peninsula.[36] Approximately 12 hours after being named, the storm made its second landfall north of Kowanyama with winds of 65 km/h (40 mph) and the final advisory was issued by TCWC Brisbane.[37] Although over land, the system was able to maintain a defined circulation and gradually reorganized as it moved southwestward. By 23 January, deep convection redeveloped over the circulation and a strong monsoonal flow became established to its north.[38]

Although a relatively weak storm, Oswald produced torrential rains over much of Queensland. Rainfall peaked in Tully where approximately 1,000 mm (39 in) of rain fell, with 632 mm (24.9 in) falling over a 48 hour span. The township of Scherger received a record-breaking 370 mm (15 in) in just 24 hours. These rains caused widespread flooding in the state that shut down many roads and isolated communities. The town of Ingham was completely cut off due to high waters. Residents in the town were advised to stock up on emergency supplies as the Herbert River rose rapidly after 200 mm (7.9 in) of rain fell in the town in just three hours. In Cairns, winds up to 90 km/h (56 mph) left many homes without power and waves up to 4 m (13 ft) prompted the cancellation of most coastal activities. Additionally, a brief tornado or waterspout with winds of 140 km/h (87 mph) touched down near Hay Point.[39] Across the affected region, damage from severe weather and flooding amounted to at least A$2.4 billion (US$2.5 billion).[40] Flooding caused by Oswald has killed at least 6 people in Australia, making it the deadliest cyclone to hit the Australian mainland since Cyclone Rona-Frank in February 1999.[41] The name Oswald was retired and was replaced with Osamu.

Tropical Cyclone Peta[edit]

Category 1 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 20 January – 23 January
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  992 mbar (hPa)

On 20 January, a weak low formed over the Kimberley region of Western Australia.[42] Partially overland, convection persisted mainly on the western half of the low as it took in moisture from the Indian Ocean.[43] Tracking west-southwestward in response to a weak mid-level ridge to the southeast, the system gradually intensified and was designated as Tropical Low 08U later on 21 January by TCWC Perth as it moved offshore.[42][44] Throughout the day, radar imagery from Broome depicted increasing banding features around the low. Following further convective development of the storm, the JTWC issued a TCFA late on 21 January.[45] Approximately 24 hours later, the JTWC followed up on this alert with the first advisory on Tropical Cyclone 12S, classifying it as a tropical depression.[46] Early on 23 January, surface observations from Cape Lambert and Roebourne indicated that the low had attained gale-force winds, prompting TCWC Perth to upgrade the system to Tropical Cyclone Peta; however, the system may not have met the technical definition of a tropical cyclone as gales did not extend more than halfway around the circulation.[47] Upon being named, Peta had turned due south and subsequently made landfall near Point Samson with winds of 75 km/h (45 mph).[42] Hours after moving onshore, Peta rapidly weakened and the final advisory was issued during the afternoon of 23 January.[48]

On 22 January, Port Hedland shut down all shipping.[49] Across much of western Pilbara, Peta dropped heavy rains that caused widespread flooding. The highest 24‑hour total 261.6 mm (10.30 in) at Hooley Station, which marked the station's highest daily total since 1972. Several other areas recorded more than 100 mm (3.9 in) of rain from the cyclone, including Port Hedland. The rains also added 28 billion litres (7.4 billion gallons) at the Harding Dam, raising its storage from 40 to 80 percent. Flooding prompted officials to shut down parts of the Great Northern Highway.[50]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Rusty[edit]

Category 4 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 3 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 22 February – 28 February
Peak intensity 165 km/h (105 mph) (10-min)  945 mbar (hPa)
Main article: Cyclone Rusty

On 22 February, a tropical low formed northwest of Kuri Bay. Two days later, the low reached Tropical Cyclone strength and was named Rusty as it moved very slowly south towards the coast of Western Australia. A cyclone watch was declared for a large area of the Pilbara/Kimberley coastline between Broome and Mardie extending inland to Marble Bar. Rusty remained relatively stationary off the Western Australian coastline,[51] reaching category 4 strength on 27 February with winds gusting to 230 km/h.[52] Rusty made landfall on 27 February near Pardoo, 100 km East of Port Hedland. Due to the slow-moving nature of the cyclone, Port Hedland experienced 39 hours of winds of at least gale-force strength (with the maximum gust of 119 km/h), something not seen since 1942. The highest rainfall was recorded at Pardoo Station with an unconfirmed total of 482.5 mm. Confirmed falls of over 300 mm were also reported at De Grey Station and at Yarrie mine.[53]

The effects of Rusty were far reaching (paralleling Cyclone Lua almost a year ago), with areas of Southern WA and the Goldfields experiencing heavy rains. For example, the city of Kalgoorlie-Boulder and the surrounding areas have had non-stop rains for over 15 hours, with totals amounting to about 88 mm for the city itself.

Tropical Low 11U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 22 February – 28 February
Peak intensity 55 km/h (35 mph) (10-min)  995 mbar (hPa)

Early on 22 February, TCWC Perth started to monitor Tropical Low 11U, that had formed within the Indian Ocean, about 500 km (310 mi) to the east-southeast of Cocos Island. Over the next few days the low moved slowly towards the northwest and then to the south and passed about 120 km (75 mi) to the east of Cocos Island.

Situated near the Cocos Islands for a prolonged period of time, the low produced record-breaking rains across the island. Between 23 and 25 February, 844.6 mm (33.25 in) of rain fell on the island, of which 416 mm (16.4 in) fell on 25 February. This greatly contributed to the island breaking its monthly rainfall record, with 1,000.4 mm (39.39 in) being measured during February.[54] Significant flooding took place as a result of the rains, especially on Home Island where some people called the floods the worst in 100 years. The Cocos (Keeling) Islands Airport was also temporarily shut down due to "bubbling" on the airstrip.[55] Gale-force winds associated with the system downed several trees and cut power to many homes across Home and West Island.[54][55]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Sandra[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 5 March – 9 March (Exited basin)
Peak intensity 120 km/h (75 mph) (10-min)  974 mbar (hPa)

A tropical low formed on 5 March in the Queensland region, and was named 19P by the JTWC. The low was renamed Sandra on the 8 March as it rapidly intensified in the Coral Sea. It then moved into the South Pacific region as a Category 3 system. Upon reaching Category 4 and threatening New Caledonia, it hit Lord Howe Island as a Category 2 storm on the 15 March, despite weakening to Category 1 the day before.[56] The remnants of Sandra bought areas of heavy rain and thunderstorms to drought-stricken parts of New Zealand, with reports of up to 112 millimetres (4.4 in) at Turakina near Whanganui and a tornado in New Plymouth.[citation needed]

Tropical Cyclone Tim[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
Duration 10 March – 20 March
Peak intensity 95 km/h (60 mph) (10-min)  984 mbar (hPa)

On the 10 March 2013, the JTWC started tracking a tropical low approximately 426 km (265 mi) west south-west of the tip of Cape York Peninsula in the Gulf of Carpenteria. As the system began to move north-east, a subtropical ridge located to the south provided a good outflow channel, while vertical windshear continued to improve in the area. By the 12 of March, the JTWC upgraded the low's chance of developing into a tropical cyclone over the next 24 hours to medium. On the 13 of March, banding features began to wrap around the lows center, and the JTWC warned the system had a high chance of forming into a tropical cyclone over the next 24 hours, as it continued to move north-east.[57] Early on the 14 of March, the tropical low crossed Cape York and moved into the northern Coral Sea, encountering an area of warmer sea surface temperatures and high windshear. At 10:25am EST, the TCWC Brisbane named the storm Tropical Cyclone Tim, as it intensified into a Category 1 storm with 10 minute wind speeds of 65 km (40 mi). Located approximately 440 km (275 mi) north-east of Cairns, Tropical Cyclone Tim began to move in an east south-easterly direction towards Willis Island. It passed directly over the island, where the automated weather station recorded 10 minute wind gusts of 75 km (45 mi) before the station stopped recording.[58] By late on the 14 of March, Tim rapidly intensified into a Category 2 storm on the Australian Scale, with maximum 10 minute wind gusts of 95 km (60 mi) and a barometric pressure of 984 mbar, equal to a Tropical Storm on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.

By the 15 of March, Tim began to swing towards the south-east, rather than continue its south-westerly track, and was expected to make landfall on the Queensland as a weak Category 1 or Tropical Low by the 19 of March. A pocket of dry air formed to the west of the storm, and caused Tim to rapidly weaken, falling back to a Category 1 Tropical Cyclone on the 15 of March.[59] However, the storm managed to maintain its strength until the 17 of March, when the dry air finally began to erode Tims core and the Bureau of Meteorology reported that it weakened into a Tropical Low late on the 17 of March. The low persisted for several days in the eastern Coral Sea, moving north-west along the Queensland coast, and on the 20 of March, it dissipated 102 km (65 mi) east north-east of Cardwell on the north Queensland Coast. The remnants of the system crossed the coast near Innisfail on the 21 of March, bringing light winds and showers, however no significant totals were recorded, apart from an isolated fall of 125.8 mm (5 in) of rain at Innisfail.[60] Minor damage was also sustained at the Willis Island Weather station, however it was repaired shortly after Tim's passage over the island.

Tropical Low 15U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Duration 17 March – 23 March
Peak intensity 65 km/h (40 mph) (10-min)  1000 mbar (hPa)

A weak tropical low formed near the Cocos Islands on the 17 of March and moved south-west without any further intensification.

Tropical Low 16U[edit]

Tropical low (Australian scale)
Duration 25 March – 2 April
Peak intensity Winds unknown  1003 mbar (hPa)

On 1 April, heavy rains, peaking at 187 mm (7.4 in) in Edith Farms Road, over the Katherine Region triggered localised flooding. Several roads were temporarily closed as rivers rose up to 4 m (13 ft) overnight; however, waters receded later that day.[61]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Victoria[edit]

Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 7 April – 12 April
Peak intensity 140 km/h (85 mph) (10-min)  971 mbar (hPa)

On 6 April, TCWC Perth started to monitor a weak tropical low 17U that had developed within TCWC Jakarta's area of responsibility, about 740 km (460 mi) to the north-northeast of the Cocos Islands.[62] Over the next two days, the system moved towards the south-southeast and slightly developed further, before it entered TCWC Perth's area of responsibility during 9 April. By the morning of the 10 of April, Victoria had intensified into a Category 3 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian Scale, as it moved south-southesast. However, Victoria began to weaken rapidly as it moved over an area of cool sea surface temperatures and weakened to a category 1 by April 11. Late on April 12, the system rapidly dissipated, without affecting the Australian mainland.[63]

Tropical Cyclone Zane[edit]

Category 2 tropical cyclone (Australian scale)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Duration 27 April – May 2
Peak intensity 110 km/h (70 mph) (10-min)  983 mbar (hPa)

On 27 April, the TCWC Brisbane reported that a tropical low had formed 700 km (435 mi) east-southeast of Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. Late on 29 April it was upgraded to Category 1 Tropical Cyclone Zane, as it headed towards the coast of Queensland.[64] A cyclone watch was issued for the Queensland coast between Thursday Island and Cooktown by the Bureau of Meteorology as Zane began to intensify.[65] On the 30 of April, the watch was upgraded to a warning for the whole of Cape York peninsula, as Zane rapidly intensified, reaching Category 2 on the Australian scale late on the 30 of April, while moving south-west toward the Queensland coast.[66] Initial forecast to reach Category 3, Zane began to deteriorate as it moved north-west, and began to dissipate rapidly, dropping from Category 2 to a Tropical Low in less than 24 hours. Late on May 2, the remnant low crossed the coast near Lockhart River, causing minimal rain of less than 25 mm (5 cm) in the Torres Strait.[67]

Other storms[edit]

A tropical low on 15 January

On 18 December, a new low formed about 265 km (165 mi) northeast of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.[68] Over the following several days, the system developed a well-defined low-level circulation; however, strong wind shear and dry air suppressed convective development.[69] The system was last noted several hundred kilometres east-southeast of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands on 21 December.[70] On 12 January, a weak tropical low formed over the Arafura Sea.[71] The system was last noted the following day, having a pressure no lower than 1004 mb (hPa; 29.65 inHg).[72] The United States Navy continued monitoring the system until it was last noted on 16 January.[73] On 30 January, TCWC Brisbane reported that a weak low had developed, about 1,000 km (620 mi) to the east of Cairns.[74] On the next day, the low moved eastwards before it moved into the South Pacific basin.[75]

On 6 February, TCWC Perth reported that a low had formed over the Indian Ocean.[76] On 10 February, the tropical low moved out of the Australian basin and into the South-West Indian Ocean basin, where it later developed into Tropical Cyclone Gino.

Season effects[edit]

This is a table of all of the storms that have formed in the 2012–13 Australian region cyclone season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s)–denoted by bold location names – damages, and death totals. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a wave, or a low, and all of the damage figures are in 2013 AUD and USD.

Name Dates active Peak classification Sustained
wind speeds
Pressure Land areas affected Damages
(AUD)
Damages
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Tropical Low 18 – 21 December Tropical low Not Specified Not Specified None None None None
Freda 29 December Category 2 tropical cyclone 100 km/h (65 mph) 980 hPa (28.94 inHg) Solomon Islands Moderate Moderate None
Mitchell 27 December – 1 January Category 1 tropical cyclone 75 km/h (45 mph) 990 hPa (29.23 inHg) None None None None
Narelle 5 – 15 January Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 185 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) Indonesia, Western Australia $70 thousand $74 thousand 14
Tropical Low 12 – 16 January Tropical low Not Specified 1004 hPa (29.65 inHg) None None None None
Oswald 17 – 29 January Category 1 tropical cyclone 65 km/h (40 mph) 991 hPa (29.26 inHg) Northern Territory, Queensland, New South Wales >$2.4 billion >$2.5 billion 6
Peta 20 – 23 January Category 1 tropical cyclone 75 km/h (45 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Western Australia Minor Minor None
Tropical Low 30 – 31 January Tropical low Not Specified Not Specified None None None None
Tropical Low 6 – 10 February Tropical low Not Specified Not Specified None None None None
Rusty 22 – 28 February Category 4 severe tropical cyclone 165 km/h (105 mph) 945 hPa (27.91 inHg) Western Australia Minor Minor None
11U 22 – 28 February Tropical low 55 km/h (35 mph) 995 hPa (29.38 inHg) Cocos Island None None None
Sandra 5 – 9 March Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 120 km/h (75 mph) 974 hPa (28.76 inHg) Lord Howe Island None None None
Tim 10 – 20 March Category 2 tropical cyclone 95 km/h (60 mph) 984 hPa (29.06 inHg) Northern Territory, Queensland Minor Minor None
15U 17 – 23 March Tropical low 65 km/h (40 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) None None None None
16U 25 March – 2 April Tropical low Not Specified 1003 hPa (29.62 inHg) Northern Territory None None None
Victoria 7 – 12 April Category 3 severe tropical cyclone 140 km/h (85 mph) 971 hPa (28.67 inHg) Western Australia None None None
Tropical Low 10 – 15 April Tropical low Not Specified 1006 hPa (29.71 inHg) None None None None
Zane 27 April – 1 May Category 2 tropical cyclone 110 km/h (70 mph) 983 hPa (29.03 inHg) Queensland None None None
Tropical Low 14 May Tropical low Not Specified 1007 hPa (29.74 inHg) None None None None
Tropical Low 19 – 25 June Tropical low Not Specified 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) None None None None
Season Aggregates
20 systems 18 December – 25 June 185 km/h (115 mph) 930 hPa (27.46 inHg) >$2.4 billion >$2.5 billion 20


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Tropical Cyclone Operational plan for the South Pacific & Southeast indian Ocean, 2010 Edition" (PDF). WMO. Retrieved 7 June 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f National Climate Centre (15 October 2012). "2012–2013 Australian Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 7 January 2013. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e National Climate Centre (15 October 2012). "2012–2013 South Pacific Tropical Cyclone Season Outlook". Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Southwest Pacific Tropical Cyclone Outlook: Near average or slightly above average numbers for many islands likely, and increased activity in the late season near Tonga and Niue". National Institute of Water & Atmospheric Research. 18 October 2012. Archived from the original on 8 January 2013. Retrieved 8 January 2013. 
  5. ^ a b c d Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre (3 December 2012). "2012–13 Predictions of Seasonal Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Australian region" (PDF). City University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 7 January 2013. 
  6. ^ Guy Carpenter Asia-Pacific Climate Impact Centre (19 August 2013). "Verification of Forecasts of Tropical Cyclone Activity in the Australian region in 2012/13" (PDF). City University of Hong Kong. Retrieved 19 August 2013. 
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External links[edit]