2012 Aurora shooting
|2012 Aurora shooting|
Century 16 at Town Center at Aurora
Bottom left: Map of Colorado with Aurora marked
Top: Map of central Aurora
Bottom right: Town Center at Aurora and the location of the Century 16 multiplex
|Location||14300 E. Alameda Avenue,
Aurora, Colorado, U.S.
|Date||July 20, 2012
12:38 a.m. – 12:45 a.m. (MDT)
|70 (58 from gunfire, 4 from tear gas, 8 from fleeing accidents)|
|James Eagan Holmes (in custody)|
On July 20, 2012, a mass shooting occurred inside of a Century movie theater in Aurora, Colorado, during a midnight screening of the film The Dark Knight Rises. A gunman, dressed in tactical clothing, set off tear gas grenades and shot into the audience with multiple firearms, killing 12 people and injuring 70 others. The sole suspect, James Eagan Holmes, was arrested outside the cinema minutes later.
The shooting occurred in theater 9 at the Century 16 multiplex (operated by Cinemark), located at the Town Center at Aurora shopping mall at 14300 E. Alameda Avenue. Police said the shooter bought a ticket, entered the theater, and sat in the front row; about 20 minutes into the film, he left the building through an emergency exit door, which he propped open with a plastic tablecloth holder.
It was alleged that he then went to his car, which was parked near the exit door, changed into protective clothing, and retrieved his guns. About 30 minutes into the film, police say, around 12:30 am, he reentered the theater through the exit door. He was dressed in black and wore a gas mask, a load-bearing vest (not to be confused with a bulletproof vest), a ballistic helmet, bullet-resistant leggings, a bullet-resistant throat protector, a groin protector and tactical gloves. Initially, few in the audience considered the masked figure a threat. He appeared to be wearing a costume, like other audience members who had dressed up for the screening. Some believed that the gunman was playing a prank, while others thought that he was part of a special effects installation set up for the film's premiere as a publicity stunt by the studio or theater management.
It was also said that the gunman threw two canisters emitting a gas or smoke, partially obscuring the audience members' vision, making their throats and skin itch, and causing eye irritation. He then fired a 12-gauge Remington 870 Express Tactical shotgun, first at the ceiling and then at the audience. He also fired a Smith & Wesson M&P15 semi-automatic rifle with a 100-round drum magazine, which malfunctioned after reportedly firing about 45 rounds. Finally, he fired a Glock 22 40-caliber handgun. He shot first to the back of the room, and then toward people in the aisles. A bullet passed through the wall and hit three people in the adjacent theater 8, which was screening the same film. Witnesses said the multiplex's fire alarm system began sounding soon after the attack began and staff told people in theater 8 to evacuate. One witness said that she was hesitant to leave because someone yelled that there was someone shooting in the lobby and that they should not leave.
The first phone calls to emergency services via 9-1-1 were made at 12:39 am. Police arrived within 90 seconds and found at least three .40-caliber handgun magazines, a shotgun and a large drum magazine on the floor of the theater. Some people reported the shooting via tweets or text messaging rather than calling the police. Sgt. Stephen Redfearn, one of the first police officers on the scene, decided not to wait for ambulances and sent victims to area hospitals in squad cars.
About 12:45 am, police apprehended Holmes behind the cinema, next to his car, without resistance. He was initially mistaken as another police officer because of the tactical clothing he was wearing. According to two federal officials, he had dyed his hair red and called himself "the Joker", although authorities later declined to confirm this. Three days later, at his first court appearance in Centennial, Colorado, Holmes had reddish-orange hair. The officers found several firearms in the theater and inside the car, including another Glock 22 handgun. Following his arrest, he was initially jailed at Arapahoe County Detention Center, under suicide watch. The police interviewed more than 200 witnesses. Investigators say that the shooter acted alone and was not part of a larger group or terrorist organization.
When apprehended, Holmes told the police that he had booby-trapped his apartment with explosive devices before heading to the movie theater. Police then evacuated five buildings surrounding his Aurora residence, about 5 miles (8 km) north of the cinema. The apartment complex is limited to University of Colorado Medical Center students, patients, and employees. One day after the shooting, officials disarmed an explosive device wired to the apartment's front entrance, allowing a remotely controlled robot to enter and disable other explosives. The apartment held more than 30 homemade grenades, wired to a control box in the kitchen, and 10 gallons of gasoline.
Neighbors reported loud music from the apartment around midnight on the night of the massacre, and one went to his door to tell him she was calling the police; she stated that the door seemed to be unlocked, but she chose not to open it. A law enforcement official said that a Batman mask was found inside the apartment. On July 23, police finished collecting evidence from the apartment. Two days later, residents were allowed to return to the four surrounding buildings, and six days later, residents were allowed to move back into the formerly booby-trapped building.
Eighty-two people were shot or otherwise wounded, reported by mainstream news as the most victims of any mass shooting in United States history. Four people's eyes were irritated by the tear gas grenades, and eight others injured themselves while fleeing the theater. The massacre is also the deadliest shooting in Colorado since the Columbine High School massacre on April 20, 1999.
Twelve people were killed in the shooting. Ten died at the scene and two more in local hospitals. Those killed were:
The youngest person injured during the shooting was a four-month-old boy who was not shot. Ashley Moser, Veronica Moser-Sullivan's mother, was critically injured in the shooting and miscarried a week after the attack.
The injured were treated at Children's Hospital Colorado, Denver Health Medical Center, The Medical Center of Aurora, Parker Adventist Hospital, Rose Medical Center, Swedish Hospital, and University Hospital. On July 25, three of the five hospitals treating victims announced that they would limit medical bills or forgive them entirely.
The Community First Foundation collected more than $5 million for a fund for victims and their families. In September, victims and their families received surveys asking about their preferences for how collected funds should be distributed, either by dividing it equally among victims or through a needs-assessment process.
On November 16, 2012, the Aurora Victim Relief Fund announced each claimant will receive $220,000.
On July 30, Colorado prosecutors filed formal charges against Holmes that included 24 counts of first degree murder and 116 counts of attempted murder. Two charges were filed for each victim to expand the opportunities for prosecutors to obtain convictions. Colorado State District Court Judge William B. Sylvester, who is the trial judge overseeing the case, has placed a gag order on lawyers and law enforcement, sealing the court file and barring the University of Colorado from releasing public records relating to Holmes' year at the school. Media organizations are challenging the sealing of the court file.
On August 9, Holmes' attorneys said he is mentally ill and they needed more time to assess the nature of his illness. The disclosure was made at a court hearing in Centennial, Colorado, where news media organizations asked a judge to unseal court documents in the case. Prosecutors alleged on August 24, 2012, that Holmes told a classmate that he wanted to kill people four months before the shooting.
A judge ruled on August 30 that a notebook written by Holmes, in which he allegedly described a violent attack, was covered by physician–patient privilege, as he had discussed it with his psychiatrist. This made it inadmissible as evidence unless Holmes' mental health became an issue in the case. Prosecutors eventually dropped their request to gain access to the notebook on September 20, 2012. Due to suicide attempts made by Holmes (see the article on James Holmes), Judge Sylvester agreed to postpone proceedings until December 2012.
On January 2, 2013, prosecutors and defense attorneys in the case returned to court in advance of the crucial preliminary hearing- the first officially sanctioned look for the people at the evidence, due to the gag order. The hearing was scheduled to begin on January 7. At the hearing, prosecutors offered their case as to why the trial should proceed, and defense lawyers argued that it should not. At the conclusion of the hearing, Judge Sylvester decided there was enough relevant, admissible evidence to proceed to a trial.[clarification needed]
Also on January 7, lawyers for both sides argued whether to admit four unspecified prescription bottles and immunization records investigators had seized from Holmes' apartment when they searched it in July 2012, considering doctor-patient confidentiality laws. The judge ruled in October that prosecutors could keep the items.
On March 27, Holmes' lawyers offered a guilty plea in exchange for prosecutors not seeking the death penalty. On April 1, the prosecution announced it had declined the offer. Arapahoe County district attorney George Brauchler said "It's my determination and my intention that in this case for James Eagan Holmes justice is death."
On February 10, 2014, the presiding Arapahoe County District Court Judge, Carlos Samour, denied the last of the defense's motions to keep evidence from trial. Jurors may hear about evidence found in Holmes computers through disputed warrants and his illegally obtained credit union records. The trial, originally set for February 2014, is on hold while Judge Samour decides whether Holmes, who pleaded not guilty by reason of insanity, should undergo a second psychiatric evaluation.
Responses to the shooting
The evening after the shooting, a candlelight vigil was held at the site in Colorado. President Barack Obama ordered flags at government buildings flown at half-staff, in tribute to the victims, until July 25. Both Obama's and Mitt Romney's campaigns temporarily suspended television advertising in Colorado for the 2012 presidential election. On July 22, President Obama met with victims and local and state officials and gave a nationally televised speech from Aurora. Many world leaders sent their condolences, including Queen Elizabeth II, French President François Hollande, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Russian President Vladimir Putin and Pope Benedict XVI.
Warner Bros., the distributor of The Dark Knight Rises, stated that it was deeply saddened by the shooting. The studio canceled the film's gala premieres in Paris, Mexico, and Japan, scaled down its marketing campaign in Finland, and decided not to report box office figures for the movie until July 23. Some television advertisements for the film were also canceled. Other major film studios joined Warner Bros. in withholding early box office numbers on July 21. It was reported that Warner Bros. would be making a "substantial" donation to Colorado's Community First Foundation to benefit victims of the shooting.
Christopher Nolan, the film's director, spoke on behalf of his cast and crew and called the event "savage" and "devastating." Christian Bale, who plays Batman in the film series, privately visited victims on July 24. Members of the Colorado Rockies baseball team also visited victims. Members of the Denver Broncos also called and/or visited individuals at the hospitals.
Warner Bros. instructed cinemas to stop screening a trailer for the film Gangster Squad, which preceded The Dark Knight Rises screenings in some cities (though not in Aurora), because it contained a scene involving the main characters shooting at a movie theater audience with machine guns. The film's release date was rescheduled to January 2013, and the theater scene was replaced by a new sequence in a different setting.
In the wake of the shooting, DC Comics delayed the release of Batman Incorporated #3, which includes a scene in which a female Leviathan agent brandishes a handgun in a classroom full of children while disguised as a schoolteacher. Additionally, it was reported that Warner Bros. Animation would edit the upcoming Cartoon Network series Beware the Batman to make the firearms look less realistic.
Cinemark agreed to pay any funeral expenses incurred by the deceased victims' families not covered by the Crime Victims' Compensation Fund. Cinemark closed the entire Century Aurora 16 multiplex in the wake of the shooting but reopened January 17, 2013 with a 40-minute ceremony led by Aurora Mayor Steve "Hulk" Hogan.
Soon after the shooting, police departments and cinemas across the United States and around the world increased security for fear of copycat incidents. In New York City, police officers were deployed to theaters screening the new film.
The National Association of Theatre Owners distributed checklists from the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to its members and said in a July 21 statement that members were "working closely with local law enforcement agencies and reviewing security procedures." AMC Theatres announced that it would "not allow any guests into our theatres in costumes that make other guests feel uncomfortable and we will not permit face-covering masks or fake weapons inside our buildings." Security Director News raised the possibility in a July 23 article that "the massacre could be a Virginia Tech for movie theaters, causing security to become a bigger part of the conversation and more stringent security procedures to be adopted at theaters across the country."
In the aftermath of the shooting, several legal experts said that it would be extremely difficult for victims and their families to pursue claims for civil liability against the theater or others.
Three victims sued Cinemark in the U.S. District Court for the District of Colorado on September 21, 2012 for the company's alleged negligence in failing to provide adequate safety and security measures. Their attorneys released the statement "Readily available security procedures, security equipment and security personnel would likely have prevented or deterred the gunman from accomplishing his planned assault on the theater's patrons." In response, Cinemark's representation filed a motion to dismiss on September 27, 2012 on the grounds that there was no liability under Colorado law for failure to prevent an unforeseeable criminal act. Cinemark's motion quoted extensively from the landmark California appellate opinion that held McDonald's had no duty of care to prevent the 1984 San Ysidro McDonald's massacre. On October 30, 2012, the court hearing the criminal case against Holmes denied a motion by some of the survivors that would have let them access sealed evidence for review in their civil action against the theater chain. On January 24, 2013, a federal magistrate judge issued a recommendation that most of the claims be thrown out, as they were not allowable under Colorado law, although he also said that claims alleging violations of the Colorado Premises Liability Act could proceed.
On January 14, 2013, Chantel Blunk, widow of victim Jonathan Blunk, filed a lawsuit against the University of Colorado in federal court. She alleged that a school psychiatrist could have prevented the slaughter by having Holmes detained after he admitted he "fantasized about killing a lot of people." This type of lawsuit had been anticipated in an August 2012 article co-authored by bioethicist Arthur Caplan which discussed the applicability of the landmark California Supreme Court decision in Tarasoff v. Regents of the University of California (1976) to the facts of the Aurora shooting.
In the days following the attack, several people around the U.S. were arrested for threats and suspicious activities at or near screenings of The Dark Knight Rises.
- On July 22 in Norwalk, California, a man at a The Dark Knight Rises screening who yelled, "Does anyone have a gun?" and "I should go off like in Colorado" was arrested for making criminal threats.
- On July 22 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, a man faced criminal charges for being involved in a fight in a cinema restroom. During the fight, a moviegoer shouted "Gun!", causing panic inside the theater showing The Dark Knight Rises.
- On July 23 in San Jose, California, someone threw a package into a theater showing The Dark Knight Rises and reportedly yelled that it was a bomb, leading to an evacuation.
- On July 23 in Sierra Vista, Arizona, a moviegoer's confrontation with an intoxicated man with a backpack at a The Dark Knight Rises screening led to "mass hysteria" and 50 people evacuating the theater.
- On August 4 in Westlake, Ohio, a man was arrested for carrying several weapons in a satchel into a screening of The Dark Knight Rises. The suspect later received six months imprisonment over the incident.
Sale of guns and gun control debate
Colorado gun sales spiked after the shooting, with the number of background checks for people seeking to purchase a firearm in the state increasing to 2,887, up 43% from the previous week. Gun sales in Washington, Florida, California, and Georgia also increased. The shooting reignited the political debate on gun control, with one issue being the "easy access" Holmes had to semi-automatic rifles and high-capacity magazines, which were banned federally from 1994 to 2004. The results of a survey released on July 30, 2012 by the Pew Research Center suggested that the incident did not change Americans' views on the issue.
- Wade, Diane A. (July 23, 2012). "James Holmes appears in court being accused of killing 12 people in Aurora cinema shooting". BelleNews. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- "Officials release complete list of injured victims in Aurora massacre". Fox News Channel. January 10, 2013. Retrieved July 4, 2013.
- Brown, Jennifer (July 21, 2012). "12 shot dead, 58 wounded in Aurora movie theater during Batman premier". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Parker, Ryan; Lee, Kurtis; Ingold, John; Steffen, Jordan; Brown, Jennifer (July 20, 2012). "Family identifies 27-year-old victim of Aurora theater shooting". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Asmar, Melanie (January 10, 2013). "James Holmes: Read timeline of his actions before and after Aurora theater shooting". Blogs.westword.com. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- Carter, Chelsea J.; Pearson, Michael (July 20, 2012). "Gunman turns 'Batman' screening into real-life 'horror film'". CNN. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Aurora, Colo theater shooting timeline, facts". KABC-TV. July 22, 2012. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- Bustillo, Miguel; Banjo, Shelly; Audi, Tamara (July 21, 2012). "Theater Rampage Jolts Nation". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Burnett, Sara; Fender, Jessica (July 20, 2012). "Aurora shooting suspect left apartment "booby trapped," music blaring". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Muskal, Michael (July 20, 2012). "Questions, but few answers, in Colorado shooting; 12 dead, dozens hurt". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Pilkington, Ed; Williams, Matt (July 20, 2012). "Colorado theater shooting: 12 shot dead during The Dark Knight Rises screening". The Guardian. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Aurora Police Chief Dan Oates on Movie Shooting". Channel 7 – Denver. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "Rifle failure that stopped yet more batman carnage". Daily Express. July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Paul Toohey Horror inside a heart of Darkness". The Advertiser. July 28, 2012. pp. 52–61.
- Fahrenthold, David A. (July 22, 2012). "Colorado shooting spree could have been worse; shooter's gun jammed, official says". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Police: Suspect wore body armor, used assault rifle, shotgun, Glock handgun in theater attack". CBS News. Associated Press. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Batman premiere gunman looked like 'assassin ready for war'". CBC News. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Kent, William (July 20, 2012). "Aurora witnesses describe shooter's entrance, chaos". CBS This Morning. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Marshall, Jaime (July 20, 2012). "Witness stories from Aurora movie theater shooting". Coloradoan. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Horwitz, Sari (July 20, 2012). "Police say Colorado shooting suspect James Holmes had 2 pistols, assault rifle, shotgun". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Kane, Arthur; Ferrugia, John (July 21, 2012). "Sources: Shooter Took Prescription Drug Before Attack". ABC News 7 Denver. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Ingold, John (October 16, 2013). "Aurora police sergeant describes lifesaving theater-shooting decision". The Denver Post. Retrieved October 16, 2013.
- "New details emerge in hearing for Colorado theater shooting suspect". CNN. January 8, 2013. Retrieved March 1, 2014.
- Banda, P. Solomon; Riccardi, Nicholas (July 23, 2012). "Shooting suspect in court with orange-red hair". Associated Press. Retrieved July 23, 2012.[verification needed]
- "Aurora 'Dark Knight' Suspect James Holmes Says He 'Was the Joker': Cops". ABC News. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- "James Holmes claimed to be the Joker, NYPD Commish says". Newsday. Associated Press. July 20, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2013.
- "James Holmes makes court appearance in Colorado theater shooting". Los Angeles Times. July 23, 2012. Retrieved August 21, 2012.
- Pearce, Matt (July 22, 2012). "Gun's magazine shaped the pace of Colorado theater massacre". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Lysiak, Matthew; Arkin, James; Mcshane, Larry (July 21, 2012). "Aurora shooting suspect James Holmes jailed in solitary: 'All the inmates were talking about killing him'". Daily News (New York). Retrieved July 22, 2012.
- "Aurora shooting: 12 dead as gunman opens fire at movie theater: as it happened". The Guardian. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Colo. shooting suspect James Holmes' apartment booby trapped, police say". CBS News. Associated Press. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Holden, Will C. (July 20, 2012). "Slideshow: Aurora theater shooting scene, suspect's booby-trapped apartment". KDVR (Fox 31 Denver). Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Sandell, Clayton; Dolak, Kevin; Curry, Colleen (July 20, 2012). "Colorado Movie Theater Shooting: Suspect Bought 4 Guns, 6,000 Rounds of Ammunition in Past 60 Days". ABC News. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Eligon, John, and Santora, Mark (July 21, 2012). "Police at Home of Colorado Suspect Disarm Major Threats". The New York Times. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Harlow, Poppy, and Payne, Ed (July 24, 2012). "Official: Trap in Colorado suspect's home had 30 homemade grenades, gasoline". CNN. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Paulson, Steven K. "Detonation and fire possible at Colo. apartment". MSNBC. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- "Massacre suspect's neighbor: 'I'm counting my lucky stars'". CNN. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- "Loud Music Used To Lure People to Booby-Trapped Apt". TheDenverChannel.com. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Johnson, M. Alex (July 23, 2012). "Theater massacre suspect appears in Colorado courtroom". NBC News. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Flaccus, Gillian; Riccardi, Nicholas (July 23, 2012). "Movie massacre suspect mum; Batman mask found". Yahoo News. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Photos: Residents allowed back into building where alleged shooter lived". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- Sandell, Clayton; Dolak, Kevin; Curry, Colleen (July 20, 2012). "Colorado Movie Theater Shooting: 70 Victims the Largest Mass Shooting". Good Morning America. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- 30 hospitalized in Colo. mass shooting, CBS News (July 21, 2012)
- "Colorado Massacre Could Have Been Worse". CBS News.
- "Obama offers condolences, community grieves in vigil for DKR shooting victims". KPTV.
- Welsh, Teresa (July 20, 2012). "Should the Colorado Theater Shooting Spur More Gun Control?". US News and World Report. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Peipert, Thomas. "A look at the Lives of Colorado shooting victims". Brandenton Herald. Retrieved July 23, 2012.[dead link]
- Coughlan, Maggie (July 20, 2012). "'Dark Knight Rises' Shooting Victim Jessica Ghawi Remembered for Enthusiasm, Sense of Humor". People. Retrieved August 19, 2013.
- "Theater Shooting Victims Are 4 Months Old To Adults". KMGH-TV. July 20, 2012. Retrieved September 30, 2013.
- "Miscarriage won't affect charges in Colo. shooting". CBS News. July 30, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- "Hospital bills forgiven for Colorado shooting victims". The Christian Science Monitor. July 25, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- "Shooting Victims Gain Veto Power in Donation Distribution". The Denver Channel. August 31, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- "Aurora movie theater shooting victims to respond to surveys". The Denver Post. September 13, 2012. Retrieved September 13, 2012.
- "Theater shooting: Payments from Aurora victim fund set, families of the dead get $220,000". The Denver Post. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- "James Holmes appears 'dazed' in court", CBS News, July 23, 2012, Quote: "During his first court appearance on Monday, the 24-year-old frequently closed his eyes and appeared sleepy or dazed before the judge."
- James Holmes Mugshot: Aurora Shooting Suspect's Booking Picture Released" (PHOTO), Huffington Post, July 23, 2012. Retrieved January 15, 2013
- Alex Brandon (AP), "Again appearing dazed in court, Holmes charged| Prosecutors and defense attorneys spar over whether a notebook that he reportedly sent to a psychiatrist is privileged information", Dubuque Telegraph Herald, July 31, 2012, Quote: "James Holmes appeared just as dazed as he did in his first court hearing after the deadly Colorado movie theater massacre."
- Riccardi, Nicholas; Banda, P. Solomon (July 30, 2012). "Colo. Suspect Charges: Murder, Attempted Murder". ABC News. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
- Winter, Jane. "Colorado movie massacre suspect to be formally charged". Fox News Channel. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Banda, Solomon (August 9, 2012). "Lawyers: Colo. Shooting Suspect is Mentally ill". Associated Press. Retrieved August 9, 2012.
- "Prosecutors: Colo. suspect James Holmes made threat in March". USA Today. Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Aurora prosecutors drop fight for James Holmes' notebook". The Guardian. Associated Press. September 20, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "Colorado Theater Shooting Lawyers Head Back to Court", MSN, January 3, 2013
- "Aurora theater shooting: Cops took pill bottles from Holmes' apartment". The Denver Post. January 7, 2013.
- "Aurora cinema massacre suspect James Holmes offers to plead guilty". The Guardian. March 28, 2013.
- "James Holmes prosecutors seek death penalty against Aurora suspect". The Guardian. April 1, 2013. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- Ingold, John (June 4, 2013). "Judge allows evidence from James Holmes' iPhone, e-mails at trial". The Denver Post. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- Blond, Becka (July 21, 2012). "Tearful Vigils Remember Victims of Aurora Massacre". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Wing, Nick (July 20, 2012). "Obama Colorado Shooting Proclamation: Flags To Be Flown at Half Staff for Victims". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Weiner, Rachel (July 20, 2012). "Obama, Romney pull Colorado ads off air in wake of Aurora shooting". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Nakamura, David (July 20, 2012). "Obama, Romney express condolences for Colorado shooting victims". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Aurora shooting: Obama says all US stands with victim". BBC News. July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Fords, Dana (July 23, 2012). "'Words Are ... Inadequate,' Obama Tells Families of Colorado Shooting Victims". CNN. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Eligon, John; Kovaleski, Serge F.; Santora, Marc (July 22, 2012). "Obama Consoles Aurora as City Begins Healing". The New York Times. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- McNakamura, David (July 23, 2012). "After Aurora shootings, Obama Again Takes on Role as Healer in Chief in Colorado". The Washington Post. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Marschall, Rick (July 23, 2012). "President Barack Obama Visits Aurora Victims' Families and Survivors". continentalnews.net. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Message of condolence following recent tragic events in the USA, 20 July 2012". royal.gov.uk. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "Communiqué – Fusillade dans un cinéma américain" (in French). elysee.fr. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "PM Netanyahu Sends Condolence Letter to US President Barack Obama Following the Massacre in Aurora, Colorado". pmo.gov.il. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "Condolences to US President Barack Obama". kremlin.ru. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- "Pope Promises Prayers for Denver Victims". zenit.org. July 23, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
- Leffler, Rebecca (July 20, 2012). "'Dark Knight Rises' Paris Premiere Scrapped Following U.S. Shootings". The Hollywood Reporter (NBC News). Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Warner Bros. Cancels 'Dark Knight Rises' Premieres in Mexico and Japan". Entertainment Weekly. July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- "Batman film Marketing Campaign Scaled Down in Finland". Yle Uutiset. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- Blencowe, Annette (July 20, 2012). "Batman-elokuvan nettikampanja keskeytettiin Suomessa" [Batman movie online campaign was suspended in Finland] (in Finnish). yle.fi. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "In Wake of Shooting, 'The Dark Knight Rises' Won't Report Early Box Office Figures". The Wall Street Journal. July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- White, Michael; Palmeri, Christopher; Lee, Edmund (July 20, 2012). "Warner Bros. Said to Pull Some TV Ads for 'Dark Knight'". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Bloomberg. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- "Box office Update: Studios Not Releasing Numbers Today". Entertainment Weekly. July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Belloni, Matthew (July 23, 2012). "Warner Bros. To Make 'Substantial' Donation to Colorado Shooting Victims". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Morley, Will (July 20, 2012). "Christopher Nolan on Theater Shooting: 'I Would Like to Express Our Profound Sorrow'". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Malkin, Marc. "Dark Knight Rises Shooting: Christian Bale Visits Victims in Hospital". E! News. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- Townsend, Mark. "Colorado Rockies pay visit to Aurora shooting survivors and hospital staff". Yahoo! Sports. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- "Broncos visit with shooting survivors". ESPN. Associated Press. July 23, 2012. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
- Macatee, Rebecca. "Gangster Squad Trailer Yanked from Internet, Dark Knight Rises Following Colorado Shooting". Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Bindley, Katherine (July 20, 2012). "'Gangster Squad' Trailer with Theater Shooting Scene Pulled from 'Dark Knight' by Warner Bros. (UPDATED)". Huffington Post. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Finke, Nikki. "Warner Bros Pulls Trailer of Gangster Shooting Up Movie Theater". Deadline.com. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Strauss, Bob (January 20, 2013). "Out of respect for grieving families, "Gangster Squad" scene refilmed after Aurora theater shootings". The Denver Post. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- "BATMAN INC No. 3 Delayed By DC Following Aurora Shooting". Blog.newsarama.com. July 24, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "Batman Comic Postponed Because It Features A Teacher Pointing Gun at Students". PerezHilton.com. July 27, 2012. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- Wallenstein, Andrew (July 27, 2012). "Warner Bros. tones down 'Batman' TV toon". Variety. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- "'Dark Knight Rises' Composer Dedicates New Song To Aurora Victims". MTV. July 27, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2012.
- "'Batman' Movie Massacre – Theater Steps Up for Victims’ Funeral Expenses". FM News Weekly. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- "Century Aurora theater reopens with ceremony, showing of "The Hobbit"". The Denver Post. January 17, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2013.
- "Security Stepped Up Nationwide in Wake of Colorado Movie Theater Shooting". CNN. July 21, 2012. Retrieved July 23, 2012.
- "Colorado Shooting 2012: Witness Says Gunman Shot Anyone Trying To Leave". Huffington Post. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 20, 2012.
- Lee, Edmund (July 20, 2012). "Cinema Security Tightened After 'Dark Knight' Shootings". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- McKay, Hollie (July 20, 2012). "National theater association reviewing all security procedures in wake of Colorado midnight movie massacre". Fox News Channel. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- "Security Recommendations Sent To Theater Owners". Hartford Courant. July 20, 2012. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- West, Kelly (July 20, 2012). "AMC Bans Masks And Fake Weapons at Their Theaters in the Wake of the Aurora Shooting". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Richardson, Whit (July 23, 2012). "Reassessing cinema security in the wake of Colorado's movie theater massacre". Security Director News. Retrieved July 25, 2012.
- Hoover, Tim (July 25, 2012). "Aurora theater shooting liability lawsuits stand little chance, legal experts say". The Denver Post. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Rosenblatt, Joel; Pearson, Sophia (July 24, 2012). "Colorado Attack Victims May Have Little Chance in Suits". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Ingold, John (September 21, 2012). "Aurora theater shooting victims file suits against Cinemark". The Denver Post. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Walsh, Michael (September 22, 2012). "'Dark Knight' shooting spree victims bring civil lawsuit in Colorado against Aurora theater for lack of security". Daily News (New York).
- Motion to Dismiss, Nowlan v. Cinemark USA, Inc. et al., Civil Action No. 1:12-cv-02517-RBJ-MEH, U.S. Dist. Ct., D. Colo., September 27, 2012, Deadline.com, last visited October 11, 2012.
- Lopez v. McDonald's Corp., 193 Cal. App. 3d 495 (1987).
- "Colorado judge denies theater rampage victims access to criminal files". Reuters. Retrieved October 31, 2012.
- Ingold, John. "Aurora theater shooting judge denies victims' bid for records". The Denver Post. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- John Ingold, "Judge says wrongful death claims in theater shootings should be tossed," The Denver Post, January 25, 2013.
- "First suit filed against University of Colorado in Aurora shooting". NBC News. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
- Arthur Caplan and Dominic Sisti, "What should a doctor do with a patient like James Holmes," Philadelphia Inquirer, August 3, 2012.
- Dillon, Nancy (July 24, 2012). "Arrest at ‘Dark Knight Rising’ in California". Daily News. New York. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "Man Charged After Fight Forces Evacuation at 'Dark Knight Rises' Screening". The Hollywood Reporter. July 23, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- "San Jose: Package thrown into 'Dark Knight' showing prompts Eastridge theaters evacuation". Oakland Tribune. July 24, 2012. Retrieved September 22, 2012.
- "Michael Borboa Arrested At 'The Dark Knight Rises' Screening in Arizona". Huffington Post. July 24, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2012.
- Bierly, Mandi. "Heavily armed man arrested at 'Dark Knight Rises' screening in Ohio". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved August 10, 2012.
- Switaj, Lori E.; Lea, Jason (March 31, 2013). "'Dark Knight' Suspect Gets 6 Months". Westlake.patch.com. Retrieved April 1, 2013.
- Burnett, Sara (July 23, 2012). "Aurora theater shooting: Gun sales up since tragedy". The Denver Post. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- "Gun sales surging in wake of 'Dark Knight Rises' shooting". New York Post. Associated Press. July 25, 2012. Retrieved August 7, 2012.
- Baker, Mike and Wyatt, Kristen (July 25, 2012). "Fear prompts gun sales after Colorado theater massacre". Salt Lake City Tribune. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- Jervis, Rick and McAuliff, John (July 24, 2012). "Colo. rampage adds fuel to gun-control debate". USA Today. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- "Views on Gun Laws Unchanged After Aurora Shooting". Pew Research Center. July 30, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
|Find more about 2012 Aurora shooting at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Media from Commons|
|News stories from Wikinews|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
Maps of crime scene
- Map of theater, suspect's apartment and hospitals – larger version via Google
- Map of theater, suspect's apartment, and hospitals at The Denver Post
- Map of crime scene at The New York Times
- Aurora Fire Department raw audio, July 20, 2012
- "Aurora Colorado theater shooting: The Big Picture", The Boston Globe. July 23, 2012.